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Leading and Managing in Nursing, 6th Edition offers an innovative approach to leading and managing by merging theory, research, and practical application to better prepare you for the NCLEX® exam and the transition to the practice environment. This cutting-edge text is organized around the issues that are central to the success of professional nurses in today's constantly changing healthcare environment, including consumer relationships, cultural diversity, resource management, delegation, and communication.

  • UNIQUE! Each chapter opens with The Challenge, where practicing nurse leaders/managers offer their real-world views of a concern related in the chapter, encouraging you to think about how you would handle the situation.
  • UNIQUE! The Solution closes each chapter with an effective method to handle the real-life situation presented in The Challenge, and demonstrates the ins and outs of problem solving in practice.
  • The Evidence boxes in each chapter summarize relevant concepts and research from nursing/business/medicine literature.
  • Theory boxes highlight and summarize pertinent theoretical concepts related to chapter content.
  • Research and Literature Perspective boxes summarize timely articles of interest and point out their relevance and applicability to practice.
  • Separate chapters on key topic areas such as cultural diversity, consumer relationships, delegation, managing information and technology, legal and ethical issues, and many more.
  • End-of-chapter Tips offer guidelines for applying information presented in the chapter.
  • Numbered exercises challenge you to think critically about concepts in the text and apply them to real-life situations.
  • Eye-catching full-color design helps engage and guide you through each chapter.
  • Glossary alphabetically lists and defines all the boldfaced key terms from the chapters.
  • Chapter Checklists provide a quick summary of key points and serve as a handy study tool.
  • NEW! QSEN competencies incorporated throughout the text emphasize the importance of providing safe, high-quality nursing care.
  • NEW! What New Graduates Say section at the end of each chapter provides you with a real-world perspective on the transition to clinical practice.
  • NEW! Expanded content on legal and ethical issues, care delivery strategies, staffing, quality, and consumer relationships.
  • NEW! Updated photos throughout the book maintain a contemporary and visually appealing look and feel.

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Published 07 October 2014
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Leading and Managing in
Nursing
SIXTH EDITION
Patricia S. Yoder-Wise
Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TexasTable of Contents
Cover image
Title page
Contents
Part 1 Core Concepts
Part 2 Managing Resources
Part 3 Changing the Status Quo
Part 4 Interpersonal and Personal Skills
Copyright
Dedication
Contributors
Reviewers
Acknowledgments
Preface
Concept and Practice Combined
Diversity of Perspectives
Audience
Organization
Design
Learning Strategies
Chapter Opener Elements
Elements Within the ChaptersEnd of Chapter Elements
Other Teaching/Learning Strategies
Complete Teaching and Learning Package
Part 1: Core Concepts
Overview
Chapter 1: Leading, Managing, and Following
Abstract
Introduction
Differentiating Leading, Managing, and Following
Traditional and Emerging Leadership and Management Roles
Emotional Intelligence Development for Professional Practice
Theory Development in Leading, Managing, and Following
Complexity Science Takes Hold
Tasks of Leading, Managing, and Following
Leading, Managing, and Following in a Diverse Organization
Conclusion
The Evidence
What New Graduates Say
Chapter Checklist
Tips for Leading, Managing, and Following
Chapter 2: Safe Care: The Core of Leading and Managing
Abstract
Introduction
The Classic Reports and Emerging Supports
The Institute of Medicine Reports on Quality
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality
The National Quality Forum
The Joint CommissionThe Det Norske Veritas/National Integrated Accreditation for Healthcare
OrganizationsSM
Magnet Recognition Program®
Institute for Healthcare Improvement
Quality and Safety Education for Nurses
Meaning for Leading and Managing in Nursing
Conclusion
The Evidence
What New Graduates Say
Chapter Checklist
Tips for Patient Safety
Chapter 3: Developing the Role of Leader
Abstract
Introduction
What is a Leader?
