Women and Civil Society: Capacity Building in Yemen
180 Pages
English

Women and Civil Society: Capacity Building in Yemen

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This work is the result of fruitful collaboration between the department of cooperation in the French Embassy in Sana'a and CEFAS (French CEnter for Archeology and Social Sciences in Sanna). It aims to present a joint reflection on experiences in gender and development projects, and to join in the debate they foster not only in Yemen, but on a much wider scale as well, beyond cultural and contextual particularities. This initiative connects with practical and critical research concerned with the transnational promotion of civil society, participation, empowerment and capacity building through various development and assistance schemes. It is divided up into two parts: firstly, a contribution by Blandine Destremau, aiming to provide a sense of perspective to the patterns of development implemented and experimented in Yemen, by sketching a critical history of ideas and institutions dealing with issues of gender and development. Secondly, an impact assessment carried out in the field by Maggy Grabundzija, an anthropologist, focusing on two projects funded by the French Social Development Fund, chosen for their engagement in girls' education in rural areas.


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Women and Civil Society: Capacity Building in Yemen AResearch Perspective on Development
Maggy Grabundzija and Blandine Destremau
DOI: 10.4000/books.cefas.1667 Publisher: Centre français d’archéologie et de sciences sociales Year of publication: 2011 Published on OpenEdition Books: 21 April 2017 Serie: Histoire et société de la péninsule Arabique Electronic ISBN: 9782909194585
http://books.openedition.org
Printed version ISBN: 9782909194318 Number of pages: 180
Electronic reference GRABUNDZIJA, Maggy ; DESTREMAU, Blandine.Women and Civil Society: Capacity Building in Yemen: A Research Perspective on Development.New edition [online]. Sanaa: Centre français d’archéologie et de sciences sociales, 2011 (generated 11 May 2017). Available on the Internet: . ISBN: 9782909194585. DOI: 10.4000/books.cefas.1667.
This text was automatically generated on 11 May 2017.
© Centre français d’archéologie et de sciences sociales, 2011 Terms of use: http://www.openedition.org/6540
This work is the result of fruitful collaboration b etween the departm ent of cooperation in the French Em bassy in Sana'a and CEFAS (French CEnter for Archeolog y and Social Sciences in Sanna). It aim s to present a joint reflection on experiences in g ender and developm ent projects, and to join in the debate they foster not only in Yem en, but on a m uch wider scale as well, beyond cultural and contextual particulari ties. This initiative connects with practical and critical research concerned with the transnational prom otion of civil society, participation, em powerm ent and capacity building th roug h various developm ent and assistance schem es. It is divided up into two parts: firstly, a contrib ution by Blandine Destrem au, aim ing to provide a sense of perspective to the patterns of d evelopm ent im plem ented and experim ented in Yem en, by sketching a critical hist ory of ideas and institutions dealing with issues of g ender and developm ent. Secondly, an im pact assessm ent carried out in the field by Mag g y Grabundzija, an anthropolog ist, focu sing on two projects funded by the French Social Developm ent Fund, chosen for their en g ag em ent in g irls' education in rural areas.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Preface Michel Tuchscherer
Ajoint reflection to share our experience Dominique Anouilh
Global discourses, local applications Debating issues around transformative and relational impacts of g ender-concerned development projects Blandine Destremau Introduction 1- WID, WAD, GAD: three perspectives for g ender-concerned development… among many more 2- Women, development and the United Nations: an institutional narrative 3- Gender mainstreaming as a lever for transformative policies 4- Tools for the promotion of g ender equality in development prog rammes: civil society org anizations, empowerment and capacity building 5- Education and literacy, levers for development and empowerment in a g ender perspective 6- The long and narrow path: criticism, constraints and shortcoming s in implementing development in a g ender perspective 7- The FSD project “streng thening civil society and women’s empowerment in Yemen” in lig ht of g ender and development approaches Conclusion: Project impact and transformation of social and g ender relations: the potential of a relational approach
Impact Assessment FSD I Projects Report Maggy Grabundzija Acronyms Introduction 1- Methodolog y 2- Impact Assessment 3- Lessons Learned
Appendixes
Preface
Michel Tuchscherer
This work is first of all the result of fruitful co llaboration between the departm ent of cooperation in the French Em bassy in Sana’a and CEF AS (French Center for Archaeolog y and Social Sciences in Sanaa). In January 2010, Mr. Benoit Deslandes, who was at the tim e the in charg e of cooperation and cultural activities in Sana’a, called on CEFAS to perform an evaluation of the im pact of developm ent projects ta rg eting wom en, conducted by Yem eni NGOs, and receiving financial support from the Fond s Social de Développem ent (French social developm ent fund). I was at once in favour o f this initiative, and contacted different people liable to becom e involved in this task: Mag g y Grabundzija for the evaluation as such, Blandine Destrem au and Stéphanie Latte for the scie ntific supervision of the work. From the outset, it was assum ed that we would not restrict ourselves to the publication of a m ere technical report, and that we would use the opportunity to launch a wider scientific debate on issues of g ender and developm ent, not only in Yem