The Blue Economy Handbook of the Indian Ocean Region

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496 Pages
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As humanity enters the Anthropocene epoch the oceans are more at risk than ever before as a result of the increased exploitation of its resources. The Indian Ocean is the third largest ocean in the world comprising 20% of the water on the Earth's surface. The sea lanes in the Indian Ocean are among the busiest in the world with more than 80 percent of global seaborne trade in oil transiting through the Indian Ocean and its vital chokepoints and an estimated 40% of the world's offshore oil production comes from the Indian Ocean. The importance of this region cannot be underestimated and there is no doubt that there are many opportunities for economic growth and job creation presented by the waters washing the shores of the Indian Ocean Rim. In order to ensure a desirable future for humanity it is necessary to make use of the ocean�s resources in a sustainable and responsible manner. Climate change is affecting the Indian Ocean negatively, placing a strain on the ability to ensure food security and damaging the economies of small island states that depend on fisheries and aquaculture for their livelihoods. Increasing ocean temperatures and ocean acidification are taking a toll on ecosystems. This book is the first of its kind, providing fresh insights into the various aspects and impacts of the Blue Economy in the Indian Ocean Region: from shifting paradigms, to an accounting framework, gender dynamics, the law of the sea and renewable energy, this handbook aims at increasing awareness of the Blue Economy in the Indian Ocean Region and to provide evidence to policy-makers in the region to make informed decisions. The contributions are from a mixture of disciplines by scholars and experts from seven countries.

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Published 03 August 2018
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EAN13 9780798305198
Language English
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The Blue Economy Handbook o the Indîan Ocean Regîon
Edited by Vîshva Nath Attrî Narnîa Boher-Muer
The Blue Economy Handbook o the Indîan Ocean Regîon
First published in 2018 by the Africa Institute of South Africa Private Bag X41 Pretoria South Africa, 0001 ISBN: 978-0-7983-0518-1
© Copyright Africa Institute of South Africa 2018
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted by any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior permission from the copyright owner. Any unauthorised copying could lead to civil liability and/or criminal sanctions.
To copy any part of this publication, you may contact DALRO for information and copyright clearance.
Telephone: 086 12 DALRO (from within South Africa); +27 (0)11 712-8000 Telefax:+27 (0)11 403-9094 Postal Address: P O Box 31627, Braamfontein, 2017, South Africa www.dalro.co.za.
Opinions expressed and conclusions arrived at in this book are those of the authors and should not be attributed to the Africa Institute of South Africa.
Project Manager: Mmakwena Chipu Copy Editing: Bangula Language Services Proofreading: Write Skills Design and Layout: Dudu Coelho Cover Design: Just-In Graphix Printing: Shereno Printers
The Africa Institute of South Africa is a think tank and research organisation, focusing on political, socio-economic, international and development issues in contemporary Africa. The Institute conducts research, publishes books, monographs, occasional papers, policy briefs and a quarterly journal – Africa Insight. The Institute holds regular seminars on issues of topical interest. It is also home to one of the best library and documentation centres world-wide, with materials on every African country.
For more information, contact the Africa Institute of South Africa at Private Bag X41, Pretoria, South Africa 0001 Email publish@hsrc.ac.za; or visit our website at http://www.ai.org.za
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Foreword Acknowedgements Author bîographîes Abbrevîatîons and Acronyms
INTRODUCTION The Begînnîng o the Journey Vîshva Nath Attrî and Narnîa Boher-Muer
SECTION I: Context and Theory o the Blue Economy
CHAPTER 1The Bue Economy and the Theory o Paradîgm Shîts Vîshva Nath Attrî
