Roaming Africa
630 Pages
English
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Roaming Africa

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Gain access to the library to view online
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630 Pages
English

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What happens when digital innovation meets migration? Roaming Africa considers how we understand modern-day mobility in Africa, where age-old routes strengthen the resilience of people roaming the continent for livelihoods and security, assisted by mobile communication. Digital mobility expands connectivity around the world, and also in Africa. In this book, the authors show that mobility, resilience and social protection in the digital age are closely related. Each chapter takes a close look at the migration dynamics in a specific context, using social theory as a lens. This book adopts a critical perspective on approaches in which migration is regarded merely as a hazard. Edited by distinguished scholars from Africa and Europe, this volume, the second in a four-part series Connected and Mobile: Migration and Human Trafficking in Africa, compiles chapters from a diverse group of young and upcoming scholars, making an important contribution to the literature on migration studies, digital science, social protection and governance.

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Published 24 October 2019
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EAN13 9789956551736
Language English
Document size 6 MB

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R
OAMING AFRICA Migration, Resilience and Social Protection
Edited by: Mirjam Van Reisen, Munyaradzi Mawere, Mia Stokmans & Kinfe Abraha Gebre-Egziabher
Roaming Africa: Migration, Resilience and Social Protection Edited by Mirjam Van Reisen, Munyaradzi Mawere, Mia Stokmans & Kinfe Abraha Gebre-Egziabher L a ng a a R esea rch & P u blishing CIG Mankon, Bamenda
Publisher:LangaaRPCIG Langaa Research & Publishing Common Initiative Group P.O. Box 902 Mankon Bamenda North West Region Cameroon Langaagrp@gmail.com www.langaa-rpcig.net Distributed in and outside N. America by African Books Collective orders@africanbookscollective.com www.africanbookscollective.com
ISBN-10: 9956-551-01-5 ISBN-13: 978-9956-551-01-9 © Mirjam Van Reisen, Munyaradzi Mawere, Mia Stokmans and Kinfe Abraha Gebre-Egziabher, 2019 All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, mechanical or electronic, including photocopying and recording, or be stored in any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission from the publisher. Copyeditor: Susan Sellars-Shrestha Editorial coordinator: Rick Schoenmaeckers Double blind peer reviewers: Munyaradzi Mawere & Kinfe Abraha Gebre-Egziabher Contributing peer reviewer: Reginald Nalugala Editorial support: Kristína Melicherová & Klara Smits Graphic design: Timothy Ojore & Asa Splinter Cover photo: Mirjam Van Reisen, Lira, Uganda, 25 January 2017 Cite as: Van Reisen, M., Mawere, M., Stokmans, M. & Gebre-Egziabher, K. A. (2019).Roaming Africa: Migration, Resilience and Social Protection.Bamenda, Cameroon: Langaa RPCIG. Disclaimer:Great care was taken to factually represent the research findings of the authors. The content of the chapters is the sole responsibility of the authors and editors. If there are any factual errors or if you have other comments, please address them to:mirjamvanreisen@gmail.com.
Book Series: Connected and Mobile: Migration and Human Trafficking in Africa Book 1 Human Trafficking and Trauma in the Digital Era. The Ongoing Tragedy of the Trade in Refugees from Eritrea.(2017). Mirjam Van Reisen & Munyaradzi Mawere (eds) Book 2 Roaming Africa: Migration, Resilience and Social Protection. (2019).Mirjam Van Reisen, Munyaradzi Mawere, Mia Stokmans & Kinfe Abraha Gebre-Egziabher (eds) Book 3 Mobile Africa: Human Trafficking and the Digital Divide. (2019). Mirjam Van Reisen, Munyaradzi Mawere, Mia Stokmans & Kinfe Abraha Gebre-Egziabher (eds) Book 4 Digital Human Trafficking in Africa.(2020). Mirjam Van Reisen, Munyaradzi Mawere, Mia Stokmans & Kinfe Abraha Gebre-Egziabher (eds)
We are travellers on a cosmic journey, stardust, swirling and dancing in the eddies and whirlpools of infinity. Life is eternal. We have stopped for a moment to encounter each other, to meet, to love, to share. This is a precious moment. It is a little parenthesis in eternity.Adapted from Paulo Coelho,The Alchemist(1988) by Joëlle Stocker Sisi ni wasafiri katika safari ya cosmic, stardust, swir na densi katika eddies na whirlpools ya infinity. Maisha ni ya milele. Tumesimama kwa muda mfupi kukutana, kukutana, kupendana, kushiriki. Hii ni thamani kubwa sasa. Ni nadharia kidogo katika umilele.
