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Rethinking Cultural Resource Management in Southeast Asia

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An exploration of the challenges facing efforts to protect Southeast Asia’s indigenous cultures and archaeological sites from the ravages of tourism and economic development.


‘Rethinking Cultural Resource Management in Southeast Asia’ explores the challenges facing efforts to protect Southeast Asia’s indigenous cultures and archaeological sites from the ravages of tourism and economic development. The tourism industry has long recognized the economic benefits of cultural resources, and in Southeast Asia many countries have already developed elements of their cultural heritage into tourist attractions. If not properly managed, the side effects of this development have the potential to be disastrous. As such, there is a now pressing need to create a coordinated study of the growing field of cultural resource management (CRM).


This volume develops a set of themes, including: tourism and its alternatives as CRM strategies; the mitigation of the effects of tourism and other developmental forces; site preservation, ranging from monuments to vernacular architecture, villages, and urban neighbourhoods; and legal issues facing resource management. Its essays discuss innovative approaches to CRM, and avoid the assumption that Euro-American solutions are applicable worldwide; in the Southeast Asian context, funding is often limited, whilst concepts of cultural resource ownership and governmental authority differ from those in the West.


The ultimate goal of CRM is sustainable management, but the convergence between development and preservation is often tense because it entails compromise and negotiation between parties with conflicting interests. The frequently cited concept of “sustainability” is therefore subject to differing interpretations, and conflicts between the short term and long term, local and global, and restoration and regeneration are perennial sources of dispute between stakeholders.


Southeast Asian cultures are thus under intense pressure on many fronts. What this volume seeks to illuminate is the need for effective management strategies to reduce the destructive potential of these conflicting interests: tourism in this region is highly dependent on cultural attractions, and proper management strategies would ensure that these cultural assets are preserved. In turn, this will allow these cultural resources to contribute significantly to the material wellbeing – and stability – of their respective societies.


List of Tables and Figures; Introduction: John N. Miksic; SOUTHEAST ASIA (GENERAL); Chapter 1 Thinking about Popular Religion and Heritage - Denis Byrne; Chapter 2 Wrecked Twice: Shipwrecks as a Cultural Resource in Southeast Asia - Michael Flecker; EAST TIMOR; Chapter 3 Whose Culture and Heritage for Whom? The Limits of National Public Good Protected Area Models in Timor Leste - Sue O’Connor, Sandra Pannell and Sally Brockwell; Chapter 4 Archaeological Practice in Timor Leste: Past, Present and Future - Peter Lape and Randy Hert; CAMBODIA;  Chapter 5 Rethinking Cultural Resource Management: The Cambodian Case - Son Soubert; Chapter 6 Conservation of the Thnal Mrech Kiln Site, Anlong Thom, Phnom Kulen - Chhay Visoth; Chapter 7 Cultural Resource Management in Phnom Sruk: Potential and Problems - Chan Sovichetra; Chapter 8 Archaeology and Cultural Resource Management South of Phnom Penh, Cambodia - Phon Kaseka; Chapter 9 Heritage Management of Wooden Prayer Halls in Battambang Province, Cambodia - Song Sophy; MYANMAR; Chapter 10 Innovation versus Preservation: Heritage Management and Burmese Traditional Performing Arts - Goh Geok Yian; THE PHILIPPINES; Chapter 11 Using International Heritage Charters in Philippine Cultural Resource Management - Vito Hernandez; SINGAPORE; Chapter 12 Transforming the National Museum of Singapore - Kwa Chong Guan; Chapter 13 Singapore’s Archaeological Heritage: What Has Been Saved - John N. Miksic; VIETNAM; Chapter 14 The Preservation and Management of the Monuments of Champa in Central Vietnam: The Example of My˜ Sơn Sanctuary, a World Cultural Heritage Site - Tran Ky Phuong

