178 Pages

Transformation from Below? White Suburbia in the Transformation of Apartheid South Africa to Democracy


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South Africa is an example of a relatively successful political transition. Nevertheless, the first democratic elections in 1994 did not change the systemic and structural inequalities, the socioeconomic legacies of discrimination or the alienation of the different population groups. At the centre of this study is the transformation potential of two formerly white neighbourhoods in Johannesburg � Norwood and Orange Grove. Both neighbourhoods have experienced considerable demographic changes and the various population groups differ in terms of their expectations and their willingness to adjust to the changes provoked by the transition. At the local level, patterns of discrimination and oppression continue. Spaces, opportunities and leverage of social networks engaged in the community are influenced by the resources people are able to access. Moreover, cooperation is contested in a context of pervasive inequality because there is no incentive for privileged groups to change arrangements that benefit them. In this context of conflicting interests and unequal access to power and resources, decentralisation and the promotion of participatory structures in local communities are a problem and the reliance on local networks as agents of development is questionable.



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Published 06 August 2015
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EAN13 9783905758719
Language English
Document size 16 MB

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Transormatîon rom Beow?
Ursula Sceidegger
Transformation from Below? Wite Suburbia in te Transformation of Aparteid Sout Africa to Democracy
Baser Arîka Bîbîograpîen 2015
©2015 he autor ©2015 Baser Arîka Bîbîograpîen A potograps în tîs book were taken by te autor.
Baser Arîka Bîbîograpîen Namîbîa Resource Centre & Soutern Arîca îbrary Kosterberg 23 PO Box 2037 CH-4051 Base Swîtzerand www.baserarîka.c
A rîgts reserved
Cover poto: Radîum Beer Ha, ouîs Bota Avenue, Orange Grove, August 2013. Potograper: Ursua Sceîdegger
ïSBN 978-3-905758-58-0 ïSSN 2296-6986
Social Dynamics in Two Formerly Wite Joannesburg Neigbouroods. An Introduction
1 Social Dynamics and te Concept of Social Capital he Socîa Capîta Debate – Socîa Capîta as a Coectîve or ïndîvîdua Resource he Roe o State and ïnstîtutîons în oca Communîtîes he ïmpact o ïnequaîty on oca Communîtîes and Cîvîc Engagement Concusîon – ïs Socîa Capîta a Useu Concept?
2 he Callenges of Democratic Consolidation in Sout Africa he Caenge o ïnequaîty and te îmîtatîons o Cange he Probem o Race he Fîgt Agaînst Crîme and Vîoence Decentraîsatîon and oca Government Reorm he Domînance o te ANC and te Reatîons between te Government and te Peope
3 Urban Neigbouroods and Callenges of Cooperation and Order Wecome to Joannesburg – Cîty o God Norwood and Orange Grove Democratîsatîon and oca Government Reorm Attîtudes to Pubîc Space Dîsorder, Crîme and te Prîvatîsatîon o Pubîc Space Towards an ïntegrated Communîty
4 Local Communities and te Ambiguity of Transformation he Communîty Poîce Forum Resîdents’ Assocîatîons Busîness Organîsatîons oca Poîtîca Structures ïmmîgrant Organîsatîons Concusîon – oca Communîtîes, Socîa Dynamîcs and Poîtîcs
1 2 4 7 9
11 12 15 17 19
24 24 27 36 40 43 45
49 52 61 64 68 73 77
5 Local Scools and teir Impact on Integration, Civic Engagement and Neigbourood Sociability Scoo Enroment în Norwood and Orange Grove ater 1994 Consequences o Cangîng Admîssîon Poîcîes Canges în te earnîng and Socîa Envîronment Scoo Fînances and Governmenta Support Structures Educatîon and Transormatîon – Scoos în Norwood and Orange Grove
80 82 85 86 89 91
6 Religious Communities and Responses to te Callenges of Transformation, Value Canges and Inequality95 Reîgîon and Socîety în Sout Arîca97 ïnstîtutîons o Faît and Heterogeneîty în Norwood and Orange Grove99 he Caenges o Racîa, Gender and Socîo-Economîc ïnequaîtîes100 Engagement wît Questîons o Reconcîîatîon, Compîcîty and Guît104 Secuarîsatîon and Vaue Canges Durîng te Transîtîon and Democratîsatîon106 Reatîons to Socîety and te State108 ïn Concusîon – ïnstîtutîons o Faît and Transormatîon110
7 Five Years Later – Wat Has Canged? Assessîng Transormatîon Poîtîcs and Democratîsatîon he Neîgbourood – Contînuîtîes and Cange Communîty Organîsatîons and te Representatîon o Resîdents Scoos Reîgîous ïnstîtutîons oca Communîtîes: Partîcîpatîon, Representatîon and Transormatîon?
8 Conclusion – Transformation from Below?
Appendix Fîedwork în Norwood and Orange Grove Acronyms and abbrevîatîons Bîbîograpy ïndex
111 111 113 114 117 120 121 122
131 134 135 150
Many peope ave contrîbuted to tîs book, and ï tank tem a or teîr vauabe sup-port. ï am very grateu to Proessor Sîreen Hassîm, wo supervîsed te orîgîna PD tesîs, or er expert advîce, dedîcatîon and tîme. Sîreen was a crîtîca reader, pusîng me to gîve my best, but se was aso encouragîng and supportîve wen ï needed ît. Many tanks go to er. he Department o Poîtîca Studîes at te Unîversîty o te Wîtwatersrand provîded a stîmuatîng înteectua envîronment and ofered many opportunîtîes tat made tîs journey an enrîcîng experîence. ï tank a o my coeagues at te department, espe-cîay Proessor Seîa Meîntjes and my coeagues at te Poîtîca Studîes Forum – hom-as Kîmaru, Berta Cîroro, homas Baser, Eddy Mazembo-Mavungu, Frîtz Scoon and Scott Tîmcke. he Swedîs ïnternatîona Deveopment Agency (SïDA) provîded vauabe and muc apprecîated undîng rom teîr grant “Democracy and Socîa Capîta în Segmented So-cîetîes”. My coeagues at te Baser Arîka Bîbîograpîen and te Centre or Arîcan Studîes at te Unîversîty o Base ofered opportunîtîes or crîtîca engagement wît Arîca away rom my ome în Joannesburg. ï am grateu to te Baser Arîka Bîbîograpîen or te opportunîty to pubîs tîs book and ï tank Petra Kerckof, Crîstîan Vandersee und Dag Henrîcsen or teîr support, înputs and patîence and te constructîve and eIcîent cooperatîon. ï tank a o my întervîew partners or teîr tîme and efort. heîr contrîbutîons are an essentîa part o tîs study. My rîends around te word ave supported me durîng my studîes and te work on my tesîs, and ï am very grateu to tem. Rut Studer în Bern as aways been a sup-portîve rîend, ever sînce we aced te caenges o juggîng amîy îe and our proes-sîona and persona deveopment as young moters. Kaety Scneuwy, Barbara Mueer, Masca Madoerîn and Gabrîea Wawrînka în Base, Gîsèe hîjs and Anîta Gînzer în Joannesburg, ïrmgard Weîmer în Maputo, and Mîcèe Osîma în Boston contrîbuted advîce and encouragement. Fînay, tanks go to my amîy: ï woud not be te person ï ave become wîtout tem. My two daugters Madeîna and Sopîe were aways very supportîve, and teîr encouragement gave me te space to embark on tîs journey. Words cannot descrîbe te ways tey canged my îe.