en, but in the Arabian Peninsula as a whole. This initiative fitted very well into reflection un derway on the developm ent of civil society in Yem en. Indeed, in July 2006 CEFAS and FES (Friedrich Ebert Stiftung ), with the support of the cooperation departm ent of our Em bassy, org anize d a round table concerning relationships between “civil society, associations and local authorities in Yem en”. The acts of these events were published in 2008 in the form of two works, one g athering contributions in French and Eng lish, and the other the contributions in Arabic, with a substantial sum m ary of those published in the first volum e. For the present work, we resolved to publish solely in Eng lish with a com plete translation into Arabic so as to m ake it accessible to as wide a public as possible, not onl y actors in the field, but also decision-m akers and researchers. The report drawn up by Mag g y Grabundzija and published herein is put into perspective by way of a substantial the oretical presentation by Blandine Destrem au. By this m eans we hope to provide a sig nificant contribution to ong oing debate on issues of g ender and developm ent. The initial aim of a wider scientific debate has al ready m aterialized in a conference org anized on the 16th and 17th of Novem ber 2011 in Cairo, after it proved im possible to org anize it in Yem en in the previous July. Over two days, som e 30 researchers working on the Arabian Peninsula and the Horn of Africa debate d on “chang es occurring in g ender issues”. They broached num erous them es in this resp ect: public policies, professionalization, labour m arkets, m obility patte rns, and care, or ag ain m oral issues, privacy and chang es in subjectivity, not only in i reference to wom en, but also to m en and m asculinity patterns. The acts of this two-day event are to be published in 2012 in the CEFAS journal, to be reform atted by the sam e occasion. While our initiative finds its place in reflection on civil society that has been underway for som e years in CEFAS, it is also a continuation of a m uch older tradition of interest in
wom en in Yem en and their relationships with the m as culine world. In her book Une Française médecin au Yemen, published in French in 1955 and later in num erous lang uag es including Arabic, Claudie Fayein had a lot to say a bout the Yem eni wom en she had observed, frequented and cared for in the course of her first stay in the country from 1951 to 1952. Subsequently she was to return to Yem en in the 1970s, in particular with the task of developing the ethnog raphic part of the Yem en Natio nal Museum . In the collections of objects g athered at that tim e, the world of wom en o ccupies a central place. It can be hoped that this part of the Museum , which has been closed for several years, will soon be accessible ag ain to the public. Cairo, Novem ber 25th, 2011
AUTHOR
MICHEL TUCHSCHERER
Director of CEFAS
A joint reflection to share our experience
Dominique Anouilh
In 1994, France created the Social Developm ent Fund , to prom ote local developm ental action, close to the population, thus becom ing Fren ch cooperation’s m ain tool for supporting civil society initiatives. The first FSD, or FSD I, beg an in Yem en in 2005, and lasted four years, aim ing to streng then civil society and to contribute to the country’s so cial-econom ic developm ent, and to reducing poverty. As poverty especially affects wom en in rural areas, projects helping them were m ade a priority. With € 1,000,000 in budg et, t he first Social Developm ent Fund sponsored 18 projects involving over 90 NGO’s in Yem en. At the end of 2008, a French-Yem eni team of experts conducted an evaluation of the prog ram overseen by sociolog ist Blandine Destrem au1. The point of this was to g ive an appraisal of the projects funded within the fram ewo rk of this first FSD, in order to prepare for its second phase, FSD 2, launched in February 2010, with a new budg et of € 700,000. Its conclusions helped, first of all, shape an outline, reg arding the new FSD, on how to streng then non-g overnm ental Org anizations, by incre asing senior NGO training , and by accom panying their partnering up with junior partners2. But, in between the lines, what the evaluation really broug ht up was the question o f the FSD’s capacity to help bring about social chang e, especially with reg ards to wom en’s situation, the m ain beneficiaries targ eted by the prog ram . What type of chang e had it helped c reate? How had it affected, both directly and indirectly, its beneficiaries? It quickly becam e clear to the French em bassy it had to look further into this issue, in order to he lp its partners, particularly NGO’s on the g round, reflect upon the m atter them selves, and sta nd back to reassess the way they conduct work, and their strateg ies. This them e clearly cam e within the purview of the French Centre in Sana’a for Archaeolog y and Social Sciences (CEFAS), already conducting research on civil society org anizations in Yem en3ations in the Arabian Peninsulaas well as along the them e of “Gender transform & the Horn of Africa”: the French em bassy therefore appointed it to conduct such an analysis. This work is divided up into two parts: 1.An introduction written by Blandine Destremau, aiming to provide a sense of perspective to the impact study by replacing it within the context of the various schools of thought on questions of gender and development. 2.An impact assessment carried out in the field by Maggy Grabundzija, an anthropologist, focusing on two of the eighteen projects funded by the Social Development Fund: the project for the “promotion of girls’ education via a program reinforcing the capacities of local junior NGO’s” carried out by the Society for Development & Children-SOUL and the project for the “improvement of girls’ education in rural areas in Yemen, a community-based approach” developed by ONG SADA Society for Women.
