The Mauritian Paradox
293 Pages
English
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293 Pages
English

Description

Speaking of Mauritius as an economic miracle has become a cliché, and with good reason: Its development since Independence in 1968 can easily be narrated as a rags-to-riches story. In addition, it is a stable democracy capable of containing the conflict potential inherent in its complex ethnic and religious demography. This book brings together some of the finest scholarship, domestic as well as foreign, on contemporary Mauritius, offering perspectives from constitutional law, cultural studies, sociology, archaeology, economics, social anthropology and more. While celebrating the indisputable, and impressive, achievements of the Mauritian nation on its fiftieth birthday, this book is far from toothless. Looking back inevitably implies looking ahead, and in order to do so, critical self-scrutiny is essential, to be able to learn from the mistakes of the past. The contributors raise fundamental questions concerning a broad range of issues, from the dilemmas of multiculturalism to the marginal role of women in public life, from the question of constitutional reform and the continued problem of corruption to the slow destruction of Mauritius’ joy and pride, namely the beauty and purity of its natural scenery. Taking stock of the first fifty years, this book also looks ahead to the next fifty years, giving some cues as to where Mauritius can and should aim in the next decades.

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Published 11 April 2018
Reads 3
EAN13 9789990373509
Language English
Document size 12 MB

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Exrait

The Mauritian Paradox Fifty years of Development, Diversity and Democracy Edited by Ramola Ramtohul and Thomas Hylland Eriksen
University of Mauritius Press Réduit, Mauritius
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First published in ʹͲͳͺ by University of Mauritius Press Réduit, ͺͲͺ͵͹ Mauritius uompress@uom.ac.mu
Editorial copyright © Ramola Ramtohul and Thomas (ylland Eriksen, ʹͲͳͺ
)ndividual chapters copyright © The individual authors ʹͲͳͺ
All rights reserved.No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Disclaimer:The views and positions expressed in the chapters of this book are those of the individual authors/contributors and do not reflect or represent that of any organisation, institution, or agency or of the editors or publisher.
Copyediting and proofreading by Dr Sachita Samboo.
Layout and Cover design: Doorga Ujodha
Typesetting: Madvee Armoogum-Sundhoo
Cover Photograph: Mr Avish Jungalee
)SBN ͻ͹ͺ–ͻͻͻͲ͵-͹͵-Ͷͺ-͸
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
List of tables................................................... ................................................... ........................ ................................ v List of figures ............................................................................................................................................................. v List of abbreviations................................................................................................................................................. vi Notes on contributors .............................................................................................................................................. ix Introduction .................................................................................................................... 1 Thomas Hylland Eriksen and Ramola Ramtohul
The Constitution at 50 .................................................................................................. 15 Milan JN Meetarbhan
Stability and Dilemmas: The Mauritian Electoral System............................................. 31 Tania Diolle
Political Leadership in Mauritius: The Trappings of the Poster Child Syndrome ......... 43 Roukaya Kasenally
The Media as Agents of Democracy in Mauritius: Issues and Challenges since Independence ............................................................................................................... 65 Christina Chan-Meetoo
Mauritius’ Economic Success Uncovered .................................................................... 85 Verena Tandrayen-Ragoobur and Harshana Kasseeah
Genealogies of a Miracle: A Historical Anthropology of the Mauritian Export Processing Zone ............................................................................. 107 Patrick Neveling
Small is beautiful, but is it viable? Scale and Mauritian options for the next 50 years ........................................................................................................ 123 Thomas Hylland Eriksen
Transcending Intersectional Identities: The Establishment of the Women’s Movement in Postcolonial Mauritius .......................................................... 135 Ramola Ramtohul
The Materiality of Multiculturalism: An Archaeological Perspective.......................... 155 Krish Seetah, Diego Calaon, SašaČaval, Alessandra Cianciosi and Aleksander Pluskowski