The Practice of Leadership
Leadership Development
Developing Leaders in the Emerging Workforce
Surviving and Thriving as a Leader
The Nurse as Leader
Conclusion
The Evidence
What New Graduates Say
Chapter Checklist
Tips for Becoming a Leader
Chapter 4: Developing the Role of Manager
Abstract
Introduction
The Definition of ManagementNurse Manager Role and the Intergenerational Workforce
Consuming Research
Organizational Culture
Mentoring
Day-to-Day Management Challenges
Managing Work Complexity and Stress
Managing Resources
Managed Care
Case Management
Informatics
Budgets
Quality Indicators
Professionalism
Conclusion
The Evidence
What New Graduates Say
Chapter Checklist
Tips for Implementing the Role of Nurse Manager
Context
Chapter 5: Legal and Ethical Issues
Abstract
Introduction
Professional Nursing Practice
Liability: Personal, Vicarious, and Corporate
Causes of Malpractice for Nurse Managers
Protective and Reporting Laws
Informed Consent
Privacy and ConfidentialityPolicies and Procedures
Employment Laws
Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and Health Care and Education
Reconciliation Act
Professional Nursing Practice: Ethics
Conclusion
The Evidence
What New Graduates Say
Chapter Checklist
Tips for Incorporating Legal and Ethical Issues in Practice Settings
Chapter 6: Making Decisions and Problem Solving
Abstract
Introduction
Differentiation of Decision Making and Problem Solving
Decision Making
Problem Solving
Conclusion
The Evidence
What New Graduates Say
Chapter Checklist
Tips for Decision Making and Problem Solving
Chapter 7: Healthcare Organizations
Abstract
Introduction
Characteristics and Types of Organizations
Forces that Influence Healthcare Organizations
A Theoretical Perspective
Nursing Role and Function Changes
ConclusionThe Evidence
What New Graduates Say
Chapter Checklist
Tips for Healthcare Organizations
Chapter 8: Understanding and Designing Organizational Structures
Abstract
Introduction
Mission
Vision
Philosophy
Organizational Culture
Factors Influencing Organizational Development
Characteristics of Organizational Structures
Bureaucracy
Types of Organizational Structures
Emerging Fluid Relationships
Conclusion
The Evidence
What New Graduates Say
Chapter Checklist
Tips for Understanding Organizational Structures
Chapter 9: Cultural Diversity in Health Care
Abstract
Introduction
Concepts and Principles
Theory
National and Global Directives
Special IssuesLanguage
Meaning of Diversity in the Organization
Cultural Relevance in the Workplace
Individual and Societal Factors
Dealing Effectively With Cultural Diversity
Implications in the Workplace
Conclusion
The Evidence
What New Graduates Say
Chapter Checklist
Chapter 10: Power, Politics, and Influence
Abstract
Introduction
History
Into the Twenty-First Century
Policy, Power, and Activism
Focus on Power
Empowerment
Personal Power Strategies
Exercising Power and Influence in the Workplace and other Organizations
Conclusion
The Evidence
What New Graduates Say
Chapter Checklist
Tips for Using Influence
Part 2: Managing Resources
Chapter 11: Caring, Communicating, and Managing with Technology
AbstractIntroduction
Types of Technologies
Information Systems
Communication Technology
Informatics
Patient Safety
Impact of Clinical Information Systems
Safely Implementing Health Information Technology
Future Trends and Professional Issues
Conclusion
The Evidence
What New Graduates Say
Chapter Checklist
Tips for Managing Information and Technology
Chapter 12: Managing Costs and Budgets
Abstract
Introduction
What Escalates Healthcare Costs?
How is Health Care Financed?
Healthcare Reimbursement
The Changing Healthcare Economic Environment
What Does this Mean for Nursing Practice?
Why is Profit Necessary?
