Modernism: The Creation of Nation-States

Modernism: The Creation of Nation-States

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English
486 Pages

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This is the first part of the third volume of the four-volume series, a daring project of CEU Press, presenting the most important texts that triggered and shaped the processes of nation-building in the many countries of Central and Southeast Europe. The aim is to confront ‘mainstream’ and seemingly successful national discourses with each other, thus creating a space for analyzing those narratives of identity which became institutionalized as “national canons.” This is the first part of the third volume, containing 59 texts. This volume presents and illustrates the development of the ideologies of nation states, the “modern” successors of former empires. They exemplify the use modernist ideological framaeworks, from liberalism to socialism, in the context of the fundamental reconfiguration of the political system in this part of Europe between the 1860s and the 1930s. It also gives a panorama of the various solutions proposed for the national question in the region. Why, modernism and not modernity? Modernity implies the West, while modernism was the product of the periphery. The editors use it in a stricter sense, giving it a place between romanticism and anti-modernism, spanning from the 1860s until the decade following World War I.


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Modernism: The Creation of Nation-States

Discourses of Collective Identity in Central and Southeast Europe 1770–1945: Texts and Commentaries, volume III/1

Ahmet Ersoy, Maciej Górny and Vangelis Kechriotis
  • Publisher : Central European University Press
  • Year of publication : 2010
  • Published on OpenEdition Books : 21 January 2013
  • Serie : Discourses of Collective Identity in Central and Southeast Europe 1770–1945
  • Electronic ISBN : 9786155211935

OpenEdition Books

http://books.openedition.org

Electronic reference:

ERSOY, Ahmet ; GÓRNY, Maciej ; and KECHRIOTIS, Vangelis. Modernism: The Creation of Nation-States: Discourses of Collective Identity in Central and Southeast Europe 1770–1945: Texts and Commentaries, volume III/1. New edition [online]. Budapest: Central European University Press, 2010 (generated 17 December 2013). Available on the Internet: <http://books.openedition.org/ceup/1939>. ISBN: 9786155211935.

Printed version:
  • ISBN : 9789637326615
  • Number of pages : 486

© Central European University Press, 2010

Terms of use:
http://www.openedition.org/6540

This is the first part of the third volume of the four-volume series, a daring project of CEU Press, presenting the most important texts that triggered and shaped the processes of nation-building in the many countries of Central and Southeast Europe. The aim is to confront ‘mainstream’ and seemingly successful national discourses with each other, thus creating a space for analyzing those narratives of identity which became institutionalized as “national canons.”

This is the first part of the third volume, containing 59 texts. This volume presents and illustrates the development of the ideologies of nation states, the “modern” successors of former empires. They exemplify the use modernist ideological framaeworks, from liberalism to socialism, in the context of the fundamental reconfiguration of the political system in this part of Europe between the 1860s and the 1930s. It also gives a panorama of the various solutions proposed for the national question in the region.
Why, modernism and not modernity? Modernity implies the West, while modernism was the product of the periphery. The editors use it in a stricter sense, giving it a place between romanticism and anti-modernism, spanning from the 1860s until the decade following World War I. 
Ahmet Ersoy

Boğaziçi University, Istanbul

Maciej Górny

Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw

Vangelis Kechriotis

Boğaziçi University, Istanbul 

Table of contents
  1. Introduction

    1. Introduction

      The ‘Identity Reader’ Project

    2. Modernism

      Maria Todorova
  2. Chapter I. Making of the modern state in a multi-national context

    1. The idea of the Austrian state

      František Palacký
      1. About the author
      2. Context
      3. The idea of the Austrian state
    1. Austria and The guarantee Of its existence

      Adolf Fischhof
      1. About the author
      2. Context
      3. Austria and the guarantee of its existence. A political study
    2. What should we expect from the Hungarian constitution for our nationality and what do we need most now?

      Jan Palárik
      1. About the author
      2. Context
      3. What should we expect from the Hungarian Constitution for our nationality and what do we need most now?
    3. The nationality question

      József Eötvös
      1. About the author
      2. Context
      3. The nationality question
    4. Yugoslavism

      Franjo Rački
      1. About the author
      2. Context
      3. Yugoslavism
    5. To compatriots!

      Lovro Toman
      1. About the author
      2. Context
      3. To compatriots!
    6. The Easter article

      Ferenc Deák
      1. About the author
      2. Context
      3. The Easter article
    7. Political directives

      Aleksander Świętochowski
      1. About the author
      2. Context
      3. Political directives
    8. What Mohammedans in Bosnia think

      Mehmed-beg Kapetanović Ljubušak
      1. About the author
      2. Context
      3. What Mohammedans in Bosnia think
    9. Stay here

      Aleksa Šantić
      1. About the author
      2. Context
    10. State and nation

      Karl Renner
      1. About the author
      2. Context
      3. State and nation. To the Austrian nationality question
    1. What is Turkism?

