Poverty and Peace in the Portuguese Speaking African Countries

Poverty and Peace in the Portuguese Speaking African Countries

English
183 Pages

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As the end result of a multidisciplinary investigation project conducted in Africa (PTDC/AFR/64207/2006, Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia), this publication about Poverty and Peace in the Portuguese-speaking African Countries has the purpose, on one hand, of presenting the main conclusions of the studies conducted in these countries and, on the other, to provide a collection of guidelines for future research relevant to the comprehension of the combination of both phenomena.


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Published 04 August 2017
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Poverty and Peace in the Portuguese Speaking African Countries
Cristina Rodrigues Udelsmann and Ana Bénard da Costa (dir.)
Publisher: Centro de Estudos Internacionais Place of publication: Lisboa Year of publication: 2009 Published on OpenEdition Books: 4 August 2017 Serie: ebook'IS Electronic ISBN: 9789898862747
http://books.openedition.org
Printed version ISBN: 9789728335212 Number of pages: 183
Electronic reference RODRIGUES UDELSMANN, Cristina (ed.) ; COSTA, Ana Bénard da (ed.).Poverty and Peace in the Portuguese Speaking African Countries.New edition [online]. Lisboa: Centro de Estudos Internacionais, 2009 (generated 17 August 2017). Available on the Internet: . ISBN: 9789898862747.
This text was automatically generated on 17 August 2017.
© Centro de Estudos Internacionais, 2009 Creative Commons - Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported - CC BY-NC-SA 3.0
As the end result of a multidisciplinary investigation project conducted in Africa (PTDC/AFR/64207/2006, Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia), this publication about Poverty and Peace in the Portuguese-speaking African Countries has the purpose, on one hand, of presenting the main conclusions of the studies conducted in these countries and, on the other, to provide a collection of guidelines for future research relevant to the comprehension of the combination of both phenomena.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction Ana Bénard da Costa and Cristina Udelsmann Rodrigues
The Nature of the Parties on the Prospects of Power-Sharing in the Angola Peace Processes Ricardo de Sousa Introduction Power-sharing, conflict resolution and democracy The Angola conflict and power-sharing solutions The nature of the parties Limitations of the power-sharing model in Angola An additional cause for failure – the monolithic nature of the parties Conclusion
What Effects From Peace in Reducing Poverty? A perspective from empirical records collected in the cities of Huambo and Luanda Carlos Manuel Lopes Introduction Methodological approach Context Some notes about the general impact of the military conflict in the cities of Huambo and Luanda Perception of the actors about the effects of the military conflict and peace Perceptions of poverty Trajectories of activities/occupations Future Expectations Conclusion
‘ We Create Minimum Conditions’: survival of the female market vendors of Luanda in the post-war Aline Afonso Pereira Introduction The notion of gender The notion of gender in Africa “Right there, the suffering is felt” – Women and Armed Conflicts Adaptation to Life in the Cities and Survival Strategies Women and the informal market “Those Helps Don’t Fail” – Strategies of Mutual Aid Informal Joint-Venture Credit Systems Conclusion
Reflection on poverty of displaced populations: the Hanha case Emanuel Lopes
Introduction Chosen Methodologies About the Conceptual Operability Historical Stages of the Vahanha Independence and the Vahanha From Independence to Peace in 1991/1992 The return of the war Peace of 2002 Peace and poverty: the Vahanha perception of the present
‘Quantitative Literature’ and the Interpretation of the Armed Conflict in Mozambique (1976-1992) João Paulo Borges Coelho Introduction Origins and Nature Duration and Transformation Conclusion
Mozambique: poverty in war and poverty in peace Ana Bénard da Costa Introduction History and Anthropology in Studies of Poverty Meanings of Poverty Studies of Poverty and War in Mozambique War: Interpretations and Perceptions Peace, (In) security and Poverty Poverty and Development Policies in Peacetime Conclusions
(Intermittent) Poverty and Peace in Guinea-Bissau Cristina Udelsmann Rodrigues and Alfredo Handem Introduction Contextualization of conflicts Poverty in Guinea-Bissau Analytic outlook on the correlation poverty/peace Perceptions and experiences of poverty and war Conclusions and thematic research lines
The Harsh Fight against Poverty in Sao Tome and Principe Augusto Nascimento Post-independence evolution Voluntarism and constraints to the political evolution Economic environment and the prevalence of poverty Perceptions of poverty Disruption of social bonds Fighting for survival Conclusive notes
Conclusion
Conclusion Cristina Udelsmann Rodrigues and Carlos Manuel Lopes
Introduction
Ana Bénard da Costa and Cristina Udelsmann Rodrigues
