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Overcoming Barriers to Climate Change Adaptation Implementation in Southern Africa

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Adapting to the impacts of climate change is one of the greatest challenges facing the African continent. Although initially couched as primarily an environmental challenge, its importance in the socio- economic development of the region has seen the prioritisation of adaptation in the African common position at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) climate change negotiations. This emphasis has resulted in a number of studies on the vulnerability of countries to climate change, including case studies detailing examples of adaptation in practice. Yet the understanding of the implementation of adaptation measures needs further nuance in its approach. This book goes beyond highlighting the importance of adaptation in supporting future socioeconomic development, to grappling with the challenges in implementing adaptation measures with the authors addressing some of the key obstacles facing the implementation of adaptation projects. In building an understanding of the barriers, and in unpacking the real implications for those leading adaptation efforts in Southern Africa, this book aims to not only bring to the fore elements that act as a constraint, but to further the discussion on how best to overcome these barriers in adapting to climate change.

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Published 25 March 2012
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EAN13 9780798303095
Language English
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O B  C C A I  S A
Overcoming Barriers to Climate Change Adaptation Implementation in Southern Africa
First Publised in 2011 by te Africa Institute of Sout Africa PO Box 630 Pretoria 0001 Sout Africa
and te Institute for Global Dialogue PO Box 32571 Braamfontein 2017 Sout Africa
ISBN: 978-0-7983-0295-1
© Copyrigt Africa Institute of Sout Africa and te Institute for Global Dialogue 2011
No part of tis publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted by any form or by any means, electronic, mecanical, potocopying, recording or oterwise, witout prior permission from te copyrigt owner.
To copy any part of tis publication, you may contact DALRO for information and copyrigt clearance.
Any unautorised copying could lead to civil liability and/or criminal sanctions.
Telephone:086 12 DALRO (from witin Sout Africa); +27 (0)11 712-8000 Telefax:+27 (0)11 403-9094 Postal Address:PO Box 31627, Braamfontein, 2017, Sout Africa www.dalro.co.za
he researc for tis publication as been generously supported by Trust Africa.
Opinions expressed and conclusions arrived at in tis book are tose of te autors and sould not be attributed to te Africa Institute of Sout Africa or te Institute for Global Dialogue.
Project Manager: Yolanda Mokoena Cartogrper: Elize van As Editing: Mark Ronan Proofreading: Carlotte Stevens Design and Layout: Berekile Pila Projects Printing: Harry’s Printers
he Africa Institute of Sout Africa is a tink tank and researc organisation, focusing on political, socio-economic, international and development issues in contemporary Africa. he Institute conducts researc, publises books, monograps, occasional papers, policy briefs and a quarterly journal –Africa Insigt.he Institute olds regular seminars on issues of topical interest. It is also ome to one of te best library and documentation centres world-wide, wit materials on every African country.
For more information, contact te Africa Institute at PO Box 630, Pretoria 0001, Sout Africa; Email ai@ai.org.za; or visit our website at ttp://www.ai.org.za
Contents
Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix
About the contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .x
Abbreviations and acronyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxiii Lyndsey Duff
1
2
Political barriers to climate change adaptation implementation in SADC1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . Romy Chevallier
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
The Urgent Need for Implementation of Adaptation Measures in Africa . . . . 2
Political Will and Commitment at Highest Political Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Difficulties of Planning for Climate Impacts: Inconsistency Between Policy and Planning Horizons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Governance Challenges: Engaging a Multitude of Stakeholders in the Adaptation Process . . . . . . . . . . 9
Uncertainties in Climate Science Exacerbate Challenges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
Enhancing a Country’s Adaptive Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
Lobbying the North for an Effective and Equitable Outcome to Climate Change Negotiations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Conclusion and Policy Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
Notes and References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
Political and state system barriers to the implementation of climate change adaptation in Botswana. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 . Elisha N. Toteng
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Overcoming Barriers to Climate Change Adaptation Implementation in Southern Africa
iii
Contents
3
4
Political Factors Influencing Environmental Conservation in Botswana . . . . 21
Assessment of Political Party Manifestos for Environmental Conservation Commitment: Implications for Barriers to Climate Change Adaptation . . . . . . 23
The State System in Botswana: Implications for Climate Change Adaptation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Botswana’s National Conservation Strategy: The Environmental Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Human Perceptions of Climate Change Adaptation: Implications for the Removal of Barriers to Climate Change Adaptation . . . 33
Conclusion and Policy Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Notes and References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Social barriers to adaptation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 Exploring implications and identifying options for adaptation policy across the SADC region Lindsey Jones
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41
What are Social Barriers to Adaptation? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
What are the Implications of Social Barriers for Southern Africa? . . . . . . . . . 45
How Can Adaptation Policy Making Help Overcome Social Barriers? . . . . . 52
Conclusion and Policy Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Notes and References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Social and cultural barriers to adaptation implementation61. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . The case of South Africa Hayley Leck, Catherine Sutherland, Dianne Scott and Gregg Oelofse
iv
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Political Ecology and Cultural Frames: A Conceptual Framework . . . . . . . . . 62
SADC and South Africa: State Institutions as a Cultural Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Adapting to Climate Change in South Africa: Social and Cultural Barriers and Opportunities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Conclusion and Policy Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Notes and References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Overcoming Barriers to Climate Change Adaptation Implementation in Southern Africa
5
6
7
Contents
Economic barriers to climate change adaptation implementation in SADC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 . Sheila Kiratu
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Climate Change in Southern Africa: What is at Stake? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Overview of Climate Change Impact on Key Economic Sectors . . . . . . . . . . 93
