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English

The Australian Workplace Barometer

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Description

Work related stress represents a huge cost for worker health and ­productivity and is broadly regarded as an important social ­determinant of global health.
The Australian Workplace Barometer (AWB) project was developed in order to provide national benchmarks needed to develop best practice standards in the area of worker psychological health and wellbeing. The results as published in this book:
• Provide nationally representative data on psychosocial risk
levels and working conditions.
• Build upon existing knowledge and understanding of ­psychosocial risk factors such as bullying and harassment,
and work-family­conflict.
• Investigate relationships between psychosocial risk and ­workplace outcomes such as employee health and productivity.
• Determine the cost of poor employee wellbeing to businesses based on aspects such as depression, absenteeism.
and ­presenteeism.
• Identify industries and occupations at risk.
• Provide evidence to support strategies for prevention
and ­intervention.
This book provides a step towards social action and work ­environments that will stimulate problem solving, creativity and ­innovation at work rather than despair through compromised health and wellbeing.

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Published 30 December 2014
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EAN13 9781922117335
Language English
Document size 7 MB

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THE AUSTRALIAN WORKPLACE BAROMETER
Psychosocial safety climate and working conditions in Australia
Edited by Maureen F. Dollard & Tessa S. Bailey
THE AUSTRALIAN WORKPLACE BAROMETER
Psychosocial safety climate and working conditions in Australia
Edited by Maureen F. Dollard & Tessa S. Bailey
www. AUSTRALIANACADEMICPRESS .com.au
First published 2014 Australian Academic Press Group Pty. Ltd. 18 Victor Russell Drive Samford Valley QLD 4520 Australia www.australianacademicpress.com.au
Copyright © 2014 rests with the identified authors of all contributions to this book.
Copying for educational purposes TheAustralian Copyright Act 1968(Cwlth) allows a maximum of one chapter or 10% of this book, whichever is the greater, to be reproduced and/or communicated by any educational institution for its educational purposes provided that the educational institution (or the body that administers it) has given a remuneration notice to Copyright Agency Limited (CAL) under the Act. For details of the CAL licence for educational institutions contact: Copyright Agency Limited, 19/157 Liverpool Street, Sydney, NSW 2000. E-mail info@copyright.com.au
Production and communication for other purposes Except as permitted under the Act, for example a fair dealing for the purposes of study, research, criticism or review, no part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without prior written permission of the copyright holder.
National Library of Australia Cataloguing-in-Publication entry Title: The Australian workplace barometer : psychosocial safety climate and working conditions in Australia / edited by Maureen F Dollard and Tessa S Bailey. ISBN: 9781922117342 (paperback) 9781922117335 (e-book)
Subjects:
Work--Psychological aspects. Work--Physiological aspects. Work--Social aspects. Industrial hygiene--Australia. Industrial safety--Australia. Psychology, Industrial--Australia.
Other Authors/Contributors:
Dewey Number:
Dollard, Maureen F., editor. Bailey, Tessa S., editor. 158.7
Typesetting: Australian Academic Press
Cover image: Wesley P. McTernan
Foreword
Over the past five decades, knowledge of the causes of work-related illnesses and injuries has grown dramatically. Unfortunately, understanding of how to utilise this knowledge for prevention and intervention purposes has failed to keep pace. This is especially alarming given not only the enormous human toll of work-related illnesses and injuries but their massive drain on national economies. It’s abundantly clear that employees, their employers and society as a whole bear the costs of health problems that have their origins at work and that these enormous costs could be reduced by worksite based preventive measures. However, work remains a vastly underutilised “tool” for use in improving health and wellbeing and stemming and reducing health-related costs. Nowhere is this clearer than in the area of occupational stress, where psychosocial risk factors are universally recognised as exacting tremendous costs to both worker health and productivity. In Australia, as in various other countries, psychological injury claims resulting from exposure to psychosocial risk factors are increasing and the costs of these claims are considerably higher than other injuries because they often involve longer periods of time away from work and higher medical, legal and other payments (Comcare, 2013). It seems clear that any strategy for preventing health disorders has a central need for ongoing surveillance of the disorders and their risk factors to detect and react to emerging problems and to guide and evaluate interventions aimed at their prevention. While the need for surveillance in the job stress arena has long been recognised (Sauter, Murphy & Hurrell, 1990), very few job stress sur-veillance systems currently