Milestones in Green Transition and Climate Compatible Development in Eastern and Southern Africa

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English
322 Pages
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It is widely recognised that climate change poses significant serious threats to sustained economic growth and agricultural development, poverty reduction, food security and political stability globally. Nowhere are these challenges more marked than in Africa where two-thirds of all available land is classified either as desert or dry land, in relation to which the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2013) has classified the continent as the most vulnerable to climate change variability. This anthology is a product of a call from OSSREA to collate evidence based researches in a book in a bid to assess how far countries in eastern and southern Africa are implementing the UNFCCC, Rio+20, Agenda 21 and other global and Africa-wide decisions concerning the need to address climate change. This will contribute to post-2015 development agenda for sustainable development goals (SDGs), in which climate change and disaster risk reduction will be priority areas of focus. We hope this book will serve as a valuable tool for experts, advisers and policymakers in pursing effective green growth policies and practices and achieving climate compatible development and in doing so inspire readers to choose a more sustainable pathway for humanity. It will also help in looking at climate change as both a challenge and opportunity for development. Further, this book aims at stimulating more research in climate compatible development and climate financing which have put most countries at crossroads.

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Published 29 December 2015
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EAN13 9789994455928
Language English
Document size 22 MB

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It is widely recognised that climate change poses signiîcant serious threats to sustained
where two-thirds of all available land is classiîed either as desert or dry land, in relation to which the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2013) has classiîed
înancing which have put most countries at crossroads.
DevMeilloepstmoennetsiinerEastGenanrtuenhTdaorSsntinorindanimClrfciAate Compatible
E ditEd by
Truphena E. Mukuna
Milestones in Green Transition and Climate Compatible Development in Eastern and Southern Africa
Editors
Truphena E. Mukuna and CChhrriissttoopphheerrA. Shisanya
Organisation for Social Science Research in Eastern and Southern Africa (OSSREA)
Organisation for Social Science Research in Eastern and Southern Africa (OSSREA) Caption:The Photo on front cover shows solar panels installed in Northern Cape  Province of South Africa, as one of the green energy technologies that factor  into green transition and climate Compatible development
© 2015 Organisation for Social Science Research in Eastern and Southern Africa (OSSREA) Published 2015 Printed in Ethiopia ISBN:978-99944-55-86-7 All rights reserved. Organisation for Social Science Research in Eastern and Southern Africa (OSSREA) P. O. Box 31971, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Fax: 251-11-1223921 Tel: 251-11-1239484 E-mail: info@ossrea.net Website: www. ossrea.net Copyeditor:Matebu TadesseFormatting:Alemu TesfayeOSSREA acknowledges the financial support of the Danish Development Agency (DANIDA), without which this book wouldn’t have been a reality.
Table of Contents
INTRODUCTION xiii Theoretical Underpinnings of Climate Compatible Development and Green Growth in Selected Eastern and Southern African Countries Truphena E. Mukuna CHAPTER ONE 1 Mainstreaming Climate Adaptation into Agricultural Planning and Development in Kenya Christopher A. Shisanya CHAPTER TWO 37 Climate-Smart Agriculture in Lesotho: Initiatives and Perspectives Patrick Gwimbi CHAPTER THREE 67 Effects of Climate Change on Agricultural Productivity across East African Countries: Comparative Evidence from Kenya and Uganda Ifeanyi N.Nwachukwu,andChristopher A. Shisanya CHAPTER FOUR 93 Adoption of Green Technologies in the Public Transport Sector: The Case of Rea Vaya BRT System, South Africa Muchaiteyi Togo CHAPTER FIVE 117 Rural Women’s Participation and Investment in Renewable Energy as a Low-Carbon Adaptation Strategy: Evidence from the Sustainable Energy Project in Malawi Charity Chonde and Harriet Chiwaula
CHAPTER SIX 143 Environmental and Economic Feasibility of Bioethanol Systems: Towards Climate Compatible Development Riad Sultan CHAPTER SEVEN 169 Climate-Compatible Development in the Water Sector of Ethiopia, Mozambique and Tanzania Yohannes Aberra Ayele CHAPTER EIGHT 201 Climate Compatible Strategies in Planning and Investment in South Africa Theresa Moyo CHAPTER NINE 231 Championing a Green Future through Higher Education: Initiatives of Selected Regional Research Organisations in Africa Truphena E. Mukuna CONCLUSION AND PERSPECTIVES 279 Christopher A. Shisanya
Acronyms AAU ACP-EU ACTS ADB ADF AfDB AIDS AMCEN ASALs ASDS ASDS ATMs ATPS BRT CA CAADP CBD CCCUCCD CCS CCTVCDKN CDKN CDM CEDAW
CFL CFU CIRCLE
CO2 COMESA COPCRS CSA CSF CSOs DBSADEA
Association of African Universities African, Carribean Pacific-European Union African Centre for Technology Studies Asian Development Bank Augmented Dickey-Fuller test African Development Bank Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome African MinisterialConference on Environment Arid and Semiarid Lands Agricultural Sector Development Strategy Agricultural Sector Development Strategy Automatic Transfer Machines African Technology Policy Studies Network BusRapid Transit System Conservation Agriculture Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development ProgrammeCentral Business District Climate Change Coordination Unit (Kenya) Climate compatible development Climate Change Strategies Closed Circuit Television Climate and Development Knowledge Network Climate and Development Knowledge Network Clean Development Mechanism Convention for the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination Against Women Compact Fluorescent Lighting Carbon Finance Unit (Kenya)Climate Impact Research Capacity and Leadership Enhancement Carbon dioxide gas Common Markets of Eastern and Southern Africa Conference of the Parties Catholic Relief Services Climate-Smart Agriculture Community Social Forestry (Lesotho) Civil Society Organisations DevelopmentBank of Southern Africa Department of Environmental Affairs
