436 Pages
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Reproductive Health, Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction in Africa

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This volume contains framework papers prepared for a collaborative research project on Reproductive Health, Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction in Africa, an initiative of the African Economic Research Consortium (AERC). Taken together, the chapters in this book make a compelling argument that improvement in reproductive health is key to raising household incomes and to reducing poverty. the books reveals that the triple phenomena of better reproductive health, economic growth, and declining poverty, are likely to be found in an environment in which labour and product markets function. Further, a macroeconomic framework that encourages domestic and foreign investments and promotes social protection for current and future generations is essential.

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Published 29 December 2010
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EAN13 9789966792464
Language English
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Reproductive Health, Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction in Africa
Frameworks of Analysis
Reproductive Health, Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction in Africa
Frameworks of Analysis Edited by Olu Ajakaiye Germano Mwabu
University of Nairobi Press
African Economic Research Consortium
First published 2010 by University of Nairobi Press (UONP) Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library University of Nairobi P.O. Box 30197 – 00100 Nairobi E-mail:nup@uonbi.ac.ke Website:www.uonbi.ac.ke/press
©
The University of Nairobi Press and African Economic Research Consortium (AERC) 2010
The moral rights of the authors have been asserted.
The University of Nairobi Press supports and promotes the University’s objectives of discovery, dissemination and preservation of knowledge, and stimulation of intellectual and cultural life by publishing works of the highest quality in association with partners in different parts of the world. In doing so, it adheres to the University’s tradition of excellence, innovation and scholarship.
All rights reserved. Except for the quotation of fully acknowledged short passages for the purposes of criticism, review, research or teaching, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in any retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or means without a prior written permission from the University of Nairobi Press.
University of Nairobi Library CIP Data Reproductive health, economic growth and poverty reduction in Africa / ed. by Olu Ajakaiye and Gemano Mwabu. 434 pp  1. Reproductive health -- Africa 2. Family planning -- Africa -- Evaluation. 3. Poverty – Africa. HQ 766.5.A35 R37
ISBN 9966-846-85-9
Printed by
English Press Limited P.O. Box 30127 – 00100 GPO Nairobi
Table of Contents
ListofTables..................................................................................................................viiList of Figures ...............................................................................................................viii ListofBoxes..................................................................................................................viiiAbbreviations and Acronyms ..........................................................................................ixList of Contributors .......................................................................................................xiiiForeword........................................................................................................................ xvPreface ......................................................................................................................... xvii
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PART I:
INTRODUCTION
1
Overview: The State of Reproductive Health in AfricaGermano Mwabu and Olu Ajakaiye ......................................................................3
Population Dynamics: Demographic Concepts and ProcessesJ. Patrick Sevilla....................................................................................................9
PART II:
REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH SERVICES
35
The Demand for Reproductive Health Services: Frameworks of AnalysisOlu Ajakaiye and Germano Mwabu ....................................................................37
Provision and Organisation of Reproductive Health Services in Sub-Saharan Africa Joseph K. Wang’ombe and Mercy G. Mugo........................................................73
Financing Reproductive Health Services in Africa: The Role of Aid, Insurance, User fees and General TaxationNana Enyimayew...............................................................................................107
Conceptual and Methodological Issues in the Construction of Reproductive Health Accounts in AfricaAdedoyin Soyibo and Olakunle Odumosu .........................................................121
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PART III:
LINKING REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH TO GROWTH AND POVERTY
193
Demography, Growth, Income Distribution and Poverty: A Survey of InterrelationshipsAli Abdel Gadir Ali ...........................................................................................191
Macro Perspectives on the Impact of Demographics on Growth, Income Distribution and PovertyJ. Patrick Sevilla ...............................................................................................217
Realising the Demographic Dividend: Is Africa Any Different?David E. Bloom, David Canning, Günther Fink and Jocelyn Finlay ...............235
Reproductive Health Behaviour, HIV/AIDS and Poverty in AfricaPeter Glick ........................................................................................................251
The Relationship Between Poverty and Maternal Morbidity and Mortality in Sub-Saharan AfricaChad D. Meyerhoefer and David E. Sahn ........................................................323
Women’s Labour Market Choices: Fertility, Poverty and Demographic LinkagesStephen D. Younger ..........................................................................................373