Cost-Conscious Nursing Practices
Budgets
Types of Budgets
The Budgeting Process
Managing the Unit-Level Budget
ConclusionThe Evidence
What New Graduates Say
Chapter Checklist
Tips for Managing Costs and Budgets
Chapter 13: Care Delivery Strategies
Abstract
Introduction
Case Method (Total Patient Care)
Functional Nursing
Team Nursing
Primary Nursing
Nursing Case Management
Critical Pathways
Differentiated Nursing Practice
Transforming Care at the Bedside
Transitional Care
Interprofessional Education and Collaboration
Conclusion
The Evidence
What New Graduates Say
Chapter Checklist
Tips for Selecting a Care Delivery Model*
Chapter 14: Staffing and Scheduling
Abstract
Introduction
The Staffing Process
Productivity Models
Evaluation of Effective StaffingOrganizational Factors that Affect Staffing Plans
Scheduling
Evaluating Unit Staffing and Productivity
Conclusion
The Evidence
What New Graduates Say
Chapter Checklist
Tips for Staffing and Scheduling
Chapter 15: Selecting, Developing, and Evaluating Staff
Abstract
Introduction
Role Concepts and the Position Description
Selecting Staff
Developing Staff
Performance Appraisals
Performance Appraisal Methods
Performance Appraisal Environment
Conclusion
The Evidence
What New Graduates Say
Chapter Checklist
Tips for Conducting an Interview
Part 3: Changing the Status Quo
Chapter 16: Strategic Planning, Goal-Setting, and Marketing
Abstract
Introduction
Strategic Planning
MarketingConclusion
The Evidence
What New Graduates Say
Chapter Checklist
Tips for Planning, Goal-Setting, and Marketing
Chapter 17: Leading Change
Abstract
Introduction
The Nature of Change
The Change Process
People and Change
Context and Change
Leadership and Change
Conclusion
The Evidence
What New Graduates Say
Chapter Checklist
Tips for Leading Change
Chapter 18: Building Teams Through Communication and Partnerships
Abstract
Introduction
Groups and Teams
Generational Differences
Communicating Effectively
Key Concepts of Teams
Tools And Issues that Support Teams
Positive Communication Model
Qualities of a Team PlayerCreating Synergy
Interdisciplinary/Interprofessional Teams
The Value of Team-Building
Managing Emotions
Reflective Practice
The Role of Leadership
Conclusion
The Evidence
What New Graduates Say
Chapter Checklist
Tips For Team-Building
Chapter 19: Workforce Engagement and Collective Action
Abstract
Introduction
Collective Action
Governance
Collective Bargaining
Conclusion
The Evidence
What New Graduates Say
Chapter Checklist
Tips for Collective Action
Chapter 20: Managing Quality and Risk
Abstract
Introduction
Quality Management in Health Care
Benefits of Quality Management
Planning for Quality ManagementEvolution of Quality Management
Quality Management Principles
The Quality Improvement Process
Quality Assurance
Risk Management
Clinical Microsystems
Conclusion
The Evidence
What New Graduates Say
Chapter Checklist
Tips for Quality Management
Chapter 21: Translating Research into Practice
Abstract
Introduction
From Using Research to Evidence-Based Practice
Development of Evidence-Based Practice
Comparative Effectiveness Research
Practice-Based Evidence
Participatory Action Research
Quality Improvement
Diffusion of Innovations
Translating Research Into Practice
Evaluating Evidence
Organizational Strategies
Issues for Nurse Leaders and Managers
Conclusion
The Evidence
What New Graduates Say
Chapter ChecklistTips for Developing Skill in Using Evidence
Part 4: Interpersonal and Personal Skills
Interpersonal
Chapter 22: Consumer Relationships
Abstract
Introduction
Relationships
Service
Advocacy
Teaching
Leadership
Conclusion
The Evidence
What New Graduates Say
Chapter Checklist
Tips for Promoting a Consumer Focus
Chapter 23: Conflict: The Cutting Edge of Change
Abstract
Introduction
Types of Conflict
Stages of Conflict
Categories of Conflict
Modes of Conflict Resolution
Differences of Conflict-Handling Styles Among Nurses
The Role of the Leader
Managing Lateral Violence and Bullying
Conclusion
The EvidenceWhat New Graduates Say
Chapter Checklist
Tips for Addressing Conflict
Chapter 24: Managing Personal/Personnel Problems
Abstract
Introduction