Economic Barriers to Climate Change Adaptation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Conclusion and Policy Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Notes and References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Economic and trade barriers to climate change adaptation111 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Namibia country study Laudika Kandjinga, Jessica Smith and Juliane Zeidler
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Impacts of Climate Change in Namibia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
National Aspirations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .113
Adaptation and its Barriers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .113
Namibia’s Trade and Economy at a Glance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .114
Climate Change Impacts and Existing Adaptation Efforts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .116
Barriers to Adaptation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .121
Future Opportunities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
Conclusion and Policy Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .131
Notes and References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
Financial barriers to the implementation of climate change adaptation measures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .141 Bongani Motsa
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .141
Southern Africa and the Sectoral Impacts of Climate Change . . . . . . . . . . . 142
Welfare and Economic Effects of Climate Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Financial Aspects of Climate Change Negotiations: Access, Transparency, Additionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Overcoming Barriers to Climate Change Adaptation Implementation in Southern Africa
v
Contents
8
9
Financing Requirements for Climate Adaptation and Sources of Funding . .147
Conclusion and Policy Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
Notes and References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
Financial barriers to adaptation implementation163 . . . . . . . . A South African case study on financing water adaptation Michelle Pressend
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
Water Adaptation Weaknesses in South Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
Financial Barriers to Adaptation in South Africa’s Water Sector . . . . . . . . . 169
Adapting for System Change and Overcoming the Barriers to Finance . . . .176
Conclusion and Policy Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .178
Notes and References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .179
Technology barriers to climate change adaptation implementation in the SADC region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 Thokozani Simelane, Martin Kaggwa and Shingirirai Mutanga
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
Assessment of SADC Countries’ Readiness to Tackle Climate Change through Technology Adoption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
Major Technology Barrier Faced by SADC Countries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
Technology Options Available to SADC Countries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
Identified Barriers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .191
Barriers to Biofuel Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
Selected Case Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
Conclusion and Policy Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
Notes and References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
10 Technological barriers to climate change adaptation . . . 201 The case of Mozambique Manuel Chenene, Boaventura Cuamba, Alberto Mavume, Antonio Queface and Alberto Tsamba
vi
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
Analysis of Natural Disaster Occurrences in Mozambique . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
Adaptation Strategies for Climate Change in Mozambique . . . . . . . . . . . . . .210
Overcoming Barriers to Climate Change Adaptation Implementation in Southern Africa
Contents
Technological Barriers to Effective Climate Change Adaptation . . . . . . . . . 220
Conclusions and Policy Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
Notes and References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
11 The legal barriers to climate change adaptation227. . . . . . . . . Marie Parramon
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
Legal Barriers Related to the International Legal Regime Pertaining to Climate Change Adaptation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
Legal Barriers Related to the National Legal Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
Preliminary Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
Conclusion and Policy Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
Notes and References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
12 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247 Lesley Masters
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
Development and Adaptation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
Levels of Engagement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
Importance of Communication, Education and Capacity Building . . . . . . . . 251
Leadership and Governance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
Notes and References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
Appendix257 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stuart Mangold
Opening address: Barriers to climate change adaptation implementation in SADC workshop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
Overcoming Barriers to Climate Change Adaptation Implementation in Southern Africa
vii
Foreword
A binding agreement tat supports adaptation is among te key pri-orities for te African continent during te ongoing climate cange negotiations under te auspices of te United Nations (UN). However, te political economy of te region being marked by different levels of development, ig socio-economic inequalities, ig levels of poverty, weak economies, low use of new tecnologies, over-reliance on fos-sil fuel for energy, relative political instability and degradation of te natural environment presents a number of callenges for te Soutern African region. It is against tis context tat te Institute for Global Dialogue (IGD) set out to conduct a policy-orientated analysis of adap-tation implementation callenges and ways of overcoming tem for te benefit of policy makers and observers alike. his is te result of coordinated researc conducted in most of Soutern Africa, te outcomes of wic were debated, tested and re-fined in an open multi-stakeolder dialogue osted by te IGD on 4 April 2011. he discussion debated te nature of te barriers to adap-tation in areas as diverse as political governance, social development, economic governance, finance, tecnology and law in an appropriate regional and global contextual backdrop. hroug tis volume we ope to contribute to better campioning of a broadly developmental agenda, and one tat enances climate cange adaptation during te climate cange negotiations in Durban in order to make tis a truly successful ‘African Conference of Parties (COP)’. he project was conceptualised and conducted by te IGD, wit Dr Lesley Masters as te project manager. It enjoyed te support of Dakar-based Trust Africa, an African grant-making agency under te stewardsip of Dr Bekinkosi Moyo, and tis book is a co-publication between te IGD and te Africa Institute of Sout Africa (AISA), a premier African affairs researc centre.
Siphamandla Zondi August 2011
Overcoming Barriers to Climate Change Adaptation Implementation in Southern Africaix
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