CHAPTER 2 The Bue Economy Theory and Strategy Chares S. Cogan
CHAPTER 3 Towards Estîmatîon o the Bue Economy An Accounting Framework for IORA Saroj Kumar Mohanty
CHAPTER 4 Achîevîng Sustaînabîîty în the Context o the Bue Economy Emmanue Owusu-Sekyere
CHAPTER 5 ïntegratîng a Gender Perspectîve înto the Bue Economy Neera Verma
SECTION II: Indîan Ocean Governance and Polîcy Frame
CHAPTER 6 Conventîon on the aw o the Sea and Bue Economy Sîqhamo Yamkea Ntoa
CHAPTER 7 Arîcan Governance Perspectîves o the Bue Economy în the ïndîan Ocean Rîm Sîqhamo Yamkea Ntoa and Patrîck Vrancken
CHAPTER 8 Chaenges o ïndîan Ocean Governance The Context of the Seychelles Dennîs Hardy
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CHAPTER 9 ïORA’s Poîcy Framework on the Bue Economy Shamîmtaz B. Saday
SECTION III: The Socîo-Economîc Beneits o the Blue Economy
CHAPTER 10 South Arîca’s Ocean Economy and Operatîon Phakîsa TABLE OF CONTENTS Lessons Learned Ken Fînday and Narnîa Boher-Muer
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CHAPTER 11 Fîsherîes and Aquacuture Empoyment Generatîon în the ïndîan Ocean Regîon Baasaheb G. Kukarnî
CHAPTER 12 Oî and Gas Exporatîon and Productîon în the ïndîan Ocean Regîon Nîcoe du Pessîs, Juîet Hermes and Ken Fînday
CHAPTER 13 Tourîsm Deveopment în the Bue Economy Challenges for Indian Ocean Rim Countries Larry Dwyer
CHAPTER 14 Ocean Renewabe Energy Manta D Nowbuth, Hema Rughoonundun and C Prakash Khedun
SECTION IV: Clîmate Change, Envîronmental Protectîon and Technology
CHAPTER 15 Cîmate Change and the Bue Economy o the ïndîan Ocean Chares S. Cogan
CHAPTER 16 Marîne and Bîo-resources în the ïndîan Ocean Rîm Assocîatîon Ajuruchukwu Obî, Danîe O Okeyo and Thokozanî Sîmeane
CHAPTER 17 Ocean Heath în the Bue Economy Davîd O. Obura
CHAPTER 18 Envîronmenta Sustaînabîîty and the Ocean Economy A Case Study of Mauritius Romeea Mohee, Geeta D. Somaroo, Marîe V. Uppîah and Doorgha Ragoobur
CONCLUSIONVîshva Nath Attrî and Narnîa Boher-Muer
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FOREWORD
On 9 October 2014, at the Councî of Mînîsters Meetîng of the Indîan Ocean Rîm Assocîatîon (IORA), hed în Perth, Austraîa, the Bue Economy was adopted as a prîorîty area for IORA. Sînce then, IORA’s Member States have organîsed con-ferences, workshops and dîaogues, încudîng the two Mînîsterîa Conferences on the Bue Economy în September 2015 and May 2017 în Maurîtîus and Indonesîa, respectîvey. A deegatîon from IORA, under my eadershîp, partîcîpated în the UN Conference on ‘Our Oceans, Our Future’ from 5 to 9 June 2017 în New York, Unîted States of Amerîca, where IORA commîtted to the competîon ofThe Handbook on the Blue Economy of the Indîan Ocean Regîonby October 2017. The Handbook îs the pîoneerîng project of Prof. Vîshva Nath Attrî, The Chaîr of Indîan Ocean Studîes, IORA, at the Unîversîty of Maurîtîus, and Prof. Narnîa Boh-er-Muer, Executîve Dîrector at the Human Scîences Research Councî (HSRC), Pretorîa, South Afrîca. The Handbook represents the vîewpoînts of scîentîsts and socîa scîentîsts vîs-à-vîs the three maîn pîars of sustaînabîîty - socîa, economîc and envîronmenta sustaînabîîty - emphasîsed în Unîted Natîons reports and other pubîcatîons. IORA îs commîtted to the deveopment of a sustaînabe Bue Economy that wî ensure the growth and prosperîty of the Indîan Ocean regîon. The Handbook comprîses four sectîons and 20 chapters în tota. The Handbook aso sets out the înîtîatîves undertaken by Member States of IORA în promotîng the Bue Economy în the Indîan Ocean regîon. It concudes that IORA has successfuy evoved an ‘Approprîate Poîcy Frame’, as a consequence of îts deep învovement în the Bue Economy through wîde dîscussîons among stakehoders of the Bue Economy. In my vîew, the Handbook wî serve as a source of ‘Theory and Practîce’ of the Bue Economy for a those poîcy makers, academî-cîans, researchers, students and busîness men and women who are înterested în the sustaînabe deveopment and încusîve growth of the Indîan Ocean regîon. I congratuate Prof. Vîshva Nath Attrî and Prof. Narnîa Boher-Muer for theîr efforts în competîng the Handbook. The Handbook has been dedîcated by the edî-tors of the Handbook, and rîghty so, ‘To the prosperîty of the peope of the Indîan Ocean regîon’.
