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Ensure confident clinical decisions and maximum reimbursement in a variety of practice settings such as acute care, outpatient, home care, and nursing homes with the only systematic approach to documentation for rehabilitation professionals! Revised and expanded, this hands-on textbook/workbook provides a unique framework for maintaining evidence of treatment progress and patient outcomes with a clear, logical progression. Extensive examples and exercises in each chapter reinforce concepts and encourage you to apply what you’ve learned to realistic practice scenarios.

  • UNIQUE! Combination textbook/workbook format reinforces your understanding and tests your ability to apply concepts through practice exercises.
  • UNIQUE! Systematic approach to documenting functional outcomes provides a practical framework for success in numerous practice settings.
  • Case studies show you how to format goals through realistic client examples.
  • Practice exercises provide valuable experience applying concepts to common clinical problems.
  • Four NEW chapters address additional aspects of documentation that rehabilitation professionals will encounter in practice:
    • Legal aspects of documentation
    • Documentation in pediatrics
    • Payment policy and coding
    • Computerized documentation



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Documentation for
A Guide to Clinical Decision Making
Lori Quinn, EdD, PT
Honorary Research Fellow, Cardiff University, School of Healthcare Studies, Cardiff, Wales
Senior Lecturer, New York Medical College, Physical Therapy Program, Valhalla, New York
James Gordon, EdD, PT, FAPTA
Associate Dean and Associate Professor, Division of Biokinesiology and Physical Therapy at
the School of Dentistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California
S a u n d e r sTable of Contents
Cover image
Title page
SECTION I: Theoretical Foundations and Documentation Essentials
Chapter 1: Disablement Models, ICF Framework, and Clinical Decision Making
Historical Perspective of Disablement Models
Functional Outcomes: More Than Simply a Documentation Strategy
Classification According to the ICF Framework
Chapter 2: Essentials of Documentation
Documentation: An Overview
Types of Notes
Purposes of Note Writing
Documentation Formats
What Constitutes “Documentation”?
Evidence-Based PracticeStrategies for Conciseness in Documentation
Avoiding Labels and Derogatory Statements
Chapter 3: Legal Aspects of Documentation
Documentation as a Legal Record
Privacy of the Medical Record: HIPAA and the Privacy Rule
Documentation of Informed Consent
Potential Legal Issues
Preventative Actions
Recommended Resources
Chapter 4: Clinical Decision Making and the Initial Evaluation Format
A Description of the Initial Evaluation Format
Case Examples
SECTION II: Components of Physical Therapy Documentation
Chapter 5: Documenting Reason for Referral: Background Information and Health
Documenting Elements of Health Conditions
Obtaining Health Condition Information
Diagnoses and Direct Access
Prevention and Health Promotion
Chapter 6: Documenting Reason for Referral: Participation and Social History,
Components of Documenting Participation and Social History
Specificity of Documentation
Interviewing StrategiesOutcome Measures
Preventing Participation Restrictions
Chapter 7: Documenting Activities
Defining and Categorizing Activities
Documenting Task Performance
Documenting Performance of Functional Activities
Measurement of Activities
Standardized Tests and Measures
Chapter 8: Documenting Impairments in Body Structure and Function
Defining and Categorizing Impairments
Systems Reviews
Strategies for Documenting Impairments
Standardized Tests and Measures
Documenting Strength and Range of Motion
Documenting Pain
Chapter 9: Documenting the Assessment: Summary and Diagnosis,
Diagnosis by Physical Therapists
Assessment Section
Common Pitfalls in Assessment Documentation
Chapter 10: Documenting Goals
A Traditional Approach: Short-Term and Long-Term Goals
Writing Goals at Three Different Levels
Linking Impairment and Activity Goals
Fundamentals of Well-Written Functional GoalsA Formula for Writing Goals
The Art of Writing Patient-Centered Goals: Going Beyond the Formula
Determining Expected Times for Goals
Choosing Which Goals to Measure: Prioritizing and Benchmarking
Writing Participation and Impairment Goals
Chapter 11: Documenting the Plan of Care
Components of the Plan of Care
Documenting Skilled Intervention
Documenting Informed Consent
Chapter 12: Treatment Notes and Progress Notes Using a Modified SOAP Format
Modified SOAP Format
Treatment Notes
SECTION III: Additional Documentation Formats
Chapter 13: Specialized Documentation
Chapter 14: Documentation in Pediatrics
