Disease and Diagnosis: Value-Dependent Realism

Disease and Diagnosis: Value-Dependent Realism

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English

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In this study of the concept of disease and the philosophy of diagnosis, the author proposes 'value-dependent realism' as a way to show how value judgements can be foundational for the practice of diagnosis without losing the sense that diseases are real entities. In the light of contemporary philosophy of science, the idea that there is a strict separation between fact and value is no longer tenable. Hence, all scientific facts have a value component.

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Published 01 January 1999
Reads 8
EAN13 0306468743
License: All rights reserved
Language English

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
PREFACE ................................................................................................................................. xiii
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
CHAPTER 2.
...............................................................................................1
PART ONE. FACT AND VALUE
SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVISM VS. SCIENTIFIC REALISM ..................11
Introduction...................................................................................................................11
Cognitive Significance of Concrete and Abstract Entities .............................................12
Social Constructivism.......................................................................................................22
Scientific Realism.................................................................................................... 35
Towards a Value-Dependent Realism ............................................................................. 44
CHAPTER 3. FACT VS. VALUE... .......................................................................................... 49
Introduction....................................................................................................................... 49
Facts.................................................................................................................................. 50
Values
....................................................................................................................59
The Fact-Value Distinction .....................................................................................78
The Place of Values in Science .......................................................................................86
The Meeting of Fact and Value in Medicine .................................................................... 89
Conclusions ......................................................................................................................96
x
PART TWO. DISEASE
CHAPTER 4.THE CONCEPT OF DISEASE................................................................98
Introduction..................................................................................................................98
The Metaphysics of Disease ............................................................................. 99
The Normative Nature of Disease.....................................................................116
Conclusions............................................................................................................140
CHAPTER 5. THE CLASSIFICATION OF DISEASES ............................................................143
Introduction ....................................................................................................................143
The Scope of Nosology........................................................................................145
The Construction of Classifications ......................................................................152
Examples of Nosologies ...............................................................................................157
Constructing Diseases from Facts and Values ..................................................168
Conclusions ...................................................................................................................192
PART THREE. DIAGNOSIS
CHAPTER 6. THE ELEMENTS OF DIAGNOSIS....................................................... ..195
Introduction ........................................................................................................ ... 195
The History of the Illness .................................................................................... .. 197
The PhysicalExamination.............................................................................. .. . 206
Diagnostic Tests ................................................................................................ 215
Conclusions .................................................................................................................... 231
xi
CHAPTER 7. THE PROCESS OF DIAGNOSIS ................................................................... 233
Introduction ..................................................................................................................... 233
The Definition of Diagnosis .................................................................................. 234
Diagnostic Method ...................................................................................................... 240
Intuition and Expertise ............................................................................................... 257
Values and Computer Diagnosis ........................................................................... 264
Conclusions .................................................................................................................. 276
CHAPTER 8. CONCLUSION ......................................................................................... 277
NOTES..................................................................................................................................... 289
BIBLIOGRAPHY.................................................................................................................... 295
INDEX....................................................................................................................................................... 316