      Ziya Gökalp
      1. About the author
      2. Context
      3. What is Turkism?
  1. Chapter II. Self-determination, democratization, and the homogenizing state

    1. To Serbian mothers

      Draga Dejanović
      1. About the author
      2. Context
      3. To Serbian mothers. A public lecture
    2. The life of one year. Letters from an Athenian to a Parisian lady, 1896–97

      Kalliroi Parren
      1. About the author
      2. Context
      3. The life of one year. Letters from an Athenian to a Parisian lady, 1896–97
    3. The political stance of woman

      Maria Dulębianka
      1. About the author
      2. Context
      3. The political stance of woman
    4. Tarnovo Constitution

      1. Context
      2. Constitution of the Bulgarian Principality
    5. Speech at the assembly of the People’s Radical Party in Kragujevac

      Pera Todorović
      1. About the author
      2. Context
      3. Speech at the assembly of the People’s Radical Party in Kraguj evac
    6. Speech at the night assembly of the national council on 24 November, 1918

      Stjepan Radić
      1. About the author
      2. Context
      3. Speech at the night assembly of the National Council on 24 November, 1918
    7. The Speech in the Italian Parliament

      Josip Vilfan
      1. About the author
      2. Context
      3. The speech of the parliamentarian Vilfan in the Italian Parliament
    8. The Republican manifesto

      Alexandros Papanastasiou
      1. About the author
      2. Context
      3. The republican manifesto
    1. The political crisis in Albania

      Faik Konitza
      1. About the author
      2. Context
      3. The political crisis in Albania
    2. The Turkish ordeal

      Halide Edib
      1. About the author
      2. Context
      3. The Turkish ordeal
      4. Epilogue
    3. Czechoslovakia’s struggle for freedom

      Edvard Beneš
      1. About the author
      2. Context
      3. Czechoslovakia’s struggle for freedom
  1. Chapter III. “National projects” and their regional framework

    1. The Czech question

      Tomáš G. Masaryk
      1. About the author
      2. Context
      3. The Czech question
      4. The Czech question and the social question
    2. The struggle for supremacy in Germany, 1859-1866

      Heinrich Fried Jung
      1. About the author
      2. Context
      3. The struggle for supremacy in Germany 18591866
    3. Three types of policy

      Yusuf Akçura
      1. About the author
      2. Context
      3. Three types of policy
    4. On national work

      Jovan Cvijić
      1. About the author
      2. Context
      3. On national work
    5. Memorandum sent to Lord Edward Grey

      Ismail Qemali
      1. About the author
      2. Context
      3. Memorandum presented to Lord Edward Grey, British Minister of Foreign Affairs and President-in-Chief of the Conference of Ambassadors of the Great Powers in London
    1. The Slovenes and the Yugoslavs

      Ivan Cankar
      1. About the author
      2. Context
      3. The Slovenes and the Yugoslavs
    2. The memorandum to Sir Edward Grey, 7 January, 1915

      Frano Supilo
      1. About the author
      2. Context
      3. The memorandum to Sir Edward Grey, 7 January, 1915
    3. The program of his foreign policy

      Eleftherios Venizelos
      1. About the author
      2. Context
      3. The program of his foreign policy
    4. Book of the Bulgarians

      Anton Strashimirov
      1. About the author
      2. Context
      3. Book of the Bulgarians
    5. Program of the Yugoslav Muslim Organization

      1. Context
      2. Program of the Yugoslav Muslim organization (JMO)
    6. The Slovak as a national individuality

      Ján Lajčiak
      1. About the author
      2. Context
      3. The Slovak as a national individuality
    7. On European balance and peace

      István Bibó
      1. About the author
      2. Context
      3. On European balance and peace
  1. Chapter IV. Federalism and the decline of the empires

    1. Slavic politics in the Habsburg monarchy

      Stjepan Radić
      1. About the author
      2. Context
      3. Slavic politics in the Habsburg monarchy
    2. The United States of Greater Austria

      Aurel C. Popovici:
      1. About the author
      2. Context
      3. The United States of Greater Austria. Political studies about the solution of the national questions and legal crises in Austria-Hungary
    1. The future of the Monarchy

      Oszkár Jászi
      1. About the author
      2. Context
      3. The future of the Monarchy. The fall of dualism and the Danubian United States
    2. A second account On individual initiative and decentralization

      Prince Sabahaddin
      1. About the author
      2. Context
      3. A second account on individual initiative and decentralization
    3. The political program of Hellenism in Turkey

      Georgios Boussios
      1. About the author
      2. Context
      3. The political program of Hellenism in Turkey
    4. The New Europe

      Tomáš G. Masaryk
      1. About the author
      2. Context
      3. The new Europe
    5. A nation in the making

      Anton Melik
      1. About the author
      2. Context
      3. A nation in the making
    6. Is unitary and integral Yugoslavia possible?

