Reconfigured Agrarian Relations in Zimbabwe
358 Pages
English
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Reconfigured Agrarian Relations in Zimbabwe

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Gain access to the library to view online
Learn more
358 Pages
English

Description

Radical land reform programmes generate changes in agrarian structures and capital accumulation trajectories in the countryside. This book examines how capital accumulation is being reshaped by changing financing and marketing of agricultural commodities and presents an emerging Quadi-PMMR-model agrarian structure composed of the poor, middle, middle-to-rich peasants and some rich capitalists with a growing middle scale farmer base constituting two thirds of the rural population in Zimbabwe. This evidence based assessment, 15 years after the FTLRP, sheds light on policy outcomes and impacts on communities, revealing the changing production, marketing, capital accumulation and class formation tendencies across Zimbabwe�s settlement models and agro-ecological settings. The book fuses the reliance on agrarian political economy lenses and factor component analysis to reveal the dynamics of agrarian change and to explore the dialectic between production and circulation and between the centre and periphery in exceptional fashion that expands our understanding of Zimbabwe�s agrarian transition.

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Published 17 December 2017
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EAN13 9789956764105
Language English
Document size 15 MB

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Exrait

capital accumulation is being reshaped by changing financing and marketing
RECONFIGURED AGRARIAN RELATIONS in ZIMBABWE
Toendepi Shonhe
Reconfigured Agrarian Relations in Zimbabwe Toendepi Shonhe
L a ng a a R esea rch & P u blishing CIG Mankon, Bamenda
Publisher:LangaaRPCIG Langaa Research & Publishing Common Initiative Group P.O. Box 902 Mankon Bamenda North West Region Cameroon Langaagrp@gmail.com www.langaa-rpcig.net Distributed in and outside N. America by African Books Collective orders@africanbookscollective.com www.africanbookscollective.com
ISBN-10: 9956-764-21-3
ISBN-13: 978-9956-764-21-1 ©Toendepi Shonhe 2018
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, mechanical or electronic, including photocopying and recording, or be stored in any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission from the publisher.
Dedication
In Memory of David Kundishora Shonhe My father,
and Phillis Chihwayi Shonhe, My mother,
Table of Contents
List of Tables………………………………………………xiii List of Figures……………….…………….………….……xvi Chart………………………………….……………….……xviii Diagrams……………………………..…………….………xix Maps………………………………….………….…………xix Pictures………………………….…………………….……xix Acknowledgements…………….…………………….….…xxi Abstract………………………….…………………….……iixxi List of Acronyms………………..………….………………xxv Chapter One Introduction……………………………………….……….11.1 Background……………………………….………….…..1 1.2 The Context of the Study……………….………..………6 1.3 Research Objectives and Questions……..………….…… 8 1.3.1 Objectives……………………………………….…….. 8 1.3.2 Research questions………………………………..……8 1.4 Study Justification and Contributions to Knowledge…..…9 1.5 Scope and Limitations of the Study……….……………... 11 1.6 Structure of the Book…………………………………… 11 1.7 Conclusion……………………………………....….…… 13 Chapter Two Conceptual and Theoretical Framework: Uneven Development and Primitive Accumulation…..…152.1 Introduction……………………………….…….……… 15 2.2 The Laws of Uneven Development………………...…… 16 2.2.1 The Dialectic between production and circulation…...…18 2.2.2 Accumulation patterns in articulated and disarticulated economies………………………….….………20 2.2.3 Primitive capital accumulation……………….…………24 2.2.4 Monopoly- finance and export of capital…………….…28 2.3 Functional Dualism……………………............…….…… 32
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2.4 Extraction of Surplus Value………………………….….. 34 2.4.1 Extraction through the third form of surplus value….… 35 2.4.2 Extraction through market integration………………… 38 2.5 Schematic Conceptual Framing………………….…….…40 2.6 Conclusion……………………….....…………………… 41 Chapter Three Class Formation and Peasant Struggles…………….……433.1 Introduction……………………………….………….… 43 3.2 Class Formation………………………………………… 43 3.2.1 The accumulations paths…………………………….…48 3.2.2 The tri-modal path and structure……………………… 51 3.3 Contemporary Peasant Struggles…………………...….… 54 3.4 Structure and Agency – A Paradigmatic Debate……….…55 3.5 A Mixture of Normalisation and Redicalisation Politics………………………….………….… 58 3.6 Ideological Contest: Neo-Liberalism vs Redistributive Policies…………………………….………… 59 3.7 The Zimbabwean Setting…………………..………….… 61 3.8 Conclusion…………………………….…...………….… 63 Chapter Four Research Methodology…………………………….……... 65 4.1 Introduction……………………………………….….… 65 4.2 Background to the Study Area...………………………… 66 4.3 Research Design……………………….…………….….. 67 4.4 Population and Sample Selection…………………..….… 68 4.4.1 Sample design……………………………………….… 77 4.5 Fieldwork……………………………………….….….…73 4.5.1 Pilot data collection………………………………….…73 4.5.2 Main data collection…………………………..…..…… 73 4.5.3 Structured questionnaire………………………….…… 73 4.5.4 Constraints on fieldwork……………………….………74 4.5.5 In-depth Interviews…………………………...….….… 75 4.5.6 Observations……………………………….…….….…76 4.5.7 Qualitative data limitations……………………...…...… 77 4.6 Data Analysis………………………………………….…78
