We Get Nothing from Fishing
234 Pages
English
Gain access to the library to view online
Learn more

We Get Nothing from Fishing

-

Gain access to the library to view online
Learn more
234 Pages
English

Description

The world is regularly confronted on television and in other mass media with dramatic images of African boat migrants. Seemingly desperate, these Africans, most of them males, are willing to risk a perilous journey at sea, hoping for a better life in Europe. And, even worse, hundreds more are believed to die each year, swallowed up anonymously by the choppy waters off Africa�s coast. This book focuses on fishermen who have played a pivotal role in boat migration from Senegal to Spain�s Canary Islands, advancing various reasons for the fishermen�s prominent role. Besides their long history of migration, their proven experience with navigating, their family�s push and investment, their perceptions and ideologies about Europe, there is also their growing marginalization as a result of the deepening crisis in the Senegalese fishing sector and the inadequate policies of the Senegalese government that prevents them from having good prospects of improving their standards of living. The book provides deep insights into the meaning of boat migration, and on the effects of success or failure on the migrants and their families. It goes beyond the usual economic explanations to convincingly situate boat migration within the long-standing West African culture of migration, and highlight the significance of socio-cultural and political factors. Among the fascinating findings are the perception of migration as status enhancing and a rite de passage in the Senegalese fishing communities, and the profound roles of the extended family, social networks and, above all, religion, especially the widespread influence of the marabout. The importance of information and communication technologies in sustaining transnational networks is equally highlighted.

Subjects

Informations

Published by
Published 15 May 2010
Reads 0
EAN13 9789956578122
Language English
Document size 3 MB

Legal information: rental price per page 0.0057€. This information is given for information only in accordance with current legislation.

