Surviving on the Move


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Since the collapse of apartheid, there have been major increases in migration flows within, to and from the Southern African region. Cross-border movements are at an all-time high across the region and internal migration is at record levels. The implications of greater mobility for areas of origin and destination have not been systematically explored. Migration is most often seen as a negative phenomenon, a result of increased poverty and the failure of development. More recently, the positive relationship between migration and development has been emphasised by agencies such as the Global Commission on International Migration, the Global Forum on Migration and Development, the United Nations Development Programme and the African Union. The chapters in this publication are all based on primary research and examine various facets of the relationship between migration, poverty and development, including issues that are often ignored in the migration-development debate like migration and food security and migration and vulnerability to HIV. The book argues that the development and poverty reduction potential of migration is being hindered by national policies that fail to recognise and build on the positive aspects and potential of migration. As a result, as these studies show, migrants are often pushed to the margins where they are forced to "survive on the move". Their treatment violates labour laws and basic human rights and compromises the potential of migration as a means to create sustainable livelihoods, reduce poverty and food insecurity, mitigate the brain drain and promote the productive use of remittances. This book shows that migrant lives and livelihoods should be at the centre of international and African debates about migration, poverty and development.



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Published 01 February 2010
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EAN13 9781920409364
Language English
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Eds: Jonathan Crush and Bruce Frayne
We wish to thank the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) for its gener-ous support of SAMP's research and policy project on “Migration, Development and Poverty Reduction in the SADC.” This particular publication was made possible with the support of that project. The chapters were first published in a special issue of the journal Development Southern Africa (DSA) 24(1) (2007)and are reprinted here with the permission of the publishers of DSA, Taylor & Francis Ltd (http://www.informaworld. com). The first chapter has been updated to take account of recent thinking about the migration-development relationship. We would like to thank the editors and editorial staff of DSA for their assistance. David Dorey, Christina Hughes and Ashley Hill provided invaluable assistance. We also wish to thank Jennifer Payne, Teresa Pires, Moira Levy and Bronwen Müller for their assistance in readying the manuscript for publication.
Published by Idasa and Development Bank of Southern Africa (DBSA)
© Southern African Migration Programme (SAMP) 2010 ISBN 978-1-920409-09-8
First published 2010 Produced by Idasa Publishing Cover design: Welma Odendaal Cover photos: Greg Marinovich/Africa Media Online
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without prior permission from the publishers. Bound and printed by LogoPrint, Cape Town
Chapter 1:
Chapter 2:
Chapter 3:
Chapter 4:
Chapter 5:
Chapter 6:
Chapter 7:
Chapter 8:
Chapter 9:
Chapter 10:
Chapter 11:
Chapter 12:
Chapter 13: Index
Surviving on the move Jonathan Crush and Bruce Frayne
Restless minds: South African students and the brain drain Robert Mattes and Namhla Mniki
Medical migration from Zimbabwe in the post-Esap era: magnitude, causes and impact on the poor Abel Chikanda
Discrimination and development? Migration, urbanization, and sustainable livelihoods in South Africa’s forbidden cities Loren B. Landau
Lodging as a migrant economic strategy in urban Zimbabwe Miriam Grant
Migration and the changing social economy of Windhoek, Namibia Bruce Frayne
Migrants, urban poverty and the changing nature of urban-rural linkages in Kenya Samuel O. Owuor
Remittances and development: the impact of migration to South Africa on rural livelihoods in southern Zimbabwe France Maphosa
Migration and development in Mozambique: poverty, inequality and survival  Fion de Vletter
Poverty, gender and migrancy: Lesotho’s migrant farmworkers in South Africa Theresa Ulicki and Jonathan Crush