K.V. Bhagîrath Former Secretary Genera Indîan Ocean Rîm Assocîatîon
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The edîtorîa team responsîbe for compîîng thîs Handbook wîshes to extend îts gratîtude and apprecîatîon to the many organîsatîons and îndîvîduas that, dîrecty or îndîrecty, contrîbuted to the pubîcatîon of thîs irst Bue Economy Handbook of the Indîan Ocean Regîon. The Handbook covers socîa, economîc and envîronmen-ta aspects, wîth a specîa focus on sustaînabîîty. In the irst înstance, the edîtorîa team wîshes to extend îts apprecîatîon to the contrîbutors, not ony for agreeîng to become part of thîs împortant project, but aso for theîr responsîveness and adherence to the tîmeînes and înstructîons throughout the dîfferent phases of the project. The deadînes were met, despîte sometîmes dîficut cîrcumstances and busy persona schedues. The authors’ com-mîtment to the project îs commendabe and greaty apprecîated. The Chaîr în Indîan Ocean Studîes (CIOS), Prof. Vîshva Nath Attrî, îs gratefu to the Human Scîences Research Councî (HSRC) of South Afrîca for învovîng the CIOS în the project as Prîncîpe Project Leader, and for provîdîng fu inancîa sup-port for the competîon of the project. Further, we are thankfu to the governments of the Repubîc of Maurîtîus and the Repubîc of Indîa for aowîng the CIOS to undertake thîs project în addîtîon to hîs other dutîes. Our thanks are aso due to a the Members of the Advîsory Com-mîttee of the CIOS, as we as the Vîce-Chanceor of the Unîversîty of Maurîtîus and hîs admînîstratîon team, for provîdîng fu support throughout the project. We owe our gratîtude to Ambassador K.V. Bhagîrath, former Secretary Genera of the Indîan Ocean Rîm Assocîatîon (IORA), for hîs constant encouragement and înspîratîon to compete thîs Handbook. He has been înstrumenta în supportîng the academîc întegrîty of the project, în whîch schoars from dîfferent unîversî-tîes and research înstîtutîons from IORA Member States partîcîpated. We wîsh to express our thanks to South Afrîca’s Department of Internatîona Reatîons and Cooperatîon (DIRCO) and, în partîcuar, Ambassador Anî Sooka, for hîs encour-agement and support of the project. We are thankfu to Mr H.G. Anderson, Dîrector of IORA, for hîs învauabe as-sîstance, and to our coeagues at the IORA Secretarîat în Maurîtîus and at the HSRC în Pretorîa, South Afrîca, for theîr efforts în competîng thîs îmmense task.In partîcuar, we are gratefu to Dr Eîzabeth Kîguta, who assîsted în assessîng the chapters. Prof. Vîshva Nath Attrî îs very gratefu to hîs spouse, Mrs Shashî Prabha Attrî, for înspîrîng hîm to compete the Handbook and for her constant support athough ît meant that he had to devote the majorîty of hîs tîme to the project. Prof. Narnîa
Boher-Muer equay vaues the înspîratîon and support of her partner, Davîd Muer, and hîs abîîty to endure a the stress that comes wîth such projects. Our specîa thanks go to Ms Danîëa Smît and Ms Eîeen Bees for theîr assîstance. We woud aso îke to thank the anonymous externa referees and the pubîca-tîon team at the Afrîca Instîtute of South Afrîca (AISA) wîthîn the HSRC.
Prof. Vîshva Nath Attrî and Prof. Narnîa Boher-Muer
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
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AUTHOR BIOGRAPHIES
Vishva Nath Attriîs Chaîr în Indîan Ocean Studîes (CIOS), Indîan Ocean Rîm As-socîatîon (IORA) Secretarîat, NeXTeracom Buîdîng, 3rd loor, Tower 1, Cybercîty, Ebene, Repubîc of Maurîtîus. Prof V.N. Attrî îs a former Professor, Chaîrman and Senîor Feow of the Indîan Councî of Socîa Scîences Research (ICSSR), Mînîstry of Human Resource & Deveopment (MHRD), New Dehî and has worked în the Department of Economîcs at Kurukshetra Unîversîty, Kurukshetra. He was respon-sîbe for organîsîng the 89th Annua Conference of Indîan Economîc Assocîatîon (IEA), hed în December 2006. He has been a Vîsîtîng Schoar at the Department of Economîcs, Unîversîty of Caîfornîa, Los Angees, CA, US, and Vîsîtor for post-doctora research în Internatîona Reatîons at the Department of Economîcs, George Washîngton Unîversîty, Washîngton DC. He has pubîshed more than 65 research papers în varîous natîona and înter-natîona journas and partîcîpates în înternatîona conferences abroad. He has: authored two poîcy brîefs for the Unîted Natîons Goba Sustaînabe Deveopment Report, one în 2016 and one în 2017; deîvered keynote addresses on the Bue Economy at the Fîrst Economy Dîaogue organîsed by the Research and înforma-tîon System for Deveopîng Countrîes (RIS) Instîtute în August 2015, Goa, Indîa, at the Unîversîty of Maurîtîus în 2016, and at RIS în December 2016. He partîcîpated în the Bue Economy Forum Meetîng of RIS în January 2017 and îs a member of the Federatîon of Indîan Chambers of Commerce and Industry’s (FICCI) Task Force on the Bue Economy 2016-2017. He was responsîbe for organîsîng traînîng programmes, în coaboratîon wîth the Unîted Natîon Economîc Commîssîon for Afrîca (UNECA), on Preferentîa Trade Agreements în November 2015; a Resource Person for UNECA în November 2015 and for the Unîted Natîons Conference on Trade and Deveopment (UNCTAD) în February 2017. He has aso: been a sessîon organîser and chaîr of sessîons at the Western Economîc Assocîatîon Internatîona (WEAI) US în Japan, US, Sîngapore and New Zeaand; and made presentatîons at Core Group Meetîng on the Bue Economy, Aprî 2017, Maurîtîus and at the Workshop on Tourîsm Destînatîon Management în May 2017, Maurîtîus. He has supervîsed more than 15 PhD schoars, and 45 MPhî schoars have competed theîr dîssertatîons under hîm. He îs the Managîng Edîtor of theJournal of Indîan Ocean Rîm Studîesîn coaboratîon wîth the Indîan Ocean Rîm Assocîa- (JIORS), tîon, and îs engaged în research on: the Bue Economy; Internatîona Trade and Fînancîa Lîberaîsatîon; Marîtîme Safety and Securîty; Women’s Empowerment; Goba Deveopment Issues.