Personal/Personnel Problems
Documentation
Progressive Discipline
Termination
Conclusion
The Evidence
What New Graduates Say
Chapter Checklist
Tips in the Documentation of Problems
Chapter 25: Workplace Violence and Incivility
Abstract
Introduction
Defining Workplace Violence and Incivility
Scope of the Problem
The Cost of Workplace Violence
Ensuring a Safe Workplace
Making a Difference
Prevention Strategies
Horizontal Violence: The Threat from Within
Developing a Safety Plan
Conclusion
The EvidenceWhat New Graduates Say
Chapter Checklist
Tips for Preventing Workplace Violence
Chapter 26: Delegation: An Art of Professional Nursing Practice
Abstract
Introduction
Historical Perspective
Definitions
A Framework for Delegation
Assignment Versus Delegation
Importance of Delegating
Legal Authority to Delegate
Selecting the Delegatee
Supervising the Delegatee
Delegation Decision Making
Challenges Related to the Delegation Process
Charge Nurses
Conclusion
The Evidence
What New Grads Say
Chapter Checklist
Tips for Delegating
Personal
Chapter 27: Role Transition
Abstract
Introduction
Types of Roles
LeadershipRoles: The ABCs of Understanding Roles
Role Transition Process
Strategies to Promote Role Transition
From Role Transition to Role Triumph
Conclusion
The Evidence
What New Grads Say
Chapter Checklist
Tips for Role Transitioning
Chapter 28: Self-Management: Stress and Time
Abstract
Introduction
Understanding Stress
Sources of Job Stress
Management of Stress
Resolution of Stress
Management of Time
Meeting Management
Delegating
Conclusion
The Evidence
What New Graduates Say
Chapter Checklist
Tips for Self-Management
Chapter 29: Managing Your Career
Abstract
Introduction
A FrameworkCareer Development
Career Marketing Strategies
Professional Development
Academic and Continuing Education
Certification
Professional Associations
A Model for Involvement
Conclusion
The Evidence
What New Graduates Say
Chapter Checklist
Tips for a Successful Career
Future
Chapter 30: Thriving for the Future
Abstract
Introduction
Leadership Demands for the Future
Leadership Strengths for the Future
Visioning
The Wise Forecast Model©
Shared Vision
Projections for the Future
Implications
Conclusion
The Evidence
What New Graduates Say
Chapter Checklist
Tips for the FutureIllustration Credits
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Chapter 7
Chapter 12
Chapter 14
Chapter 18
Chapter 21
Chapter 22
Chapter 23
Chapter 25
Chapter 26
Chapter 28
Chapter 29
Chapter 30
Glossary
Index
Key Leadership SkillsContents
Part 1 Core Concepts
Ov e r v i e w
1 Leading, Managing, and Following, 2
2 Safe Care: The Core of Leading and Managing, 23
3 Developing the Role of Leader, 34
4 Developing the Role of Manager, 51
C o n t e x t
5 Legal and Ethical Issues, 70
6 Making Decisions and Problem Solving, 100
7 Healthcare Organizations, 118
8 Understanding and Designing Organizational Structures, 136
9 Cultural Diversity in Health Care, 153
10 Power, Politics, and Influence, 167
Part 2 Managing Resources
11 Caring, Communicating, and Managing with Technology, 186
12 Managing Costs and Budgets, 211
13 Care Delivery Strategies, 232
14 Staffing and Scheduling, 255
15 Selecting, Developing, and Evaluating Staff, 279
Part 3 Changing the Status Quo
16 Strategic Planning, Goal-Setting, and Marketing, 291
17 Leading Change, 305
18 Building Teams Through Communication and Partnerships, 321
19 Workforce Engagement and Collective Action, 346
20 Managing Quality and Risk, 361
21 Translating Research into Practice, 383
Part 4 Interpersonal and Personal Skills
I n t e r p e r s o n a l
22 Consumer Relationships, 40923 Conflict: The Cutting Edge of Change, 431
24 Managing Personal/Personnel Problems, 450
25 Workplace Violence and Incivility, 464
26 Delegation: An Art of Professional Nursing Practice, 485
P e r s o n a l
27 Role Transition, 506
28 Self-Management: Stress and Time, 518
29 Managing Your Career, 544
F u t u r e
30 Thriving for the Future, 566C o p y r i g h t
3251 Riverport Lane
St. Louis, Missouri 63043
LEADING AND MANAGING IN NURSING
SIXTH EDITION
978-0-323-18577-6
Copyright © 2015 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.