Purpose of Pediatric Evaluation
Early Intervention
School-Based Intervention
Use of Standardized Testing
Goal Writing for the Pediatric Client
SummaryChapter 15: Payment Policy and Coding
Third-Party Payers
Prospective Payment, Billing, and Coding
Physician Quality Reporting Initiative
Recommended Resources
Chapter 16: Computerized Documentation
Evidence for Electronic Medical Records
Electronic Records in Physical Therapy Practice
Drawbacks to Pen and Paper Documentation
Benefits of Computerized Documentation
Drawbacks of Computerized Documentation
Uses of Patient Data From Computerized Medical Records
Design and Implementation of a New Computerized System
Appendix A: Guidelines for Physical Therapy Documentation
Appendix B: Rehabilitation Abbreviations
Appendix C: Answers to Exercises
Appendix D: Sample Forms
3251 Riverport Lane
Maryland Heights, Missouri 63043
ISBN: 978-1-4160-6221-9
Copyright © 2010, 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in
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on-line via the Elsevier website at
Neither the Publisher nor the Authors assume any responsibility for any
loss or injury and/or damage to persons or property arising out of or
related to any use of the material contained in this book. It is the
responsibility of the treating practitioner, relying on independent expertise
and knowledge of the patient, to determine the best treatment and method
of application for the patient.
The Publisher
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Quinn, Lori.
Documentation for rehabilitation : a guide to clinical decision making / Lori Quinn,
James Gordon. – 2nd ed.
p. ; cm.
Rev. ed. of: Functional outcomes documentation for rehabilitation. c2003.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-1-4160-6221-9 (pbk. : alk. paper)1. Physical therapy. 2. Physical therapy assistants. 3. Medical protocols. 4.
Communication in medicine. I. Gordon, James, Ed.D. II. Quinn, Lori. Functional
outcomes documentation for rehabilitation. III. Title.
[DNLM: 1. Medical Records. 2. Physical Therapy Modalities. 3. Disability Evaluation.
4. Documentation. 5. Patient Care Planning. WB 460 Q74d 2010]
RM700.Q85 2010
Vice President and Publisher: Linda Duncan
Executive Editor: Kathy Falk
Senior Developmental Editor: Melissa Kuster Deutsch
Publishing Services Manager: Patricia Tannian
Project Manager: Carrie Stetz
Designer: Teresa McBryan
Printed in the United States of America
Last digit is the print number: 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 D e d i c a t i o n
To Ann Gentile, a never-ending source of inspiration to us both.C o n t r i b u t o r s
H elene M. Fearon, PT, Partner, Fearon & Levine Consulting, Wilton Manors, Florida,, Chapter 15
Jody Feld, D PT, MPT, N C, S Manager of Clinical Support and Education, Bioness Inc.,
Valencia, California, Case Examples
Janet A. Herbold, PT, MPH, Senior Administrator, Burke Rehabilitation H ospital, White
Plains, New York, Chapter 16
Stephen M. Levine, PT, D PT, MSH, A Partner, Fearon & Levine Consulting, Wilton
Manors, Florida,, Chapter 15
Agnes McConlogue, PT, MA, Clinical Assistant Professor, D epartment of Physical
Therapy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York, Chapter 14
Karen D auerer Stutman, PT, MS, Physical Therapist, Carlson Physical Therapy, Bethel,
Connecticut, Case Examples6
P r e f a c e
Lori Quinn and James Gordon
This book was born out of necessity. I t began its life, in a rudimentary form, as a
teaching manual for students in the physical therapy program at N ew York Medical
College. We needed a textbook that would provide a framework for functional
outcomes documentation, and no satisfactory texts existed. So we wrote one.
The main philosophical idea underlying this textbook is simple: not only is the logic
of clinical reasoning reflected in documentation, but documentation itself shapes the
process of clinical reasoning. Thus, we would argue, one of the best ways to teach
clinical reasoning skills is by teaching a careful and systematic approach to
documentation. This book is therefore not just a “how-to” book on documentation of
physical therapy practice. Rather, it presents a framework for clinical decision
I n this second edition, we have undertaken some fundamental changes to the
structure and organization of this text. Most significantly, we have incorporated the
I nternational Classification for Functioning, D isability, and Health (I CF) model. This
change has occurred for two reasons: (1) the I CF framework has now been almost
universally adopted, including recent adoption by the A merican Physical Therapy
A ssociation; and (2) we believe this framework provides a be er structure for
understanding the complex relationships between a person’s health condition and his
or her ability to participate in life skills.
