Fundmantel of Nursing

Fundmantel of Nursing


422 Pages





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Published 01 January 2006
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EAN13 9796500034874
Language English
Document size 5 MB

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610.73 Al-Remaei, Nasheet Fundmanted of Nursing / Nasheet Al- : dar El-bedaia Publishing and Distributing, 2005 (…) p DepositeNo.:2298/8/21-09-2005Descriptors:/Nursing//Health Services// Patients// Higher education/.ﺔﻴﻨﻃﻮﻟا ﺔﺒﺘﻜﳌا ةﺮﺋاد ﻞﺒﻗ ﻦﻣ ﺔﻴﻟوﻷا ﻒﻴﻨﺼﺘﻟاو ﺔﺳﺮﻬﻔﻟا تﺎﻧﺎﻴﺑ داﺪﻋإ ﻢﺗ *
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INTRODUCTION The foundation of nursing is serve as a basic scientific principles for other nursing course provide the associate degree nursing student with the essential basic concepts and principles need for the nursing practice. Foundation of nursing theory course emphasizes the students understanding of the nature of the clients health needs and interventions required to achieve these needed with optimal level of nursing care. This book well prepared and designed from different references in order to unify the efforts of nursing faculty and students with essential concepts and principles as well as saving the faculty and student time and effort of searching scientific information regarding the formal course plan, objectives and outline. Our guidelines and efforts are emphasizing the needs of nursing faculty and nursing students to this book as main reference direct to educational objectives at all over the country. All the scientific information, tables, pictures are summarized with educational language regarding the teaching strategies that helpful to ensure high level of achievement. In some areas of this book we are dealing with direct concreat information and other we go beyond the needs to be more understandable and ensure more clarification. If you have any comments or other visions and view you can contact with your colleges:-Mahmmoud A. Al Ghafour Nursing educeter Nasheet Ghaleb Al Remawi Nursing sduceter RN, BSN: Rufaida Al- Aslamyah College. Thank you
Nursing Process
Implementation skills Teaching Documentation
Planning Patient goal Plan of care
Unit 1
AssessmentData Collection Data grouping
NursingDiagnosis Analysis of data Problem Identification
Introduction Fundamentals to the practice of nursing is the understanding that all individuals have needs. Abraham Maslow, a psychologist devised a theory of need gratification and basic human needs. They are arranged into a hierarchy. He believed that needs are basic to others, and certain basic needs must be satisfied before individuals will be motivated to satisfy higher needs. During illness, they require assistance. So the nurse should assist the individuals to meet their basic human needs. Definitions: a. Basic Human Needs A basic human need is a lack of something or requirement for biological, psychological, social or spiritual functioning experienced by a person. b. Hierarchy Hierarchy means that in any list of items some items are classed as more important than others. Maslow's Hierarchy of Human Needs Abraham Maslow identified in 1968 five basic levels of basic human needs, that are arranged in order of priority for satisfaction. 1- Physiological needs. 5 2- Safety and security needs. 4 3- Love and belonging needs. 3 4- Self esteem needs. 2 1 5- Self-actualization needs.
According to Maslow's theory the lower level needs must be satisfied before the individual attempts to satisfy needs of a higher level. He found that all these needs are interrelated. Some needs connot be met unless related needs are also met. For example, the need for hydraton (the mormal water volume in the body) can be seriously changed, if the need for elimination of urine is no met. A need can make itself felt either by internal or external stimule, e.g. need for food. He also found individuals who satisfy their basic needs are healthier, happier and more effective than those whose needs are unsatisfied.
Basic Human Needs and Related Nursing Actions
1. Physiological needs
They are the lower level need locatd at the base of the pyramid. They have the highest priority over all other needs because they are essential to life. They include the need for air, food, water, temperature maintenance, rest and sleep, elimination, sexuality and avoidance of pain. Some physiological needs are more important to survival than others, e.g. the need for oxygen takes priority over the need for food or water. Also the body can survive longer without food than without water. Arousal of senses (sensory input or sensory stimulation) occurs while meeting the physiological needs. Different types of sensory stimulation are needed for the normal growth and maturation of various systems of the body, e.g. central nervous system. A primary nursing function is to meet these needs. Nursing actions to meet these needs are vital to the survival of patients.
2. Safety and Security needs These needs come next in priority. They can be attained through adequate shelter and protection from harm factors in the
environment. Safety means physical as well as psychological safety. Individuals usually feel most secure in familiar environment (e.g. home), with familiar routines and with people they can trust and things they know. An important function of the nurse is the promotion of patients' physical safety and emotional security in a health care setting.
3. Love and Belonging needs
Once individuals have satisfied the basic physiological, safety and security needs, they seek their need for love and belonging (higher level needs). These needs include understanding, group acceptance, affection, mutual trust, and the feeling of belonging to others. Every individual sick or well desires' the companionship and recognition of others, e.g. his family or in their absence, friends. During the mid-life people need to be alone or without company (based on Orem's theory) for sometime, i.e. solitude; e.g. man and woman may integrate their newly found need for separateness with less need for attachment. The nurse should always consider love and belonging needs of patients in the plan of care and by establishing a nurse-client relationship based on mutual understanding and trust.
4. Self-esteem needs
It is the needs to feel good about oneself to feel pride, to feel a sense of accomplishment in what one does, and to believe that others also hold one in high regard. Self esteem gives the individual confidence, independence, worth, strength, adequacy, usefulness and importance. Lack of self esteem gives a feeling of inferiority, inadequacy, weakness and helplessness. The feeling of self dislike leads to frustration and a sense of failure.