 As the end result of a multidisciplinary investiga tion project conducted in Africa, this publication about Poverty and Peace in the Portugue se-speaking African Countries1 has the purpose, on one hand, of presenting the main co nclusions of the studies conducted in these countries and, on the other, to provide a col lection of guidelines for future research relevant to the comprehension of the combination of both phenomena. In spite of most part of the existent analysis abou t poverty in the Portuguese-speaking African Countries (PALOP) being related to the war’s significance and role, in particular the post-independence conflicts, there is not a significant amount of studies focusing specifically on the direct connection between war/peace and the increase/decrease of poverty in these countries. Although there are several analytic appr oaches implicated in this correlation – for instance, with reference to development, to conflicts and peacekeeping, to cooperation – it is still difficult to interconnecting these area s, in term of research and in terms of performance. Among the possible explanations for this difficulty is emphasized the handling of poverty and war issues by differentiated actors, both at an academic level and in matters of political (and economic) management. On the other hand, the perspectives about the correlations between poverty and peace are, generally, bidirectional. In the African context, p eace is seen as a condition for the elimination of poverty or the eliminations of pover ty is seen as a path for reaching peace (Smith, 2005; Bush, 2004; Green & Hulme, 2005; Nara yan, 2000; Bernard, 2002; Solomon & Cilliers, 1996; Bryant & Kappaz, 2005; Murshed, 2002; Collier & Hoeffler, 1998). In the case of Angola, the issues of war and peace remained longer at the center of the research on poverty and development, appearing systematically in studie s of social, political and economic nature, referring to the reciprocal implications (A nstee, 1997; Grobbelaar, Mills & Sidiropoulos, 2003; Abreu, 1989; Ferreira, 2006; Fe rreira & Barros, 1995; UNDP, 2000; Grobbelaar, Mills & Sidiropoulos, 2003). In Mozambi que, the studies conducted about poverty are decreasing its focus on the relevance of war and conflicts, due to the long period of stability experienced since the end of the war, although are occasionally mentioned its long-term effects on the country’s socioeconomic con dition (Adam e Coimbra, 1996; Green, 1991; Oppenheimer e Raposo, 2002; AMECOM, 2004; G20 , 2004; Oppenheimer, 1992-1994; Simler, 2004). In countries where the evolution of war and peace is defined by stages of instability or crisis – such as Guinea-Bissau and Sao Tome and Principe – the studies rarely refer the influences of the political situation over poverty’s reduction or growth (Kovsted & Finn, 1999; UNDP, 2003; Inec, 2002; Republic of Guinea-Bissau, 2004; Sao Tome and Principe Ministry of Planning and Finance, 2002, 2003; Rodrigues et al., 2006). In Cape Verde, the only country among this group where there has always bee n an absence of conflicts and war, poverty studies do not demonstrate, as would be exp ected, a substantially more positive
evolution and poverty still constitutes one of the country’s main concerns (Costa, 1999; Ministry of Finance, Planning and Regional Development, 2004). This research intended to reflect on this relation, analyzing situations of poverty and conflict in the lusophone African countries through out these last decades, based on a multidisciplinary team research and on a data resea rch methodology fundamentally centered, but not exclusively, in meaningful interviews and personal narratives. The team is composed by two anthropologists (Cristina Udelsmann Rodrigues and Ana Bénard da Costa), one economist (Carlos Manuel Lopes), one historian (Augusto Nascimento), and has counted with the participation of researchers in the stage of preparing their masters dissertations in Interdisciplinary African Studies Interdisciplinary (Sílvia Pereira, Susana Mendes, Emanuel Lopes) and doctorate dissertations in African Studies (Ricardo de Sousa and Aline Pereira). All these investigators have conducted a documental and bibliographic research, most of the time supplemented by field research for the collect ion of information and life narratives (mostly during 2008). In the cases of Mozambique and Guinea-Bissau, the team also counted on the support of local investigators – Luís Filipe Pereira, from the Cruzeiro do Sul – Instituto de Investigação para o Desenvolvimento José Negrão and João Paulo Borges Coelho from the Mondlane University, both located in Mozam bique; and Alfredo Handem, from the Instituto Nacional de Estudos e Pesquisas (INEP), i n Guinea-Bissau – that have equally contributed to the preparation of this volume. The project at the origin of this manuscript is, therefore, focused on the connection between poverty and peace, analyzed according to the perceptions of several social actors. Regardless of a growing multiplication of studies about either one or the other phenomena in several African countries – and, namely, in lusophone Afric an countries – the instances where the causal relation or mutual implications between thes e occurrences is explored and established are rare. Even less common is the systematical collection of empirical data about the correlations between poverty/wealth and peace/w ar from the standpoint of the social actors who have experienced those circumstances thr oughout their lives. The study integrates examples of African counties that, in spite of sharing some common elements of their recent history – colonial regime, period when the independences occurred, post-independence