exist and there is a particular need for systems that include measures of known work-related psychosocial risk factors for health. The Australian Workplace Barometer (AWB), based upon Psychosocial Safety Climate (PSC) theory, described in this book offers a promising new approach to job stress surveillance and prevention. Because it provides nationally repre-sentative data on a wide range of both health outcomes and their known work-related psychosocial risk factors, the AWB offers a highly useful “compass” to guide the development, targeting and evaluation of primary, secondary and tertiary job stress prevention efforts at the national, state and industry levels in Australia. It is my hope that the book will serve this purpose. Joseph J. Hurrell Jr., Ph.D. St. Mary's University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada References Comcare (2013).The cost of psychological injury. Retrieved from http:// www.comcare.gov.au/safety__and__prevention/health_and_safety_topics/ps ychological_injury/costs_of_psychological_injury. Sauter, S.L., Murphy, L.R. & Hurrell, J.J. Jr (1990). Prevention of work-related psy-chological disorders: A national strategy proposed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.American Psychologist,45, 1146–1158.
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Contents
Foreword ...........................................................................................................iii
About the Editors..............................................................................................vi
List of Authors ..................................................................................................vii
Overview ............................................................................................................1 Chapter 1 The economic burden and legal framework of work stress in Australia...............................................................11
Chapter 2
Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Chapter 7
Chapter 8
Chapter 9
Chapter 10 Chapter 11
Chapter 12
Chapter 13
Chapter 14 Chapter 15 Chapter 16
Chapter 17
Surveillance system for psychosocial risk and testing the Australian Workplace Barometer theoretical model...........25
The methodology associated with collection of AWB data .....51
Demographics: National data from the AWB...........................65
AWB Benchmarks: PSC, demands, resources, health and productivity outcomes.............................................77
Psychosocial Safety Climate (PSC) and implications for Australian industries ...................................................................89
Differences in the psychosocial work environment, engagement, and psychological health according to age.....111
Urban and rural differences in worker demands, health and engagement ..........................................................133
Prevalence, antecedents and implications of workplace bullying and harassment in Australia .....................149
Work-family conflict in the Australian working population .....181
The impact of the psychosocial work environment on worker health and wellbeing ..............................................201
Outcomes that influence workplace productivity: Sickness absence, presenteeism and engagement
................221
Estimating lost productivity costs from poor psychological health in the workplace ....................................239
Psychosocial and health risk by industry in Australia ..............253
Occupational risk; Job strain and gender differences ............267
Psychosocial risk prevention: Best practice standards internationally and in Australia ...............................281
Psychosocial hazard management and the Psychosocial Safety Climate Hierarchy of Control (PSC-HOC).....................289
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About the Editors
Maureen F. Dollard PhDis Professor of Work and Organisational Psychology and Director of the Asia Pacific Centre for Work Health and Safety at the University of South Australia. She is Foundation President of the Asia Pacific Academy for Psychosocial Factors at Work, and is Co-chair of the International Commission on Occupational Health-Work Organisation and Psychosocial Factors, Scientific Committee. She was chair of the ICOH-WOPS conference in Adelaide September 2014. Her research and consultancy is in the area of work stress and she holds a PhD on the topic. Her main theoretical contribution is Psychosocial Safety Climate theory. She has worked with human service workers, correctional officers, Salvation Army officers, call centre workers, ambulance officers, nurses, farmers and police officers, and has developed best practice models in psychological injury prevention and man-agement. She has published three edited books and over 140 book chapters and refereed journal articles in the area. She serves on thebeyondblueWorkplace Mental Health Advisory Group and is on several international journal editorial boards (Journal of Organisational Behavior; the European Journal of Work, and Organisational Psychology; Work & Stress). Since 2000 she has held 16 nationally competitive research grants and numerous industry grants together totalling $6.3 million. Maureen is a frequent speaker at national and international venues and was keynote speaker at the European Conference of the European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology in Dublin 2006.