This switch to the I CF model has conceptual implications as well as practical ones
for this textbook. The I CF terminology inherently focuses on the positive aspect of a
person’s health, and we believe this is important to adopt within clinical
documentation. The I CF structure in some ways is not too different from that of the
N agi model; therapists can somewhat readily translate information that was
previously referred to as “disability” to “participation,” from “function” to
“activities,” and from “pathology” to “health condition” (“impairments” has stayed
the same).
The terms participation, activities, impairments, and health condition are now
incorporated into the vocabularies of contemporary physical therapists and certainly
of entry-level physical therapy students. N evertheless, for physical therapists to “walk
the walk” rather than just “talk the talk,” the framework exemplified by the I CF
model must be incorporated into how they design and implement evaluations and
interventions. This process is reflected in the documentation wri en by physical
therapists. The outside world views physical therapy primarily by words that are
wri en—as communicated in a medical record, progress notes given to a patient or
physician, or forms completed for an insurance company. We believe that
documentation shapes and reflects the advances in the science of physical therapy
and therefore requires an updated framework that incorporates current knowledge
regarding the disablement and rehabilitation process.6
The purpose of this book is to provide a general approach to documentation—not a
rigid format. I t is, first and foremost, a textbook for entry-level physical therapist and
physical therapist assistant students. I t is intended to promote a style and philosophy
of documentation that can be used throughout an entire physical therapy curriculum.
However, it is also a book that we hope will appeal to practicing physical therapists
and physical therapist assistants who are searching for a be er structure for the
notewriting process. We have provided examples and exercises related to wide-ranging
areas of physical therapy practice, including pediatrics, rehabilitation, women’s
health, health and wellness, orthopedics, and acute care. This book was designed to
help students and therapists organize their clinical reasoning and establish a
framework for documentation that is easily adaptable to different practice se ings
and patient populations. A lthough this book has many examples and exercises, it
certainly does not include all possible types of documentation or all the details of how
to document in different se ings. Rather, this book provides a method for learning
good documentation skills that can be adapted to different settings.
A lthough physical therapist assistants and physical therapist assistant students
will find this book relevant, their practice is inherently limited to writing treatment
notes. A large portion of this book focuses on documentation of the initial evaluation.
However, the components listed in each of these chapters, particularly documentation
of activities, are important components of the daily note documentation.
The book is divided into three sections. The first section provides the overall
theoretical framework. The second section explains in detail each of the specific
components of a functional outcomes initial evaluation and provides extensive
examples and practice. The third section considers other types of documentation,
such as progress notes and le ers to third parties. I mportantly, we have added three
new chapters to this text: “Legal A spects of D ocumentation,” “Payment Policy and
Coding,” and “D ocumentation in Pediatrics,” which has allowed us to significantly
expand our coverage of these areas.
We believe that a standardized format for documentation should be introduced
early in a physical therapy curriculum so that students can practice writing notes in
successive clinical courses. Furthermore, we have structured the book so that
students should be able to learn the approach on their own without requiring a
separate course on documentation. Thus we have provided many opportunities for
practice of documentation skills through exercises at the end of most chapters.
N evertheless, the book will work best when an instructor is guiding the learning
process and is available to answer questions. The exercises are wri en primarily for
physical therapist students and physical therapist assistant students in entry-level
education. However, depending on their level of education and the design of the
curriculum, many students may not be able to complete all the exercises. This is
particularly true for exercises in which the reader is asked to rewrite problematic
documentation. S ome students may only have limited knowledge to be able to rewrite
the statements accurately.
A s much as possible, we have a empted to incorporate the terminology and main
ideas of the Guide to Physical Therapist Practic.e For the most part, they are relevant to
and consistent with functional outcomes and documentation. Readers should find
this book “Guide-friendly,” and we have reprinted figures and adapted components of
the Guide into our documentation framework.