Charles S. ColganResearch at the Center for the Bue Economy atîs Dîrector of the Mîddebury Instîtute of Internatîona Studîes at Monterey în Monterey, Caîfor-nîa, where he îs aso Edîtor-în-Chîef of theOcean and Coastal EconomîcsJournal of and an Adjunct Professor of Internatîona Envîronmenta Poîcy. He îs Professor Emerîtus of Pubîc Poîcy & Pannîng în the Muskîe Schoo of Pubîc Servîce at the Unîversîty of Southern Maîne, where he chaîred the Graduate Program în Communîty Pannîng & Deveopment. He îs aso Dîrector Emerîtus of the Maîne Center for Busîness & Economîc Research at USM. He served 12 years în the Maîne State Pannîng Ofice, încudîng posîtîons as Maîne State Economîst and Dîrector of the Maîne Coasta Program. He receîved a BA from Coby Coege and a PhD în Economîc Hîstory from the Unîversîty of Maîne.
Saroj Kumar Mohanty, PhD, îs servîng at the Research and Informatîon System for Deveopîng Countrîes (RIS), a New Dehî based thînk-tank supported by the Mînîstry of Externa Affaîrs, Government of Indîa. As a trade economîst, he has re-searched extensîvey on îssues concernîng the Bue Economy and the Indîan Ocean Rîm Assocîatîon (IORA). He has been workîng on îssues reatîng to bîatera and regîona tradîng arrangements, South-South cooperatîon and mutîatera tradîng îssues. Hîs current research înterests are în the areas of,înter alîa,Asîan economîc întegratîon, Mega-Regîona Trade Agreements, Latîn Amerîcan Countrîes (LAC), Afrîca, Regîona Comprehensîve Economîc Partnershîps(RCEPs), South Asîan Assocîatîon for Regîona Cooperatîon (SAARC), Common Market for Eastern and Southern Afrîca (COMESA), bîatera trade agreements, regîona isherîes trade, and goba vaue chaîn. He has pubîshed a number of papers în natîona and înternatîona journas. He has severa books to hîs credît. He îs aso presenty headîng Indîa’s Oficîa Foca Poînt for the IORA academîc group. He aso served as Chaîrman of the Academîc Group of the Indîan Ocean Rîm Assocîatîon (IORA) în the years 2011-12 and 2012-13, when Indîa was the Chaîr of IORA.
Emmanuel OwusuSekyerean economîst wîth 26 years of experîence. Dr îs Owusu-Sekyere currenty works as Chîef Research Specîaîst at the Afrîca Instîtute of South Afrîca (AISA) în the Human Scîences Research Councî (HSRC), where he eads the Sustaînabe Deveopment research theme. He hods a PhD în Economîcs from the Unîversîty of Pretorîa and a Master’s degree în Economîc Management and Poîcy from the Unîversîty of Strathcyde, Gasgow, Scotand. He has ed sev-era natîonay representatîve studîes în South Afrîca, spannîng severa sectors of the South Afrîcan economy and socîety, on behaf of the Natîona Deveopment Agency (NDA), Fîsca and Fînancîa Commîssîon South Afrîca (FFC), Department of Home Affaîrs (DHA), Natîona Research Foundatîon (NRF) and the HSRC. These încude South Afrîca’s mînîng sector, îmmîgratîon, actîve cîtîzenry engagement
AUTHOR BIOGRAPHIES
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