Young People living Multiculturalism in Contemporary Mauritius ............................. 175 Caroline Ng Tseung-Wong
From Language to Religion in Mauritian Nation-Building........................................... 191 Patrick Eisenlohr
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Performative Historiography of the Mothertongue: Reading ‘Kreol’ outside a Colonial and Nationalist Approach ............................................................................................ 213 Gitanjali Pyndiah
Deconstructing Mauritian Literature........................................................................... 231 Julie Peghini
“For Mauritians, Joy; For Chagossians, Sadness”: Mauritian Independence, the Sacrifice of the Chagos Archipelago, and the Suffering of the Chagos Islanders..................... 245 Laura Jeffery
‘Being ‘Mauritian’: Indo-Mauritians in the UK ............................................................. 261 Sean F. Carey
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List of Tables
Page
Table ͳ:The most notable disproportionate elections results in comparison to the number of seats secured by the main opposition alliance since ͳͻͺʹ ....................................................................................................................... ͵ͺ
Table ʹ:Women’s representation in parliament from ͳͻ͹͸ to ʹͲͳͷ ........................................................................ ͵ͻ
Table ͵: Prime Minister under different pre-electoral coalitions ............................................................................. ͷ͸
Table Ͷ: Census figures between ͳͺͶ͸ and ͳͻͷʹ.............................................................................................................. ͸ͺ
Table ͷ: Main Sectors, ͳͻ͹͸ - ʹͲͳ͸ ȋpercentage distribution of gross value added by industry group at current basic pricesȌ ...................................................................................................................................................................... ͻʹ
Table ͸: )ncome inequality and median income from ʹͲͲͳ to ʹͲͳʹ ........................................................................ ͻͻ
Table ͹: )ndicators of relative poverty, ͳͻͻ͸/ͻ͹- ʹͲͳʹ................................................................................................ ͳͲͲ
Table ͺ: A snapshot of main indicators across similar upper middle income economies inʹͲͳ͸ ............... ͳͲʹ
Table ͻ: Percentage of participants in the three identity categories by ethnic group....................................... ͳͺʹ
List of Figures
Figure ͳ: ........... Structural Economic Transformation, ͳͻ͹͸-ʹͲͳͷ ............................................................................. ͻͳ
Figure ʹ: ........... Economic Growth ȋGDP Growth RateȌ, ͳͻ͹͸-ʹͲͳ͸ ........................................................................... ͻ͵
Figure ͵: ........... Productivity )ndices, ͳͻͺʹ-ʹͲͳͷ ............................................................................................................... ͻͶ
Figure Ͷ: ........... Female and male unemployment from ͳͻͺ͵ to ʹͲͳ͸....................................................................... ͻͷ
Figure ͷ: ........... Private and Public )nvestment Rate of the Mauritian Economy, ͳͻ͹͸-ʹͲͳ͸ .......................... ͻ͸
Figure ͸: ........... Foreign Direct )nvestment in Mauritius by Sector, ʹͲͲ͸-ʹͲͳͷ .................................................... ͻ͹
Figure ͹: ........... Exports, )mports and Trade Balance, ͳͻ͹͸-ʹͲͳ͸ ............................................................................... ͻͻ
Figure ͺ: ........... Cherie - Central structure in a (indu shrine/temple in a sugar cane field .............................. ͳ͸͵
Figure ͻa:......... The Christian Dzgrottodz architectural form used as a (indu sacred architecture ................... ͳ͸͵
Figure ͻb:......... Christian shrine in Triolet............................................................................................................................. ͳ͸Ͷ
Figure ͻc: ......... (indu shrine in a sugar cane field of the former L’Espérance estate ......................................... ͳ͸Ͷ
Figure ͳͲ: ........ Le Morne, Grave Ͷʹ .......................................................................................................................................... ͳ͸͸
Figure ͳͳ: ........ Le Morne, Grave ʹ͵ .......................................................................................................................................... ͳ͸ͺ
Figure ͳʹ: ........ Detail of the glass bottle ................................................................................................................................ ͳ͸ͺ
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AC(PR ACP
AFM AJM APRM AT) B)OT BLS BPO BV CAM
C))M COMESA CRG CSC DBM ERCP EPZ EU FCOF FD) FO) FO)A FPTP GATT GDP G)S (D) )BA )CJ )CT
List of Abbreviations
African Commission on (uman and Peoples’ Rights
African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States
Association desFemmes Mauriciennes