Readers will note that although the Guide uses the term “patient/client” to denote
individuals served by physical therapists, we have chosen to use only the term6
“patient.” This is solely for ease and consistency, although we recognize the
importance of the differentiation of these two terms in physical therapy vocabulary.
This book should be used in conjunction with other resources and references
related to functional outcomes and documentation. Many of these resources are listed
in the appendixes of this book. I n particular, there are important legal aspects of
documentation. We have provided a foundation for key elements related to legal
aspects of documentation; however, readers should consult state and federal laws to
ensure that their documentation is in compliance with current guidelines.
D ocumentation for third-party payment is an important and often challenging type
of physical therapy documentation. We discuss this with more depth than in the first
edition and have added an entire chapter devoted to payment policy and
documentation (Chapter 15). This chapter has been wri en with invaluable
contributions from S teve Levine and Helene Fearon, who have extensive experience in
this area. I n addition, we have discussed our framework and suggestions with many
therapists and managers who have experience with Medicare payment policy.
However, we caution the reader that this framework does not necessarily comply with
specific Medicare requirements or standards, which change frequently. We do believe
that the principles discussed in this book are applicable to all forms of
documentation, including Medicare, as they are currently used in clinical settings.
A s this book goes to print, the United S tates is in the midst of a change in its health
care system. Most significantly, what is at stake is the funding of health care and
ensuring that most A mericans are covered by some form of health care insurance. We
believe that these policy changes will have an effect on medical record documentation
and payment policy; however, what types of effects at this point are unknown.
Finally, we do not intend that this book should be the last word on documentation
in physical therapy. On the contrary, we see it as a beginning. We hope that physical
therapists will continue to explore new forms of documentation that will be er reflect
the changing pa erns of practice and that will facilitate improvements in patient care.
We invite readers to send comments, suggestions, and criticisms to us and to publish
alternative approaches in journals and textbooks. D iscussion and debate about the
best ways to document will help us to find the true path to best practice.5
A c k n o w l e d g m e n t s
Lori Quinn and James Gordon
The authors would like to acknowledge the contributions by many people who
provided examples, ideas, insights and, most importantly, critiques of this book at
various stages of its inception. First, we owe a debt of gratitude to current and past
students of the Physical Therapy Program at N ew York Medical College. We have
benefited so much from the thoughtful insights of students for whom this material
was first designed.
N ext, we would like to thank the staff and faculty of the Program in Physical
Therapy at N ew York Medical College, the D epartment of Biokinesiology and Physical
Therapy at the University of S outhern California, and the Physiotherapy Program at
Cardiff University, Wales. Many of the faculty provided important comments for this
book, wrote or reviewed case examples, or helped with editorial components.
We would also like to thank our contributors: Karen S tutman and J ody Feld, for
providing some excellent case examples, and A gnes McConlogue, J anet Herbold,
S teve Levine, and Helene Fearon for their tireless work writing and editing their
respective chapters.
We gratefully acknowledge the following individuals who provided insightful
feedback for this second edition:
Monica Busse, PhD, MSc (Med), BSc (Med), Hons BSc (Physio)
Kate Button, PhD, MSc, BSc physiotherapy, MCSP
Stephanie Enright, PhD, MPhil, MSc, MCSP, PG Cert HE
Julie Fritz, PT, PhD, ATC
Barbara Norton, PT, PhD, FAPTA
Patricia Scheets, PT, DPT, NCS
We thank the many reviewers who carefully read and provided insightful
comments about the book. We have made every effort to incorporate their
suggestions into this second edition.
We also gratefully acknowledge the work of our editors, who provided great
support and encouragement during this process. We would like to thank Kathy Falk,
Melissa Kuster, and Carrie S te , as well as the entire editorial staff, for their expert
assistance in completing this project.
Last, we thank our families for their never-ending support. With gratitude:
to Eric, Annabel, and Samantha
to Provi, Jason, Anita, and MaddieS E C T I ON I
Theoretical Foundations
and Documentation
Chapter 1: Disablement Models, ICF Framework, and Clinical Decision Making
Chapter 2: Essentials of Documentation
Chapter 3: Legal Aspects of Documentation
Chapter 4: Clinical Decision Making and the Initial Evaluation Format+
C H A P T E R 1
Disablement Models, ICF
Framework, and Clinical Decision
After reading this chapter and completing the exercises, the reader will be able to:
1. Define a functional outcome and discuss its importance in physical therapy documentation.
2. Identify and describe three historical models of disablement.
3. Define the components of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health
(ICF) model.