Anxious communities: the decline of mine migration in the Eastern Cape Zola A. Ngonini
Worlds of work, health and migration: domestic workers in Johannesburg Natalya Dinat and Sally Peberdy
Risk amplification: HIV in migrant communities Prerna Banati
Table 1.1: Global Migration Stock by Region of Destination, 1960-2005 Table 1.2: Workers’ Remittances to Developing Countries Table 1.3: Effects of International Migration Table 1.4: Mainstreaming Migration in the Millennium Development Goals Table 1.5: The Southern African Diaspora, 2000 Table 2.1: 2002 Final Year South African Tertiary Population and Sample Table 2.2: Statistics for Emigration Potential Table 2.3: Most Likely Destination (by race) (%) Table 2.4: OLS Estimates of Predictors of Emigration Potential Table 3.1: Employment Profile of the Respondents Table 3.2: Breakdown of Participants in Focus Groups Table 3.3: Work Permits Issued to Nurses in UK, 2002 Table 3.4: Health Professionals Employed in the Public Sector, 1997 Table 3.5: Employment Benefits Table 3.6: Reason for Intention to Move Table 3.7: Reasons for Leaving the Home Country Table 3.8: Patient Attendance at Selected Health Institutions in Zimbabwe Table 5.1: Length of Time in Gweru and in Present Lodging Table 5.2: Increases in Rent 1993-1995 Table 6.1: Incidence of Household Receiving Food from Relatives and Friends in  the Rural Areas over the Past Year (2000) Table 6.2: Type of Food People Report Receiving from the Rural Areas (2000) Table 6.3: Amount of Millet received the Last Time by People in Household (2000) Table 6.4: Importance of Food Sent from the Rural Areas to Urban  Households (2000) Table 6.5: Reasons Why Children are Sent to Live with Relatives (2000) Table 7.1: Visits to the Rural Home or Plot in the Last Quarter of 2001 (%) Table 7.2: Urban-to-Rural Flow of Money (%) Table 7.3: Importance of Rural Farming Activities (%) Table 7.4: Reasons for Sending Wife and Children to Live at Home (%) Table 8.1: Uses of Remittances Table 9.1: Sectoral Distribution of External Migrants Table 9.2: Indicators of Living Conditions Table 9.3: Ownership of Livestock
4 6 9 11 17 27 29 32 43 54 55 56 58 59 60 61 62 88 89 105
105 105 106
108 121 124 125 126 141 150 151 151
Table 9.4: Selected Inanimate Asset Holdings 152 Table 9.5: Investments (above 500 000 MT) Made in Last Year (% of households) 152 Table 9.6: Distribution of Wealth Points by Region (%) 153 Table 9.7: Household Income from all Sources (by frequency) 154 Table 9.8: Household Income by Source and Value 154 Table 9.9: Frequency and Value of Money Remittances 155 Table 9.10: Annual Cash Remittances by Level of Education and Sector 156 Table 9.11: Money Sent Home: Average Amount over a Year by Migrant Type 157 Table 9.12: Monthly Household Expenses 158 Table 10.1: Advantages and Disadvantages of Contract System 167 Table 10.2: Percentage of Workforce on Farmsthatis Female 169 Table 10.3: Reasons for Working on South African Farms 170 Table 10.4: Farm Job Categories 171 Table 10.5: Monthly Income of Farmworkers (Rand) 172 Table 10.6: Stated Reasons for Dissatisfaction with Accommodation 175 Table 10.7: Reasons for Working on the Same Farm 178 Table 10.8: Reasons for Not Working on the Same Farm 178 Table 10.9: Labour Relations on Farms 180 Table 12.1: Domestic Workers as Migrants (%) 200 Table 12.2: Frequency of Visits Home (%) 200 Table 12.3: Place of Birth and Place of Other Home (%) 201 Table 12.4: Length of Time in Johannesburg (%) 201 Table 12.5: Employment Status Prior to Coming to Johannesburg (%) 201 Table 12.6: Age (%) 202 Table 12.7: Marital Status (%) 202 Table 12.8: Length of Time Working for Main Employer (%) 204 Table 12.9: Number of Days Worked (%) 205 Table 12.10: Monthly Income (%) 205 Table 12.11: Protection from STIs (% of those using protection) 210 Table 13.1: Migration, HIV Prevalence and Behaviours in the Southern African Region 217 Table 13.2: Previous Place of Residence among Women Not Living in their Usual 222  Place of Residence Table 13.3: HIV Prevalence by Geotype 227