Estimating Returns to Reproductive Health InvestmentsGermano Mwabu ..............................................................................................397
Index ................................................................................................................................. 413
vi
List of Tables
Table 2.1: Population by development group and major areas ........................................12 Table 3.1: Estimates of a linear reproduction technology of a couple’s children ............54 Table 3.2: Own price elasticities of demand in Tanzania ................................................55 Table 3.3: Estimation of vaccination demand and birth weight functions under different assumptions............................................................................61 Table 3.4: A linear probability model of demand for tetanus vaccination.......................63 Table 3.5: Estimation of birth weight production functions using the control function approach, by residential area and household income ...........64 Table 3.A1: Descriptive statistics, selected sample ............................................................72 Table 3.A2: Descriptive statistics, full sample ...................................................................72 Table 5.1: Range of reproductive health services ..........................................................108 Table 5.2: Per capita cost estimates for reproductive health services ............................108 Table 5.3: Distribution of global expenditure on health by mode of financing .............109 Table 5.4: Relationship between national income, maternal and infant mortalityrates...............................................................................................110Table 6.1: A sample NHA matrix: Sources by financing agents ...................................132 Table 6.2: A sample NHA matrix: Financing agents by providers................................132 Table 6.3: 1998 NHA matrixs: Sources to financing agents..........................................163 Table 6.4: 1998 NHA matrix: Financing agents by providers .......................................164 Table 6.5: Characteristics and trend of health expenditure in Nigeria...........................164 Table 6.A1: WHO classification of financing sources .....................................................172 Table 6.A2: OECD classification of financing agents......................................................172 Table 6.A3: Classification scheme for providers..............................................................173 Table 6.A4: WHO’s global burden of disease classification scheme ...............................174 Table 7.1: The interrelationship between demography and economic growth ..........................................................................................................198 Table 7.2: Demography and poverty: Eastwood and Lipton results ..............................201 Table 7.3: Population growth and the spread of poverty ..............................................203 Table 7.4: Population growth and the depth of poverty ................................................205 Table 7.5: Demographic variables and poverty profiles in sub-Saharan Africa ............209 Table 9.1: Descriptive statistics by subsamples.............................................................240 Table 9.2: Economic growth and the demographic dividend ........................................241 Table 9.3: Institutional development: Sub-Saharan countries .......................................244
Table 9.4: Table 13.1: Table 13.2:
Forecasted growth in the working age population: institutional ranking ..... 246 Instruments for endogenous health capital variables.................................... 408 Returns to health capital in Ghana ............................................................... 408
List of Figures
Figure 2.1: Population growth pyramids, by development group, 2005........................... 16 Figure 4.1: Reproductive health service provision models............................................... 76 Figure 6.1: Actors and flows in RHA ............................................................................. 145 Figure 8.1: IMR and TFR, by region, 1950–1990 .......................................................... 220 Figure 8.2: Population growth trends, 1950–1990.......................................................... 220 Figure 8.3: Youth dependency and young adult relative cohort size .............................. 221 Figure 9.1: Growth in working age share and economic growth 1980–2000 ................. 243 Figure 10.1: Inter-relationships between poverty, reproductive health and HIV/AIDS ... 252 Figure 12.1: Modelling labour market, fertility and child investment choices ................. 379
List of Boxes
Box 2.1: Box 5.1: Box 5.2: Box 5.3:
The concept of demographic transition .......................................................... 18 Effect of user fees on utilisation of health services ...................................... 112 Types of insurance programmes .................................................................. 112 National health insurance and management of mutual health organisations in Ghana ................................................................................. 113
viii
Abbreviations and Acronyms
2SLS 3SLS ABC ACDIS AERC AIDS AIS ANC ANRS ART ARVs BCG BMI CBD CBR CDR CFR COPE CYPs DAC DALYs DHS DIDDPT DRC DT EPI EPP FA FBO FGI FGM
Two-stage least squares Three-stage least squares Abstain, Be Faithful, Use CondomsAfrica Centre Demographic Information System African Economic Research Consortium Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome AIDS Indicator SurveyAntenatal Clinic Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA Anti-Retroviral Therapy Anti-Retroviral Drugs Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Body Mass Index Community-based Distribution Crude Birth Rate Crude Death Rate Cohort Fertility Rate Client Oriented/Provider Efficient Couple Years of Protection Development Assistance Committee (of the OECD) Disability Adjusted Life Years Demographic and Health Survey Difference-in-difference Diphtheria, Pertussis and Tetanus vaccine Democratic Republic of Congo Diphtheria and Tetanus Expanded Programme on Immunisation Epidemiological Programme Package Financing Agents Faith-based Organisation Futures Group International Female Genital Mutilation