 ࡏࢇࠋ⚾ࡓࡕࡣฟ఍࠸ࠊឡࡋྜ࠸ࠊࡑࡋ࡚ศ࠿ࡕྜ࠺ࡓࡵ࡟௒ࡇࡢ▐㛫࡟Ꮡᅾ ࡋࡲࡍࠋ㈗㔜࡞▐㛫࡛ࡍࠋࡇࢀࡣỌ㐲ࡢ୰ࡢ࡯ࢇࡢ୍㒊࡛ࡍࠋ
Είμαστε ταξιδιώτες σε ένα κοσμικό ταξίδι, στροβιλίζουμε και χορεύουμε στις στροφές και τις δίνες του άπειρου. Η ζωή είναι αιώνια. Σταματήσαμε για μια στιγμή να συναντήσουμε ο ένας τον άλλο, να αγαπήσουμε, να μοιραστούμε. Αυτή είναι μια μικρή παρένθεση στην αιωνιότητα.
ٗ סٕ ܗ٥تۂڪت٥יثסיקڅקڐتהܗ٧ٕ صןٗ إتٕ٧ٗ ؁ڐ؁ڐٕ ڧۗ ۿ׹صۈڎڗط٤ٕ ܘ׎ڃغڒה٥הקڅڣܗܗٗ ן۱׹ۇږڪڈ٤יٕ ܗۈ܄ٗ ۈ܄صۅۙ שٕ ܗص׷ٹتٕ ܗص܂؛׹ٕ ٗן׿بغصהچڅۜ ٕ ٗ ܗܗ٧ڔٗ ٣؁בڈصظڃڧگס״-ן׿تٕ ڧڒה٥הקڈْ غڣܘ
Singabahambi abasehambeni lokuhlosisa umhlaba, lezinto ezenzakala emhlabeni wonke jikelele. Impilo kayipheli njalo sime okwesikhatshana ukuthi sazane ngokujulileyo, sihlangane, sithandane lokuthi siyabelane ulwazi. Lesi yisikhathi esiligugu njalo kuyisiphumuzo esifitshazana empilweni enaphakade.
Iri vafambi vari parwendo rwusingagumi. Muchamupupuri tinokwira nekudzika, tichitamba nekupeperetswa muirworwu rwendo rusina magumo. Upenyu iziendanakuenda, Tinomira pane rino pasi kwechinguvana. Kuti tisanganiswe nekuyanana, Kuti tidane nekugovana zvinokosha. Ndiyoyi nguva inokosha muupenyu. Chikamu cheziendanakuenda.
ונאםילייטמעסמבימסוק,קבאםיבכוכ,םיפחסנםידקורותולוברעמבףוסניאה.םייחהםייחצנ.ונרצעעגרלשוגפלהזהזב,בוהאל,קולחל.והזעגררקי.םיירגוסםינטקחצנב.
ﻦﺤ ﻧﻥﻭﺮ ﻓﺎﺴ ﻲ ﻓﺔﻠ ﺣﺭﺔﻴ ﻧﻮ ،ﺭﺎﺒ ﻏﻡﻮﺠ ﻧ،ﻡﻮﺤ ﻧﺺ ﻗﺮ ﻧﻭﻲ ﻓﺕﺎﻣﺍﻭﺩﻧﻼ ﻟﺍﺔ ﻳﺎﻬ .ﺓﺎﻴ ﺤ ﻟﺍﺔ ﻳﺪ ﺑﺃ.ﺪﻘ ﻟﻗﻮ ﺗﺎﻨ ﻔ ﺢﻠ ﻟﺔﻅﺓﺎ ﻗﻼ ﻤ ﻟﺎﻨ ﻀ ﻌ ﻟﺍﺾﻌ ﺒ ،ءﺎﻘ ﻠ ﺐﺤ ﻟﺍﻭﻤ ﻟﺍﻭﺔ ﻛﺭﺎﺸ .ﻩﺬﻫﺔﻈﺤ ﻟ،ﺔﻨ ﻴ ﻤ ﺔﻠ ﻫﻭﺓﺮﻴ ﻐ ﻲ ﻓﺑﻷﺍﺔ ﻳﺪ .