Association des Journalistes Mauriciens
African Peer Review Mechanism
Access To )nformation
British )ndian Ocean Territory
Best Loser System
Business Process Outsourcing Block Vote Comité Action Musulman
Common )ngroup )dentity Model
Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa
Chagos Refugees Group
Chagossian Social Committee
Development Bank of Mauritius
Economic Restructuring and Competitiveness Program
Export Processing Zone
European Union
Front Commun Organisations Femmes
Foreign Direct )nvestment
Freedom of )nformation
Freedom of )nformation Act
First Past The Post
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
Gross Domestic Product
Geographic )nformation System
(uman Development )ndex
)ndependent Broadcasting Authority
)nternational Court of Justice
)nformation and Communication Technology
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)CTA )FB )OC ))AG )MF )RS LP MAB MAW MBC MBS MCB MCML MEPZ MFA MFP M(C ML MLF MLP MMM MMSM MP MPA MR
MSM MWRCDFW NEPA N(S NWC OAU PMSD PMXD
)nformation and Communication Technologies Authority
)ndependent Forward Bloc
)ndian Ocean Commission
Mo )brahim )ndex of African Governance
)nternational Monetary Fund
)ntegrated Resort Scheme
Labour Party
Mauritius Agricultural Bank
Mauritius Alliance of Women
Mauritius Broadcasting Corporation
Mauritius Broadcasting Service
Mauritius Commercial Bank
Multi-Carrier Mauritius Ltd
Mauritius Export Processing Zone
Multi Fibre Arrangement
Multi Factor Productivity
Mauritius (ousing Corporation
Mouvement Liberater
Muvman Liberasyon Fam
Mauritius Labour Party
Mouvement Militant Mauricien
Mouvement Militant Socialiste Mauricien
Member of Parliament
Marine Protected Area
Mouvement Républicain
Mouvement Socialiste Militant
Ministry of Women’s Rights, Child Development and Family Welfare
Newspapers Editors and Publishers Association
National (ealth Service
National Women’s Council
Organisation of African Unity
Parti Mauricien SocialDémocrate
Parti Mauricien Xavier Duval
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PR RES RM RPL SADC S)T SAP SME STV TEST TJC UNCLOSUNECA UN)DO USEP WB W)N W)P
WS(A WTO
Proportional Representation
Real Estate Scheme
Ralliement Mauricien
Relative Poverty Line
Southern African Development Community
Social )dentity Theory
Structural Adjustment Program
Small and Medium Enterprise
Single Transferable Vote
Textile Emergency Support Team
Truth and Justice Commission
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
United Nations Economic Commission for Africa
United Nations )ndustrial Development Organisation
Union Syndicale des Employés de Presse World Bank Women in Networking
Women in Politics
Women’s Self-(elp Association
World Trade Organisation
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Notes on contributors
Thomas Hylland Eriksena Professor of Social Anthropology at the University of is Oslo. (e has done research on Mauritius since the ͳͻͺͲs, and has published books and articles about ethnic relations, national identity and cultural dynamics in Mauritius. Eriksen has also published in a number of other fields, and is a well-known anthropologist.
Ramola Ramtohul is a Senior Lecturer in Sociology and Gender Studies at the University of Mauritius. She has published on gender and politics, citizenship, higher education and elite migration in Mauritius. Ramtohul has received research awards from the University of Cape Town, American Association of University Women, University of Cambridge and University of Pretoria and is currently co-editor ofJournal of Contemporary African Studies.
Milan J.N Meetarbhanis a Barrister who was previously Associate Professor of Law at the University of Mauritius, Senior Adviser to the Government of Mauritius, Chief Executive of the Financial Services Commission and Ambassador of Mauritius to the United Nations. (is book, DzConstitutional Law of Mauritiusdz was released in August ʹͲͳ͹.
Tania Diolle is a member of thecurrently involved in active politics in Mauritius as Mouvement Patriotique political rer inparty. Until September ʹͲͳ͹, she was Lectu Political Science at the University of Mauritius. She has carried out research on the electoral system and politics in Mauritius.
Roukaya Kasenallyis a democracy scholar, CEO of the African Media )nitiative ȋAM)Ȍ and Senior Lecturer in Media and Political Systems at the University of Mauritius. Since July ʹͲͳͷ, she is a board director for the Electoral )nstitute for Sustainable Democracy in Africa ȋE)SAȌ. She has been a Reagan Fascell Democracy Fello w at the National Endowment for Democracy ȋWashington DCȌ ȋʹͲͳͳ–ʹͲͳʹȌ and a Draper (ills Democracy Fellow at Stanford University ȋʹͲͳͷȌ. Kasenally has published widely on media and democratic systems.
Christina Chan-Meetoois a Senior Lecturer in Media and Communication and (ead of the Mediacom Studio which she has set up under the aegis of the UNESCO agency )PDC at the University of Mauritius. She has published on press freedom and media regulation, new media and gender-sensitive reporting. She is the editor of two books
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