These two projects were chosen for their respective work in the area of girls’ education in rural areas. We will take the opportunity afforded by this prefa ce to heartily thank SOUL and SADA NGO’s which accepted their work and the results att ained by both projects be analysed within this study. Their involvem ent in such an approach shows their m aturity and their capacity to adopt a critical stance reg arding on their own way of conducting work. This publication is the result of such a process, b ring ing tog ether sponsors and NGO’s wishing to im prove, with the help of researchers, t he im pact of their work. This isn’t as m uch a m anual on how to run a «successful» project in g ender and developm ent, as it is a joint reflection by partners wanting to share their experience, and to learn from them .
NOTES
1.ntelak al-Mutawakel and Gabool al-Destrem au (coordinator), Safa’a Rawiah, A  Blandine Mutawakel, (YLDF), “FSD Evaluation/Civil Society” ( [Évaluation du FSD/Société Civile] in th French), # 2003/84, February 2010, 11 February 2009. 2.r NGO beneficiaries of FSD II wasram for the senior & junio capacity-building prog  A developed in 2010 in association with the Yem eni So cial Fund for Developm ent which funded it entirely. 3.ber t,Grabundzija et Jean Lam g y Sara Ben Nefissa, Mag Société civile, associations et pouvoir local au Yémen: actes de la Table Ronde «Société ci vile, citoyenneté et pouvoir local» [Civil Society, Associations and Local Power in Yem en: Proceeding s of the Round Table Discussion on “Civil Society, Citizenship and Local Power”], Sana’a, 1–3 July 2006, Sana’a, CEFAS-FES, 2008 (one volum e in French and Eng lish, 332 p. and one v olum e in Arabic, 394 p.) and Anaïs Casanova, Guillaum e Jeu,La liberté d’association au Yémen: une compilation de la législation relative aux associations et aux fondations [Freedom of Association in Yem en: a com pilation of leg islation relative to associations and foundations], Sana’a, CEFAS, 2007, 202 p., (Cahiers du CEFAS n° 5), in French and in Eng lish.
AUTHOR
DOMINIQUE ANOUILH
Cooperation attaché Cooperation and Cultural Action Section (SCAC) The French Embassy in the Republic of Yemen
Global discourses, local applications Debating issues around transformative and relational impacts of g ender-concerned development projects
Blandine Destremau
Introduction
When Michel Tuchscherer, head of the CEFAS, and Dom inique Anouilh, the cooperation attaché at the French em bassy in Sana’a, asked m e to write an introduction to this book, which would contextualize Mag g y Grabundzija’s im pac t study of two French-backed developm ent initiatives as part of the larg er “Civil society” FSD project1, I thoug ht I had m erely two options. One would be to focus on the si tuation in Yem en, its social and econom ic profile, its four decade-long history of d evelopm ent, and propose a bird’s eye view of the place and role of wom en in that process , what has chang ed for them . This option would have allowed m e to reflect upon the dram atic chang es Yem en has underg one since the 1960s, using not only the literature and studies at hand, but also m y own experience and knowledg e of this country. After a first visit in Aden in 1977, I discovered in 1983 what was then North Yem en, and decided to writ e m y Master’s thesis on the m ig rations there, and then to g o on to a PhD thesis. Majoring in Developm ent econom ics, focusing on chang es in rural areas and the ag rarian system , I planned to spend tim e for extensive fieldwork in a rural town in the West of Yem en, from 1985 to 1987. I not only wrote m y thesis about the tim e spent there, but also a book on this fem inine world I had discovered when I was the only Westerner and one of the first to stay am ong this sm all urban population (Destrem au 1990). It is only in 1999, twelve years after having left, that I went back to Yem en, staying in Sana’a this tim e, as part of a research project centred on developm ent processes and institutions, NGOs and international org anizations, all m obilized in the strug g le ag ainst poverty. Having first-hand knowledg e of a sig nificant chunk of the country’s history, I could appreciate the dram atic econom ic, social, political and institutio nal chang es that had occurred since the country had opened to the world. In this essay, I will not take a stand on whether o r not these chang es could or should be labelled as “developm ent”. I will not even m ake an attem pt at trying to define the term “developm ent”. For the sake of sim plicity, let us define “developm ent” as any endeavour or intervention relating to an explicit will to transf orm social and econom ic structures in a direction deem ed as “prog ress” at a g iven tim e. The word “developm ent” in such a m indset points to a deliberate set of actions (discourse, k nowledg e, policies, justifications, etc.) which follow strong ly norm ative g oals and procedure s (im proving health, education, nutrition, life expectancy, m aterial and personal w ellbeing , dem ocracy, participation, etc.). “Developm ent” justifies itself by its intention to “do g ood onto others”. Its leg itim acy rests