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Preface by Zaminah Malole The person who has not travelled widely thinks his mother is the only cook. Ugandan proverbThis Ugandan proverb, which is known in many African languages, teaches human beings to move out of the known and go elsewhere. Migration is not always forced by the violence caused by nature or people – migrating and mobility is also about learning and broadening the mind. It is in the nature of people to move to different places. Mobility is a basic human right. It is a social necessity. Mobility helps economies and sustains livelihoods in arid lands. MigranFTablets and refugees are often talked about, but rarely heard. As their voices are stifled, we know little about the circumstances of migrants or mobile communities and of those who have been forced to flee and lead lives as refugees. Today, in 2019, there are nearly 70 million people around the world who have been forced from their homes. Among them are more than 25 million refugees, over half of whom are under 18. There are an estimated 10 million stateless people, who are denied nationality and, with it, access to basic rights such as education, health care, employment and freedom of movement. You will not read in this book about numbers, but about people and the different circumstances in which they migrate, for very different reasons, and with very different needs. Those who migrate often leave everything behind to jump into an unsure life. The Zimbabweans say: “A king’s child is a slave elsewhere”. We should prepare now for the solutions of tomorrow. Uganda has taken a positive approach towards migrants and refugees. In Uganda, we welcome newcomers and focus on how they can contribute positively to our country and economy. The integration of refugees and migrants into our communities has worked very well. As refugees and migrants have found that they are welcome, they have given back and we as a nation have benefited from what they have to offer. We ii
urge other countries to follow our example, to see the benefits that migrants bring and to demonstrate commitment towards the protection and integration of refugees. We invite the African continent to follow the Pan African spirit. We are one continent, really a continent without borders, in which we are guided by the spirit ofubuntu: as long as one person suffers, we all suffer. Migrants and refugees are our brothers and sisters. Many cannot go home because of conflict and persecution. Many live in perilous situations. We need to allow migrants and refugees to speak up, not stifle their voice; we need to support them so that they can find their feet and build up their lives, so that they can live in dignity and be part of our communities. The fear of exploitation and abuse is what undermines the entrepreneurial spirit of migrants and refugees. We need to establish solid frameworks to support them, make sure they are protected by the rule of law and that their safety and security is not undermined. Africa can set an example for the world by applying common sense that is good for the wellbeing of migrants and refugees and that benefits our nations. To achieve this, we need to think of migration and mobility as a natural way of life, which has existed as long as we can remember and which has benefited all our people. A way of life for which we are prepared and have the knowledge and experience to handle within our communities. A Maasai proverb says: “If a stranger comes to stay with you, do not forget when you lay aside his weapons that he is hungry”. Africa has the wisdom and experience to lead the world towards a sensible approach in which migrants and refugees are not despised, but welcomed, according to African hospitality and traditions of building peace among and between our communities. H.E. Zaminah Malole Member of the Commission of Equal Opportunities Government of Uganda
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Table of Contents
Preface by Zaminah Malole .................................................................................ii Acknowledgement...............................................................................................vii A Word on the Review Process ...................................................................... viii Acronyms...............................................................................................................ixPart I. Theoretical Perspectives ......................................................... 1
Chapter 1: Roaming Africa:A Social Analysis of Migration and Resilience..................................................3By Mirjam Van Reisen, Mia Stokmans, Munyaradzi Mawere & Kinfe Abraha Gebre-Egziabher
Chapter 2: All or Nothing: The Costs of Migration fromthe Horn of Africa – Evidence from Ethiopia .............................................. 37 By Kinfe Abraha Gebre-Egziabher
Chapter 3: Why do Foreign Solutions not Work in Africa?Recognising Alternate Epistemologies ........................................................... 55 By Gertjan Van Stam Part II. Living Borders ..................................................................... 83
Chapter 4:Continuation of Care across Borders: ProvidingHealth Care for People on the Move in East Africa .................................... 85 By Dorothy Muroki, Boniface Kitungulu & Leanne Kamau
Chapter 5: Mobility as a Social Process: Conflict Managementin the Border Areas of Afar Region .............................................................. 109 By Abdelah Alifnur & Mirjam Van Reisen
Part III. New Perspectives in Migration......................................... 141
Chapter 6:Out of the Frying Pan into the Fire: Are Climate Disasters Fuelling Human Trafficking in Kenya? ....................................... 143 By Radoslaw Malinowski & Mario Schulze
Chapter 7:Standing in Two Worlds: Mobility and theConnectivity of Diaspora Communities ....................................................... 171 By Antony Otieno Ong’ayo iv
Chapter 8:‘Europe is not Worth Dying For’:The Dilemma facing Somalis in Europe....................................................... 203 By Melissa Phillips & Mingo Heiduk
Chapter 9:Countering Radicalisation in Communities:The Case of Pumwani, Nairobi...................................................................... 225 By Reginald Nalugala Part IV. Livelihoods ....................................................................... 253Chapter 10: Moving on to Make a Living: The SecondaryMigration of Eritrean Refugees in Tigray, Ethiopia ................................... 255 By Bereket Godifay Kahsay
Chapter 11:Inhospitable Realities:Refugees’ Livelihoods in Hitsats, Ethiopia .................................................. 283 By Kristína Melicherová
Chapter 12:Young and On their Own: The Protection of EritreanRefugee Children in Tigray, Ethiopia............................................................ 315 By Tekie Gebreyesus & Rick Schoenmaeckers
Part V. The Challenges of Return Migration ................................. 345
Chapter 13:Home, but not Home: Reintegration of Ethiopian Women Returning from the Arabian Gulf................................................... 347 By Beza L. Nisrane
Chapter 14:Shattered Dreams: Life after Deportation forEthiopian Returnees from Saudi Arabia....................................................... 377 By Shishay Tadesse Abay
Chapter 15:Life after the Lord’s Resistance Army: Support forFormerly Abducted Girls in Northern Uganda........................................... 407 By Primrose Nakazibwe & Mirjam Van Reisen
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