4. Classify clinical observations and measurements according to the ICF.
This book outlines a method for physical therapy documentation and clinical decision making
based on the general principle that documentation should focus on functional outcomes. A n
outcome is a result or consequence of physical therapy intervention. A functional outcome is one in
which the treatment effect is the individual’s ability to accomplish a goal that is meaningful for
that individual. Functional outcomes should be the focus of physical therapy documentation:
1. Examination procedures should determine relevant limitations in functional activities and the
impairments that cause those limitations.
2. Goals should be explicitly defined in terms of the functional activities that the patient will be
able to perform.
3. Specific interventions should be justified in terms of their effects on functional outcomes.
4. Most importantly, the success of interventions should be measured by the degree to which
desired functional outcomes are achieved.
Traditional physical therapy documentation formats do not easily adapt to a functional
outcomes focus. Therefore several authors have a empted to present documentation formats that
are generally referred to as functional outcomes reports (FOR) (Stamer, 1995; Stewart, 1993). The FOR
format presented in this book is based in part on ideas derived from these published
documentation formats and the authors’ own clinical and teaching experience.
This book has two main purposes: (1) to provide a framework for clinical decision making that
is based on a functional outcomes approach and (2) to provide guided practice in writing
functional outcomes documentation.
Clearly there is no single correct way to write physical therapy documentation. D ocumentation
must be adapted to the context in which it is wri en. The purpose of this book is therefore not to
present a rigid format for writing documentation. I nstead, the book offers a set of guidelines for
writing documentation in a functional outcomes format. This set of guidelines is flexible and
should be adaptable to many different practice settings.
The framework for documentation presented herein is based on the now widely accepted
I nternational Classification of Functioning, D isability and Health (I CF) model of how pathologic
conditions lead to disability. Until 2008, the A merican Physical TherapyA ssociation (A PTA)
endorsed the N agi framework as a guiding disablement framework (N agi, 1965, 1991). I n fact, the
N agi model is an integral part of the current version of the Guide to Physical Therapist Practic e(the
Guide) and the first edition of this textbook. I n J uly 2008, the A PTA joined the World Health
Organization (WHO), the World Confederation for Physical Therapy, the A merican Therapeutic+
Recreation A ssociation, and other international organizations in endorsing the I CF model.
Accordingly, we have adapted the documentation format in this textbook to the ICF model.
To the extent possible, we have incorporated the Guide into our documentation framework. The
main purpose of the Guide is to “help physical therapists analyze their patient/client management
and describe the scope of their practice” (A PTA , 2001, p. 12). I mportantly, theG uide has helped to
establish a common set of definitions and physical therapy terminology. This book a empts to
use that terminology in addition to an overall conceptual framework that is consistent with that of
the Guide.
I n this chapter, we discuss the history of disablement models and development of the I CF
model. We also consider how this model can be used to understand the role of physical therapists
(PTs) in the diagnostic process and planning appropriate interventions. Finally, the importance of
the I CF framework to documentation is discussed. The exercises at the end of the chapter provide
practice in classifying conditions according to the Nagi model.
Historical Perspective of Disablement Models
The use of disablement models as an organizing framework for physical therapy was one of the
key conceptual developments of the 1990s (J e e, 1994). Various models of disablement have been
developed and explored, including the original WHO model (1980), the N agi model (1965), and
the N ational Center for Medical Rehabilitation Research (N CMRR) model (N ational A dvisory
Board on Medical Rehabilitation Research, 1991). These models are illustrated inF igure 1-1.
D espite differences in terminology, each model provides a framework for analyzing the various
effects of acute and chronic conditions on the functioning of specific body systems, basic human
performance, and people’s functioning in necessary, expected, and personally desired roles in
society (Jette, 1994).
FIGURE 1-1 Different models of the disablement process.
The differences among the various disablement models represent more than simple differences
in terminology; important theoretical differences also exist (which are beyond the scope of this
book). N evertheless, these differences are small compared with the overwhelming similarity of
the models. A ll the models are based on the assumption that the process of disablement can be
analyzed at multiple levels. I n the 1990s the N agi model gained considerable acceptance in N orth
America, whereas the WHO model has been used more widely in Europe, Australia, and Asia.