Figure 1.1: A Comparison of Remittances Growth with ODA and FDI 6 Figure 2.1: Measuring Emigration Potential 29 Figure 2.2: Emigration Potential of Final Year Students and Skilled Adults 30 Figure 2.3: Most Likely Destination (all students) 31 Figure 2.4: Length of Intended Stay (by emigration potential) 32 Figure 2.5: Frequency of Return and Remittance (by emigration potential) 33 Figure 2.6: Willingness to Give up Assets in South Africa (by emigration potential) 34 Figure 2.7: Willingness to Put Down Roots in New Country (by emigration potential) 34 Figure 2.8: Emigration Potential by Race 36 Figure 2.9: Emigration Potential by Home Language 36 Figure 2.10: Levels of Patriotism and National Identity among Students 38 Figure 2.11: Potential Loss of State Investments by Type of Bursary 45 Figure 2.12: Potential Losses of State Investments by Course and Study 45 Figure 3.1: Location of Provincial Hospitals Selected for the Study 53 Figure 3.2: Medical Practitioners in Zimbabwe, 1995-2000 56 Figure 3.3: Nurses in Zimbabwe, 1995-2000 57 Figure 3.4: Most Likely Destinations of Zimbabwean Health Professionals 59 Figure 4.1: Distribution of Non-Nationals in South Africa (2001) 69 Figure 5.1: Average Monthly Household Income 90 Figure 5.2: Lodging Households by Number of Earners 91 Figure 5.3: Lodging Households by Number of Modes of Livelihood 92 Figure 5.4: Changing Household Size 93 Figure 6.1: Conceptual Framework – Reciprocal Migration and Livelihoods 102 Figure 8.1: Map of Study Area 136 Figure 8.2: Reasons for Emigration 137 Figure 8.3: Channels for Cash Remittances 138 Figure 11.1: Recruitment Patterns from the Eastern Cape 185 Figure 11.2: Power Resources Available to Households in Mbizana 186 Figure 12.1: Population of Johannesburg by Sex and Place of Birth (%), 2001 198 Figure 13.1: Provincial Distribution of Net Gains and Losses Due to Migration 221 Figure 13.2: Map of Inter-Province Migration 221 Figure 13.3: Road Density Per 10 000 kms for South Africa 223 Figure 13.4: Distribution of Residents by Geotype 225-226 Figure 13.5: Population Residing in Informal Areas 226
Figure 13.6: Provincial HIV Prevalence by Geotype Figure 13.7: Partnerships among Sexually Actives by Geotype Figure 13.8: Sexually Active by Age and Geotype Figure 13.9: Proportion of Sexuality Active Youth with More Than One Current  Partner by Geotype Figure 13.10:Urban Informal Areas as a Cross-Cutting Focal Determinant
228 228 229 229
Abel Chikanda is in the Department of Geography, University of Western Ontario, Canada.
Jonathan Crush is in the Department of Global Development Studies, Queen’s University, Ontario, Canada, and the Department of Environmental and Geographical Science, University of Cape Town.
Fion de Vletter is an Independent Consultant in Maputo, Mozambique.
Bruce Frayne is an associate of the Southern African Research Centre, Queen's University.
Miriam Grant is the Department of Geography, University of Calgary, Canada.
Loren Landau is in the Forced Migration Studies Programme, University of Witwatersrand.
Robert Mattes is in the Department of Political Studies and Centre for Social Science Research, University of Cape Town.
France Maphosa is in the Department of Sociology at the National University of Lesotho.
Namhla Mniki is in the Department of Political Studies and Centre for Social Science Research, University of Cape Town.
Samuel Owuor is in the Department of Geography & Environmental Studies, University of Nairobi.
Theresa Ulicki is in the Department of International Development Studies, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.
Natalya Dinat is in the Department of Medicine, University of the Witwatersrand.
Sally Peberdy is in the Department of Geography at the University of Western Cape.
Prerna Banati is with the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria.
France Maphosa is in the Department of Sociology, Anthropology and Social Work at the National University of Lesotho.
1. Introduction
Since 2000, the so-called ‘migration–development nexus’ has become a central item on the global development agenda (Gundel, 2002; Nyberg-Sørensen et al., 2002; Van Hear & Nyberg Sørensen, 2003; Haque, 2004; Sriskandarajah, 2005; de Haas 2009). Hardly a month now passes without a major international policy conference or workshop on the subject. In September 2006, the United Nations held its first High-Level Dialogue on International Migration and Development, signalling the full arrival of this critical issue on the global stage. In preparation for this event, the UN Population Division sponsored a series of expert technical workshops on various facets of the subject in 2005 (UN, 2004c, 2005a,b). Also in 2005, the UN-endorsed Global Commission on Migration published a seminal report following an intensive process of global consultations with governments and other stakeholders (GCIM, 2005). The UN’s own 2004 World Economic and Social Survey was devoted entirely to International Migration (UN, 2004b). The World Bank has taken a