      Dimitar Mihalchev
      1. About the author
      2. Context
      3. Is unitary and integral Yugoslavia possible?
    7. Address delivered in Vilnius

      Józef Piłsudski
      1. About the author
      2. Context
      3. Address delivered in Vilnius, 20 April, 1922
    8. Answer to Józef Piłsudski

      Michał Römer
      1. About the author
      2. Context
      3. Answer to Józef Piłsudski
    9. Federation in Central Europe

      Milan Hodža
      1. About the author
      2. Context
      3. Federation in Central Europe
  1. Chapter V. Socialism and the nationality question

    1. The people

      Hristo Botev
      1. About the author
      2. Context
      3. The people
    2. Serbia in the East

      Svetozar Marković
      1. About the author
      2. Context
      3. Serbia in the East
    3. On patriotism

      Józef Piłsudski
    4. The national question and the social democrats

      Bohumír Šmeral
      1. About the author
      2. Context
      3. The national question and the social democrats
    5. Neo-serfdom

      Constantin Dobrogeanu-Gherea
      1. About the author
      2. Context
      3. Neo-serfdom
    6. The national question and our missions

      August Cesarec
      1. About the author
      2. Context
      3. The national question and our missions
    7. The Austrian Revolution

      Otto Bauer
      1. About the author
      2. Context
      3. The Austrian revolution
    8. The socialist frenzy of two decades

      Abraham Benaroya
      1. About the author
      2. Context
      3. The socialist frenzy of two decades
    9. By the Danube

      Attila József
      1. About the author
      2. Context
    1. The Romantic face of Slovakia

      Michal Chorváth
      1. About the author
      2. Context
      3. The Romantic face of Slovakia
    2. The legend of the national militia

      Nazim Hikmet
      1. About the author
      2. Context
    3. The fundamental principles of the Liberation Front

      1. Context
      2. The fundamental principles of the Liberation Front(of the Slovenian nation)
    4. National question in Yugoslavia in the light of the Liberation War

      Josip Broz Tito
      1. About the author
      2. Context
      3. National question in Yugoslavia in the light of the Liberation War

Introduction

Introduction

The ‘Identity Reader’ Project

1The present double volume is the third one of the series entitled Discourses of Collective Identity in Central and Southeast Europe (1770–1945): Texts and Commentaries. The history of this venture goes back to the meeting of a group of young scholars at the Balkan Summer University in Plovdiv in 1999. Step by step, a research project, hosted by the Center for Advanced Study Sofia, was formed with the intention of bringing together and making accessible basic texts of the respective national traditions. The ensuing ‘Reader’ was envisioned as a challenge to the self-centred and ‘isolationist’ historical narratives and educational canons prevalent in the region. On the whole, the ‘Reader’ is expected to fill in the lacunae concerning the knowledge of Central and Southeast Europe pertinent to the very core of the schooling process and academic socialization in these countries. It is hoped that our project will broaden the field of possible comparisons and make researchers look at the process of nation-building in Central and Southeast Europe from a comparative perspective.

2The grouping of the texts follows neither the national provenience, nor stricto sensu chronological order. It is determined more by thematic similarities and resonances. The four ‘meta-themes/periods,’ around which the volumes are organized, are the following: Late Enlightenment (the emergence of the modern ‘National Idea’); National Romanticism (the formation of national movements); Modernism (the full development of national movements and often the creation of national states along with the new formulations of national cultures); and Anti-Modernism (concentrating mainly on the radical ideologies of the inter-war period).

3Within these thematic units the project analyzes various aspects of identity-formation, such as ‘symbolic geography’, the symbolic representation of the national community, images of the past and the production of cultural markers (i.e., national language or national character), as well as the images of the other and the ‘construction’ of identity in religious and socio-cultural contexts – domains that themselves exhibit revealing similarities.

4This framework challenges the usual taxonomies through the disaggregation of a nominally unified past. In particular, this perspective questions the idea of a single point of departure that we are confronted with in nationalist histories. In fact, most of the texts selected consciously participate in many registers of identity-construction, seeking to turn the entire symbolic framework of identities into a more dynamic configuration.