Disablement describes the consequences of disease in terms of its effects on body functions, the
ability of the individual to perform meaningful tasks, and the ability to fulfill one’s roles in life.
The arrows in Figure 1-1 imply a causal chain leading from active pathology to disability using the
N agi model as an example. I ndeed, the causal links between elements in the models are useful;
they help to conceptualize the relationships between findings at different levels. Nevertheless, the
arrows often were interpreted as indicating a temporal series of events, which many health
professionals found problematic. Furthermore, it was believed that these models did not capture
the complexity of the relationships between different levels that were often multidirectional.
I n 2001 the WHO revised its disablement model to address the criticisms of current models. The
I CF seeks to use the positive termsa ctivity and participation to redefine what N agi refers to as
functional limitation and disability. Thus although the general structure is similar to the original
WHO model and the N agi model, the focus of this new model is on the “positive” (“ability”)
aspects of disablement.
I n this new model, the process of disablement is a combination of (1) losses or abnormalities of
body function and structure, (2) limitations of activities, and (3) restrictions in participation
(Figure 1-2). Of note, the terms activity and participation focus on a person’s abilities versus
inabilities or disabilities. As shown in Figure 1-2, the I CF model relinquishes the notion of simple,
unidirectional causal links between levels. The individual’s pathologic state (health condition)
becomes a broader category that influences all other levels. Furthermore, contextual factors—both
extrinsic (environmental) and intrinsic (personal)—are specifically identified as affecting the
relationship between body structures and functions and activities, and participation. Personal
factors can consist of such things as family support, whereas extrinsic factors might include
environmental barriers. These important additions highlight the multiple factors that can be
related to any one person’s “disability.”
FIGURE 1-2 The ICF model of disablement.
The I CF is endorsed by the WHO as the international standard used to measure health and
disability (resolution WHA 54.21). I n addition to the overall model presented inF igure 1-2, the
I CF provides definitions (Box 1-1) and detailed descriptions of what each “level” encompasses
(Figure 1-3). Figure 1-3 provides sample descriptions from the I CF framework that could be used
for a patient who has had a stroke and has gait impairments, mobility limitations, and faces
environmental barriers in the workplace. Within each of the I CF domains there is a hierarchy of
description (Chapter, second, third, and fourth levels as needed). This ultimately leads to a code
that can be used to refer to a specific domain. These definitions and codes provide common
terminology that can be used by all health professionals, whether describing individual patient
characteristics (as in Figure 1-3) or conducting large-scale population-based research.
11 D efinitions of the C omponents of I C FBody functions are physiologic functions of body systems (including psychological
Body structures are anatomic parts of the body such as organs, limbs, and their
Impairments are problems in body function or structure such as a significant deviation
or loss.
Activity is the execution of a task or action by an individual.
Participation is involvement in a life situation.
Activity limitations are difficulties an individual may have in executing activities.
Participation restrictions are problems an individual may experience in involvement in
life situations.
Environmental factors make up the physical, social, and attitudinal environment in
which people live and conduct their lives.
From World Health Organization: Towards a common language for functioning, disability
and health, Geneva, 2002, World Health Organization. Retrieved January 12, 2009, from 1-3 Sample descriptions from the ICF framework that could be
used for a patient who has had a stroke and has gait impairments, mobility
limitations, and faces environmental barriers in the workplace. (From World
Health Organization: Towards a common language for functioning, disability
and health, Geneva, 2002, World Health Organization. Retrieved January 12,
2009, from
I CF is part of the WHO family of international classifications, which includes theI nternational
Statistical Classification of D iseases and Related H ealth Problem s(I CD ). I CD -9 is the version
currently in use by health professionals in the United S tates to classify diseases, disorders, or
other health conditions. However, a more recent version of these classifications, I CD -10, is set to
be adopted by 2013. Each disease or health condition has its own I CD -9 or I CD -10 code. These
codes are used most frequently by PTs in the United S tates for billing purposes (seeC hapter 15);
however, they are designed to provide a common international language for communication and
research. More information on the I CF and the online version are available at
The I CF model provides the conceptual framework for a “top-down approach” to understanding a