political and economic regimes – also are quite distinctive from each others: regarding the background of regional geopolitical i nsertion and the models of productive specialization related to dissimilar allocation of natural resources; in terms of processes and levels of development during the colonial and post- colonial periods; in accordance to the evolution of peace/conflict situations in the post-independence; relating to the perspectives of development and poverty eradication. The focus on the correlation peace/poverty, in the realm of a more comprehensive research about the ca uses for the high poverty rates observed in each on of these nations, inscribes this project in the framework of studies that aspire to contribute for the clarification of the processes conditioning development. Therefore, the purpose was to understand which influence a war, of over thirty years, may have on the poverty situation of Angola; which is the influence of war, also long- lasting, in Mozambique, and of peace that has been lasting for over fifteen years in this country, over the current poverty situation; which influence the war and more recent conflicts have over poverty in Guinea-Bissau; which influence have decad es of peace – somehow unstable in these last few years, on account of coups – over th e situation in Sao tome and Principe; in which measure has the peaceful condition that Cape Verde has uninterruptedly experienced for centuries contributed to the explanation of its poverty rates. The purpose is to confirm if
itbe established a direct relation between these two types of condition – poverty and can war – or, if on the contrary, there are other facto r to account for in the processes for development and poverty control that play a larger part and have more direct influence over the living condition in these countries. The research entailed the study of the available information about the previously mentioned correlation, focusing mostly on live narratives and in some particular cases related to diverse types of social actors and circumstances in several countries. It was also included records produced by institutions and experts direct ly associated to these topics, being integrated in the existing theoretical framework al ongside new data collected during the field researches. The influence of peace on the living conditions is analyzed at the level of its repercussions on the personal social and spatial mo bility; the economic choices and opportunities; the restraints to education; the access to infrastructures and essential goods; the present welfare level and the way it is perceived. The qualitative approach, centered on the practices and representation used by the social actors – as a result, positioned in aemic domain, in other words, the social actors provide their own perceptions and explanations – provides added value to the studies about poverty, particularly in the African context (White, 2002; Bevan, 2004), and has a particular si gnificance in the case of lusophone countries. The interviews were conducted in the capital cities of Angola, Mozambique, Guinea- Bissau, Cape Verde and Sao Tome and Principe, in urban and suburban areas – and, in some occasions, in rural locations or in secondary towns (Huambo, Bafatá, Gabu, Mindelo; Fogo, Boavista) – distributed according to previously def ined typologies, consistent with poverty/wealth situation, rural/urban origin, age and experienced time for distinctive peace situations, as a manner to overcome the limited tim e and resources available for this investigation. The life narratives collected were m ostly centered on individual trajectories, but have also incorporated a more far-reaching featu re, relating to the individual’s family histories. The present manuscript is the end result of this re search project, congregating a compilation of nine articles. Eight of these articles were written by participant researchers in this project, and one of them results from the c ollaboration with the researcher Alfredo Handem. The article The ‘Quantitative Literature’ a nd the interpretation of the armed conflict in Mozambique (1976-1992) was written by th e Mozambican historian João Paulo Borges Coelho, who has been pursuing a research abo ut the conflict between Renamo and Frelimo and has accepted to collaborate in this volume. These nine articles, although having as background the project’s subject matter, present very distinctive characteristics. On one hand, the relevance afforded to the relations poverty-war-peace, or separately to each one of the o ccurrences, is not consistent among the collected articles. This is explained by the different situations experienced in each of the five African countries, either in matters of poverty as in matters of existence, or inexistence, of wars, conflicts and governmental and political instabilities. The lack of uniformity among the articles is equally explained by the theoretica l and thematic options that the authors were compelled to do, by reason of the vast subject at hand. It is also explained by the diversity of the diversity of disciplinary areas of its authors and by their respective research trajectories, necessarily implying the conception o f reflections in accordance to diverse theoretical, thematic, methodological and analytica l perspectives. At last, this diversity is yet explained by the fact that this volume compiles a collection of contributions from