Exrait

LANGAA | AFRICAN STUDIES CENTRE, LEIDEN
‘We Get Nothing from Fishing’’Fîshîng for Boat Opportunîtîes Amongst Senegalese Fîsher Mîgrants
Henrîetta Mambo Nyamnjoh
‘‘We Get Nothing from Fishing’’
Fishing for Boat Opportunities Amongst Senegalese Fisher Migrants
Langaa & African Studies Centre
‘‘We Get Nothing from Fishing’’
Fishing for Boat Opportunities Amongst Senegalese Fisher Migrants
Henrietta Mambo Nyamnjoh
Langaa Research and Publishing Common Initiative Group PO Box 902 Mankon Bamenda North West Region Cameroon Phone +237 33 07 34 69 / 33 36 14 02 LangaaGrp@gmail.com http://www.langaa-rpcig.net www.africanbookscollective.com/publishers/langaa-rpcig
African Studies Centre P.O. Box 9555 2300 RB Leiden The Netherlands asc@ascleiden.nl http://www.ascleiden.nl
Photographs by Henrietta Mambo Nyamnjoh
ISBN: 9956-616-31-1
© Langaa & African Studies Centre, 2010
Contents
Acknowledgements ............................................................................. ix
Chapter One Themes and methodology of the project Introduction .......................................................................................... 1 Research site and background ........................................................... 9 Saint Louis .......................................................................................... 10 Guet Ndar ........................................................................................... 11 Yarakh and Thiaroye-sur-Mer ......................................................... 15 M’bour ................................................................................................. 16 Kayar ................................................................................................... 17 Methodology ...................................................................................... 17 Chapters and thematic review ......................................................... 22
Chapter Two The genesis of boat migration Introduction ........................................................................................ 27 Overview of migration ..................................................................... 28 Boat migration in Senegal ................................................................ 29 Organisation of boat migration ...................................................... 33 Demographics of boat migration .................................................... 40 Profile of the migrants ...................................................................... 42 Boat migration and margins ............................................................. 46 Conclusion .......................................................................................... 52
Chapter Three Fishermen in boat migration Introduction ........................................................................................ 59 Overview of the fishing economy .................................................. 60 The role of the fishermen and their involvement in boat migration ......................................................................... 67 Exorbitant cost of fishing and cost of materials ......................... 71
v
‘We Get Nothing from Fishing’’ Fishing for Boat Opportunities amongst Senegalese Fisher Migrants
Lack of resources .............................................................................. 75 Unemployment and increased insecure employment .................. 78 Corned mareyeur/fishermen by local and European partners ... 80 Fishing, religion and ‘maraboutage’ ................................................ 82 The effects of boat migration on the fishery sector .................... 84 Effects of boat migration on the family ........................................ 86 Conclusion .......................................................................................... 88
Chapter Four The Economy of boat migration Introduction ........................................................................................ 97 Consequences of boat migration on relationships at home ..... 100 The story of Ahmed and family .................................................... 101 Another dimension of ‘maraboutage’ .......................................... 103 The family ......................................................................................... 106 Successful migrants ......................................................................... 107 Unsuccessful migrants/failed migration ...................................... 115 “Sans papiers” .................................................................................. 120 Conclusion ........................................................................................ 126
Chapter Five Perceptions of Europe and ideologies about migration Introduction ...................................................................................... 131 Migrants’ perception of Europe and imagined migration ........ 134 Appropriating knowledge, language and attitude ...................... 137 Europe/migration as a safety valve ............................................. 139 Perception of successful migrants ................................................ 140 Machismo .......................................................................................... 144 Migrants’ perceptions and ideologies of the spiritual/grigri powers of Marabouts ............................................................... 146 Sub-culture of migration ................................................................ 150 Conclusion ........................................................................................ 152
vi
 Contents
Chapter Six Navigating and harnessing networks in the migration process Introduction ...................................................................................... 157 Muslim brotherhood or the dahira confraternity ........................ 171 Strangers/luck .................................................................................. 173 Conclusion ........................................................................................ 174
Chapter Seven Governance and fishing policies Introduction ...................................................................................... 179 Policies regulating fisheries in Senegal ......................................... 180 Issuance of fishing licences to foreign boats .............................. 183 Abuse of concessions to artisanal fishers and local boats ....... 185 Need for greater concerted efforts by the fishers ....................... 186 Attention to other sectors over fishery ........................................ 188 European Union/African Policies to curb boat migration ....... 190 Bilateral protocol ............................................................................. 194 Role of nongovernmental and intergovernmental organizations .............................................................................. 198 Conclusion ........................................................................................ 199
Chapter Eight Conclusion Recommendation ............................................................................. 211
References ......................................................................................... 213
vii
Acknowledgements
I have heavily indebted myself to many in the course of writing this book. This work has come as a result of dedication from those I met in the field who have not only warmly welcomed me into their homes but did make time to give in-depth interviews. Most especially, my gratitude goes to my research guides Doudou Diallo and Cheikh Mbodg of Saint Louis and Dakar respectively who took time off their routine activities to pave my way into the secret world of the migrants. Without you my acceptance into the various communities would have been a herculean task. I owe a particular debt of gratitude to Prof. Abdou Salam Fall for his useful comments, direction, and valuable suggestions. I benefited a great deal from intellectual discussions with Mphil students and classmates; Anneke, Anne-Marieke, Marieke, Roos, Siri, Martina, Karl, Maarten, Corien, Sophie, Nixon and Iva. Our discussions were very valuable and gave useful insights. I would also like to thank my supervisors Prof Mirjam de Bruijn and Dr Piet Konnings for their time and dedication. But also their respective families for the moments I spent with them. To you Lenie, the times spent in Posterholt were immeasurable as they truly gave me a break from writing and helped me to reflect. Immense appreciation to Gerti Hessling (blessed memory) who was very instrumental at the conception of this project but did not live long to see its maturity. You will forever be sorely missed. Working on migration brought me in contact with some staff of International Organisation for Migration. Laurent De Boeck and Pablo Escribano, our discussions were quite fruitful and the reading materials were of great help. I would equally like to acknowledge Abdoulaye Diallo for translating and transcribing the interviews. His accuracy in translating from wollof to French made my job a lot easier. I would also like to express my gratitude and appreciation to the following persons; my mother, Therese Ngu, Teddy Ngu, Marinus Ngu, Gladys Ngu Bernadine Ngu and Mike Ngu. Also to Maty Diagne, Omar Diaw, Tidiane Sy, Abasse Seck, Jude Fokwang , Divine Fuh, Nkwi Walter, Alana Kvl, Bintou Diallo, Nommez Ba and family and to the Van Rossum family.
ix