Tessa S. Baileycompleted her Masters in Work and Organisational Psychology, is a registered psychologist, and PhD Candidate. She has worked in the areas of human resource management, injury preventions, and injury management within public and private sectors. Tessa’s interests in psychosocial safety climate and worker psycholog-ical injury prevention have led to her current appointment as a Research Assistant for the Asia Pacific Centre for Work Health and Safety, and Manager of the Australian Workplace Barometer project. She is an author of a highly cited paper titled ‘National Surveillance of Psychosocial Risk Factors in the Workplace: An International Overview’ which examined psychosocial surveillance systems from around the world. Her work on the AWB project has resulted in a number of journal articles, reports and book chapter publications including co-editor of this volume. She has also has presnted her papers at numerous national and international conferences. Tessa has commenced her PhD in the area of ‘Psychosocial risk prevention and intervention: Turning psychosocial safety climate theory into practice’. In addition she is the Executive Officer of the Asia Pacific Academy for Psychosocial Factors at Work and Organsing Commitee Chair of the International Commission on Occupational Health: Work Organization and Psychosocial Factors 2014 Congress, Adelaide.
List of Authors
Prof Maureen F. Dollard (Ed)— Asia Pacific Centre for Work Health and Safety, University of South Australia Tessa S. Bailey (Ed)— Asia Pacific Centre for Work Health and Safety, University of South Australia Assoc Prof Anne W. Taylor— Population Research & Outcome Studies (PROS), Discipline of Medicine, Faculty of Health Science, The University of Adelaide Dr Tiffany K. Gill— Population Research & Outcome Studies (PROS), Discipline of Medicine, Faculty of Health Science, The University of Adelaide Eleonora Dal Grande— Population Research & Outcome Studies (PROS), Discipline of Medicine, Faculty of Health Science, The University of Adelaide Dr Sarven S. McLinton— Asia Pacific Centre for Work Health and Safety, University of South Australia Penelope A. M. Richards— Asia Pacific Centre for Work Health and Safety, University of South Australia Prof Peter M. Smith— School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Australia Institute for Work & Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Canada Prof Anthony H. Winefield— Asia Pacific Centre for Work Health and Safety, University of South Australia Wesley P. McTernan— Asia Pacific Centre for Work Health and Safety, University of South Australia Garry Hall— Asia Pacific Centre for Work Health and Safety, University of South Australia Prof Anthony D. LaMontagne— Population Health Strategic Research Centre, School of Health & Social Development, Deakin University Mikaela Owen— Asia Pacific Centre for Work Health and Safety, University of South Australia Dr Michelle R Tuckey— Asia Pacific Centre for Work Health and Safety, University of South Australia
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The Australian Workplace Barometer: Psychosocial safety climate and working conditions in Australia
Overview
Maureen F. Dollard & Tessa S. Bailey
Highlights
There is growing recognition of the need for evidence-based psychosocial risk prevention and intervention practices Regular psychosocial risk surveillance can provide evidence for risk levels Management and leadership are an essential component of prevention and intervention Organisational approaches have been found to be the most effective at reducing risk levels PSC hierarchy of control is a practical tool that can be utilised for the devel-opment of prevention and intervention practices
Work-related stress represents a huge cost for worker health and productiv-ity and is an important social determinant of global health. Scholars predict that by 2020 stress-related illnesses such as depression and cardiovascular disease will be the leading causes of the global disease burden (Murray & Lopez, 1996). In Australia, psychological injury claims are steadily increasing and incur the largest proportion of cost in relation to compensation claims (Safe Work Australia, 2013). Surveillance systems that are designed to monitor workplace psychoso-cial risk factors are increasingly recognised as best practice to inform national, state, industry and organisational approaches to worker psycholog-ical injury prevention and intervention. Surveillance provides a solid evidence base to support the development of prevention and intervention strategies, as well as a means of evaluating the effectiveness of any imple-mented policies, procedures and programs. Understanding how workplace psychosocial risk factors interact and contribute to worker wellbeing and productivity can be attained through systematic measurement and analysis at both the population and organisational levels. The Australian Workplace Barometer (AWB) project was developed to provide national benchmarks needed to set best practice standards in the area of worker psychological health and wellbeing. The results provide crucial evidence for policy development and intervention targets at the national, state and industry levels. The main objectives of the AWB project are to:
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