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Published 15 December 2011
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Rethinking Cultural Resource Management in Southeast Asia
Rethinking Cultural Resource Management in Southeast Asia
Preservation, Development, and Neglect
Edited by John N. Miksic, Geok Yian Goh and Sue O’Connor
Anthem Press An imprint of Wimbledon Publishing Company www.anthempress.com
This edition first published in UK and USA 2011 by ANTHEM PRESS 7576 Blackfriars Road, London SE1 8HA, UK or PO Box 9779, London SW19 7ZG, UK and 244 Madison Ave. #116, New York, NY 10016, USA
© 2011 John N. Miksic, Geok Yian Goh and Sue O’Connor editorial matter and selection; individual chapters © individual contributors
The moral right of the authors has been asserted.
All rights reserved. Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise), without the prior written permission of both the copyright owner and the above publisher of this book.
British Library CataloguinginPublication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.
Library of Congress CataloginginPublication Data Rethinking cultural resource management in Southeast Asia : preservation, development, and neglect / edited by John N. Miksic, Geok Yian Goh and Sue O’Connor.  p. cm. Includes bibliographical references. ISBN13: 9780857283894 (hardback : alk. paper) ISBN10: 0857283898 (hardback : alk. paper) 1. Cultural property–Protection–Southeast Asia. 2. Cultural property–Southeast Asia–Management. 3. Archaeology–Southeast Asia. 4. Southeast Asia–Antiquities. 5. Southeast Asia–Cultural policy. I. Miksic, John N. II. Goh, Geok Yian. III. O’Connor, Sue. DS523.R48 2011 363.6’90959–dc23 2011044729
ISBN13: 978 0 85728 389 4 (Hbk) ISBN10: 0 85728 389 8 (Hbk)
This title is also available as an eBook.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
List of Tables and Figures Introduction: John N. Miksic
Southeast Asia (General) Chapter 1 Thinking about Popular Religion and Heritage  Denis Byrne Chapter 2 Wrecked Twice: Shipwrecks as a Cultural Resource in Southeast Asia Michael Flecker
East Timor Chapter 3 Whose Culture and Heritage for Whom? The Limits of National Public Good Protected Area Models in Timor Leste Sue O’Connor, Sandra Pannell and Sally Brockwell
Chapter 4
Archaeological Practice in Timor Leste: Past, Present and Future Peter Lape and Randy Hert
Cambodia Chapter 5 Rethinking Cultural Resource Management: The Cambodian Case  Son Soubert Chapter 6 Conservation of the Thnal Mrech Kiln Site, Anlong Thom, Phnom Kulen  Chhay Visoth
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3
15
39
67
91
101
vi
RETHINKING CULTURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
Chapter 7
Chapter 8
Chapter 9
Myanmar Chapter 10
Cultural Resource Management in Phnom Sruk: Potential and Problems Chan Sovichetra
Archaeology and Cultural Resource Management South of Phnom Penh, Cambodia Phon Kaseka
Heritage Management of Wooden Prayer Halls in Battambang Province, Cambodia Song Sophy
Innovation versus Preservation: Heritage Management and Burmese Traditional Performing Arts Goh Geok Yian
The Philippines Chapter 11 Using International Heritage Charters in Philippine Cultural Resource Management Vito Hernandez
Singapore Chapter 12 Chapter 13
Transforming the National Museum of Singapore Kwa Chong Guan Singapore’s Archaeological Heritage: What Has Been Saved John N. Miksic
Vietnam Chapter 14 The Preservation and Management of the Monuments of Champa in Central Vietnam: The Example of M˜ySơn Sanctuary, a World Cultural Heritage Site  Tran Ky Phuong
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LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES
Tables Table 4.1 Table 4.2
Table 4.3 Table 4.4
Table 4.5 Table 11.1
Figures Figure 2.1
Figure 2.2
Figure 2.3
Figure 2.4
Figure 2.5
Correlation between age and yes responses.
Relationship of yes responses between age groups 0–35 years and 35–100 years.
Relationship between gender and yes responses.
Percentage of yes responses to each question by education level.
Relationship between education level and yes responses.
Evaluative criteria for cultural heritage status.
A barrel full of octagonal saucers exposed on theVung Tauwreck. © Michael Flecker.
A magnificent example of European influence on Jigndezhen blueandwhite porcelain design, recovered from theCa Mauwreck. © Michael Flecker.
A diver excavating Zhangzhou bowls and dishes deep within a hold of theBinh Thuanwreck. © Michael Flecker.
Lead, brass and tin ingots (from left to right) recovered during a single dive on theIntanwreck. © Michael Flecker.
Very large Thai storage jars await desalination after being excavated from theBakauwreck. © Michael Flecker.
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78 80
80 81 188
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Figure 2.6