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4.7 Analytical Approach…………………………….…….… 80 4.7.1 Indicators for Classification………………..….….….… 80 4.7.2 The Two-Step Clustering Analysis……….………..……84 4.7.3 Factor Analysis…………………………..…………..…85 4.8 Conclusion……………………………….………...….… 85 Chapter Five Agricultural Development (1890-1980)…………….……...87 5.1 Introduction…………………………………….…….… 87 5.2 Evolving State-Capital Complex under Colonialism…..… 88 5.3 Agricultural Financing under Colonialism……………..… 92 5.4 Agricultural Productivity and Peasant Colonial Subjugation…………………………...……….……97 5.5 Marketing of Agricultural Produce…………………….…101 5.6 Accumulation and Class Formation under Colonialism..…104 5.7 Conclusion………………………...…………….…….… 108 Chapter Six Changing Agrarian Relations, 1980-1999…………………1116.1 Introduction……………………………………….….… 111 6.2 Evolving State-Capital Complex Interface, Pre-2000………………………………………….…….……111 6.3 Post-Independence Early Land Reform Programme………………………………………… 112 6.4 Agricultural Financing, Pre-2000……………….…...…… 117 6.5 Agricultural Productivity, pre-2000……………………… 119 6.5.1 Agricultural Marketing………………………………… 122 6.6 Capital Accumulation and Farm Investment…………..… 124 6.7 Class Formation, pre-2000…………………………….… 125 6.8 Conclusion……………………………...……………..… 126 Chapter Seven Changing Agrarian Dynamics, 2000-2015………….……..1277.1 Introduction…………………………….………….…… 127 7.2 Capital and State Policy Complex after 2000…………..… 127 7.3 Agricultural Financing after the FTRLP………...……..… 129 7.4 Capital Strike and State Support After the FTLRP…....…. 134
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7.5 Off-Farm Income………………………………….….… 141 7.6 Land Redistribution since 2000………………………..…143 7.7 Agricultural Productivity after 2000…………….….….….146 7.8 Agricultural Marketing………………………..……….… 155 7.9 Capital Accumulation and Investments…………..……… 159 7.10 Class Formation after 2000…………………….…….… 163 7.11 Conclusion……………………...………………………167 Chapter 8 Hwedza’s Socio-Economic History and Tobacco Production…………………………………….…169 8.1 Introduction………………….…………….…………… 169 8.2 Origin of the Svosve People……………….………….… 171 8.3 Precolonial Economic Activities in Hwedza District………………………………….……….… 172 8.4 Land Alienation and Peasants Struggles in Hwedza District…………………………………………..… 174 8.5 Marketing, Labour Relations and Accumulation Patterns…………………...………………………………… 175 8.5.1 Marketing and labour relations……...……….………… 175 8.5.2 Hwedza accumulation patterns………………...…….…177 8.6 Tobacco Farming in Hwedza District…….…………....…177 8.6.1 The boom and bust in tobacco production…….……… 178 8.6.2 Re-insertion of capital from 2009………...……….…… 181 8.6.3 Production of tobacco in Hwedza District, 2000-2015……...…………………………………………… 182 8.6.4 Grain crops………………………………………….…185 8.7 Changing land ownership in Hwedza district………….… 187 8.8 Accumulation and Class Formation in Hwedza………..…191 8.9 Emerging Agrarian Structure………………………….… 192 8.10 Conclusion…………………………………………...…196 Chapter 9 Sectoral Commodity Production in Hwedza, 2000-15………………………………..…………………..…1979.1 Introduction…………………….…………………….… 197 9.2 Production Patterns for Food, Cash Crops
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and Livestock………………………………………..……… 197 9.2.1 Land utilisation……………………………..….…….…197 9.2.2 Crop production trends per sector………….……….… 203 9.2.3 Tobacco production…………………………..……..… 205 9.2.4 Maize production……………..……………………..… 207 9.2.5 Horticultural crops…………………………………..…211 9.2.6 Livestock production patterns……..…….…………..… 212 9.3 The Inputs Markets…………………..………………..…213 9.3.1 Source to inputs……………………………………..… 213 9.3.2 Access to farming inputs…………………………….…215 9.3.3 Households access to draught power……….…….…… 217 9.3.4 Residency and security of tenure…………………….… 218 9.4 Conservation, Climate Change and Production Patterns………………………………………… 220 9.5 Access to Farming Assets……………………….….…… 221 9.5.1 Cattle ownership by settlement model…………..…...… 224 9.6 Labour Relations and Agricultural Production………...… 224 9.6.1 Labour provision, gender and age by plot holders..….… 227 9.7 Food Security…………………………………………… 229 9.8 Production Grievances by Land Holders, 2015………..… 230 9.9 Conclusions………………………………….…….….… 231 Chapter 10 Capital and Commodity Markets……………….….……..23310.1 Introduction……………………………………....….… 233 10.2 Agricultural Financing………………………….…….…233 10.2.1 Domestic capital and bank credit………………..….…234 10.2.2 International capital and contract farming merchants…237 10.2.3 Non-farm income…………………………….……… 240 10.2.4 Off-farm income and personal savings……….…….…241 10.2.5 Diaspora and local remittances……………….…….…244 10.2.6 Personal savings from within and outside agriculture… 246 10.2.7 Government support………………..…..………….… 246 10.3 Commodity Markets………….……………….……..….247 10.3.1 Farming inputs (seed, fertilisers and chemicals)…….… 247 10.3.2 Labour supply……………………….………….….… 251 10.3.3 The outputs markets……………………………….… 253
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