vi
DEA DEDT
DESD DfID DME DoE DRR DTI EAC ECRs EEC EPACC ECRs ESD FANRPAN FAO
FBE FDRE GCF GDP GHG GII GLOBE
GoK GoM GPS GTP HESD GUNi HEIs HICs HIV IAU IC IDB IDC IDPs IDS
Milestones in Green Transition and Climate Compatible Development in...
DepartmentofEnvironmentalAffairs(SouthAfrica)Department of EconomicDevelopment and Tourism (South Africa) Decade of Education for Sustainable Development Department forInternational Development Department of Minerals and Energy (South Africa) Department of Energy (South Africa) Disaster Risk Reduction Department of Trade and Industry (South Africa)East African Community Early Career Researchers European Economic Community Ethiopian Plan of Adaptation for Climate Change Early-career Researchers Education Sustainable Development Natural Resources Policy Analysis Network Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations Free BasicElectricity (South Africa)Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Green Climate Fund Gross Domestic Product greenhouse gas emissions gender inequality index Global Legislators Organisation for a Balanced Environment Government of KenyaGovernment of Malawi Global Positioning System Growth and Transformation PlanHigher Education for Sustainable Development Global University Network for Innovation Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) high income countriesHuman Immunodeficiency Virus the International Association of Universities Initial Communications Indian Development Bank Industrial Development Corporation (South Africa) Integrated Development Plans (South Africa)Institute of Development Studies (Sussex, U.K.)
Acronyms
IEA IEIA IFAD IGAs IMCCC INEP
IPAP IPCC IRPTN KCCWG LAA LCC LDCs LICs LMICs LTAS LTMSMAD MADF MALF MAPE MCB MDGsMEMR MEWNR MfCEA
MICA MICOA MJ MoA MoSE-DE MoWLD
vii
International Energy Agency United States International Energy Information Administration International Fund for Agricultural Development Income-Generating Activities Inter-Ministerial Committee on Climate Change Integrated National Electrification Programme (South Africa)Industrial Policy Action Plan (South Africa) IntergovernmentalPanel on Climate Change Integrated Rapid Public Transport Networks Kenya Climate Change Working GroupLand Administration Authority (Lesotho) Life-Cycle Cost Least Developed Countries Low Income CountriesLower Middle Income CountriesLong-Term Adaptation Scenarios (South Africa) Long-Term Mitigation Scenarios (South Africa) Mean Absolute Deviation Machobane Agricultural Development Foundation (Lesotho)Ministry of Agriculture Livestock and Fisheries (Kenya) Mean Absolute Percentage Error marginal climate benefit Millennium Development Goals Ministry of Environment and Mineral Resources (Kenya) Ministry of Environment Water and Natural Resources (Kenya)Ministry for the Co-ordination of Environmental Affairs Mountain Integrated Conservation Agriculture (Lesotho) Ministry for the Coordination of the Environmental Affairs (Mozambique)Megajoules Ministry of Agriculture Ministry of State-Environment, Division of Environment Ministry of Water and Livestock Development
viii
MoWR-NMA
MPB MRV MSB MSD NAMAs NAPANCCAP NCCFP NCCRS NDP NEB NECSA NEMA
NEPAD NGP NPC NREBNSSD
OECD
OLS OSSREA
PERI-PERI
PTIS RECs REDD+
RSA RSDASADCSANEDI
SARUA SCL SDGs SEZ SNC
Milestones in Green Transition and Climate Compatible Development in...
Ministry of Water Resources-National Meteorological Agency Marginal Private BenefitMonitoring, Reporting and Verification (Kenya) Marginal Social BenefitMean Squared Deviation Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (Kenya) National Adaptation Programme of Action National Climate Change Action Plan (Kenya)National Climate Change Focal Point National Climate Change Response Strategy (Kenya)National Development Plan (South Africa)Net Energy Balance South African Nuclear Energy CorporationNational Environmental Management Authority (Kenya)New Partnership for Africa’s DevelopmentNew Growth Path National PlanningCommission (South Africa)Net Renewable Energy Balance National Strategy for Sustainable Development (South Africa)Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Ordinary Least Square method Organisation for Social Science Research in Eastern and Southern Africa Partners Enhancing Resilience for People Exposed to Risks Public Transport Infrastructure and Systems Regional Economic Communities Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation Republic of South Africa Rural Self-Help Development Association (Lesotho) Southern African Development CommunitySouth African National Energy Development Institute Southern African Regional University Association Send-a-Cow Lesotho (an NGO in Lesotho) Sustainable Development Goals Special Economic Zone (South Africa)Second National Communication (Lesotho)
Acronyms
SSA TVET UMICs UN UNCBD UNCCD
UNCED UNDPUNECA
UNECLAC
UNEP UNEP UNESCAP
UNFCCC
UNFCCC
USA VSLs WCED
WVL
ix
Sub-Saharan Africa Technical Vocational Education and Training Upper Middle Income CountriesUnited Nations United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity United Nations Convention on Combating Desertification UN Conference on Environment and Development United Nations Development Programme The United Nations Economic Commission for Africa United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean United Nations Environment Programme United Nations Environmental Programme United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change United States of America Village Savings and LoansWorld Commission on Environment and Development World Vision Lesotho