Figure 2.7
Figure 3.1
RETHINKING CULTURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
Figure 3.2 Figure 3.3 Figure 3.4
Figure 3.5
Figure 3.6
Figure 3.7
Figure 3.8
Figure 3.9
Figure 3.10
Figure 3.11
Figure 3.12
Figure 3.13
Figure 3.14
Figure 3.15
Squat dusuntype jars trapped within a concretion on theBelitungwreck. © Michael Flecker.
The muzzle of a bronze cannon protrudes from ballast stones on theM1Jwreck off Malacca. © Michael Flecker. Timor Leste and boundaries of the Nino Konis Santana National Park. The village of Tutuala. Early dry season swidden garden. Lake Iralalora. Children grazing water buffalo in the dry season.
Cuscus (Phalanger orientalis).
The “Lord of the Land” makes offerings at atÈisite.
Stone boat.
Site to guard resources.
Rock artpoko.
Ili Krkr, looking to Jaco Island.
The wall at Ili Krkr that separates the Otoulumuha “stomach” from the Otoiriku “bottom.”
The newtÈithat was placed in Ili Krkr to replace the one that was stolen during the period of Indonesian rule.
The “Lord of the Land” before the Ln AratÈi.
The “Lord of
the Land” makes offerings at Jerimalai.
Walled settlement in the Nino Konis Santana National Park (left) and Lo Chami right (mapped and drawn by Peter Lape).
Figure 3.16 Excavation at Valu Beach. Figure 3.17 Burial site. Figure 3.18TÈiIra Ara.at water site near the village of
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40 43 44
44 45
48 48 49 50 51
52
53
54 55
56 58 60 62
Figure 4.1
Figure 4.2
Figure 4.3
Figure 4.4
Figure 6.1
Figure 6.2
Figure 6.3
Figure 6.4
Figure 6.5
Figure 6.6
Figure 6.7
Figure 8.1
Figure 8.2
Figure 8.3
Figure 8.4
Figure 8.5
Figure 8.6
Figure 8.7
Figure 9.1
Figure 9.2
Figure 9.3
LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES
Age frequency of
Percentage of
survey respondents.
responses by education level.
Percentage of yes responses to each question by all respondents. Percentage of yes responses by gender. Location of the Thnal Mrech kilns. Looted objects stored at Angkor Conservation. Anlong Thom and environs, based on EFEO 1975.
The group of
temples in Anlong Thom village.
Sherds from a probable prehistoric occupation site on Phnom Kulen.
Animal shapes from Thnal Mrech.
Motifs from ceramic lids.
Satellite image of Cambodia including the sites of Cheung Ek and Sre Ampil southeast of Phnom Penh.
General view of the Cheung Ek site showing the distribution of kilns and temple foundations.
Aerial photo of Cheung Ek circular earthwork taken in 2007, eastern and northern parts are connected to Cheung Ek Lake.
Kendi from Cheung Ek. Its spout is broken.
i
x
74 74
75 75 103 105 109 112
113 114 115
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128 130
Scale and method of land concession agrobusiness clearance in Cambodia. 131 Soil and fill mining at Kamplong Mounds. 133 Destroyed archaeological deposits from pond construction (note Metal Age and Funan pottery fragments). 134 Map of Cambodia. 144 Wat Kor, built in 1900, Battambang Province (Center for Khmer Studies– CKS). 145 Ceiling decoration in Wat Kor (CKS). 147
x
RETHINKING CULTURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
Figure 9.4
Figure 10.1
Figure 10.2
Figure 10.3
Figure 10.4
Figure 10.5
Figure 10.6
Figure 10.7
Figure 10.8
Figure 13.1
Rich design on the column in Wat Domrei Sor (CKS).
Shops selling Tshirts, among other things, at the Ananda temple festival; in the background, one can see thesikharatop of the temple. © John N. Miksic.
An indigenous model of the merrygoround at the Ananda temple festival. © John N. Miksic.
Earthenware pots on display at the Ananda temple; pottery stalls like this one have become a permanent fixture at the temple site. © John N. Miksic.
Taungkalat, the abode of © Goh Geok Yian.
thenatsof
Mount Popa.
Anatkadaw(nat’s wife) dancing for hernathusband, Mandalay. © Goh Geok Yian.
A femalehsaung(Burmese harp) musician accompanying a marionette performance, Mandalay. © John N. Miksic.
Awayang kulitperformance withgamelanaccompaniment at the Joglo Plawang hotel in Pakem, outside Yogyakarta. © Goh Geok Yian.
A local crowd and a few foreign tourists watching the animated dance of azawgyi(alchemist) performer in Mandalay, December 1994. © Goh Geok Yian.
Istana Kampung Gelam. © John N. Miksic.
Figure 13.2 Fort Canning Centre. © John N. Miksic. Figure 13.3 The 1984 dig. © John N. Miksic. Figure 13.4 Map of downtown Singapore. © Goh Geok Yian. Figure 13.5 Map of Fort Canning, 1860. © Goh Geok Yian. Figure 13.6 Keramat in 2000. © John N. Miksic.
Figure 13.7
Figure 13.8
Figure 13.9
Dig site display. © John N. Miksic.
Underground Command Centre, Fort Canning. © John N. Miksic.
Cupolas in the Fort Canning cemetery. © John N. Miksic.
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171 218 219 220 221 222 223 224
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