Copyright © 2011, 2007, 2003, 1999, 1995 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of
Elsevier Inc.
No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any
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This book and the individual contributions contained in it are protected under
copyright by the Publisher (other than as may be noted herein).
Notices
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and experience broaden our understanding, changes in research methods,
professional practices, or medical treatment may become necessary.
Practitioners and researchers must always rely on their own experience and
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Leading and managing in nursing / [edited by] Patricia S. Yoder-Wise. – Sixth
edition.
p. ; cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-0-323-18577-6 (pbk. : alk. paper)
I. Yoder-Wise, Patricia S., 1941- editor of compilation.
[DNLM: 1. Nurse Administrators–organization & administration. 2. Leadership. WY
105]
RT89
362.17'3–dc23
2014001017
Senior Content Strategist: Yvonne Alexopoulos
Content Development Manager: Jean Sims Fornango
Senior Content Development Specialist: Danielle Frazier
Publishing Services Manager: Jeff Patterson
Senior Project Manager: Tracey Schriefer
Design Direction: Ashley Miner
Printed in China.D e d i c a t i o n
This book is dedicated to the families and friends who supported us as we created it; to
the faculty who are dedicated to producing the nursing service leaders for the ever
changing healthcare services; to the learners who have committed to an exciting
career in nursing administration; and to the nurse leaders who face the incredible
issues of health care every day, who do their best in leading important changes in
practice, and who remain committed to the glory of nursing: the care we deliver to
patients.
Lead on! ¡Adelante!Contributors
Michael R. Bleich, PhD, RN, NEA-BC, FAAN President and Maxine Clark and Bob
Fox Dean and Professor Goldfarb School of Nursing at Barnes-Jewish College St.
Louis, Missouri
Chapter 1: Leading, Managing, and Following
Mary Ellen Clyne, MSN, RN, NEA-BC President and Chief Executive Officer Clara
Maass Medical Center Belleville, New Jersey
Chapter 16: Strategic Planning, Goal-Setting, and Marketing
Jeannette T. Crenshaw, DNP, RN, LCCE, IBCLC, NEA-BC, FAAN Doctor of
Nursing Practice Executive Leadership in Nursing Specialization, Assistant Professor,
Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, Texas
Chapter 6: Making Decisions and Problem Solving
Chapter 28: Self-Management: Stress and Time
Richard G. Cuming, RN, MSN, EdD, NEA-BC Nurse Executive – Operations
Management, Performance Management & Innovation, Tenet Healthcare Corporation,
Dallas, Texas
Chapter 19: Workforce Engagement and Collective Action
Mary Ann T. Donohue, PhD, RN, APN, PMH-CNS, NEA-BC Vice President and
Chief Nursing Executive, Jersey Shore University Medical Center, Meridian Health
System, Neptune, New Jersey
Chapter 28: Self-Management: Stress and Time
Karen A. Esquibel, PhD, RN, CPNP-PC Associate Professor of Nursing, Pediatric
Nurse Practitioner, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Nursing,
Lubbock, Texas
Chapter 9: Cultural Diversity in Health Care
Michael L. Evans, PhD, RN, NEA-BC, FACHE, FAAN Dean and Professor, Texas
Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Nursing, Lubbock, Texas
Chapter 3: Developing the Role of Leader
Victoria N. Folse, PhD, APN, PMHCNS-BC, LCPC Director and Associate
Professor, School of Nursing, Illinois Wesleyan University, Bloomington, Illinois
Chapter 20: Managing Quality and Risk
Chapter 23: Conflict: The Cutting Edge of ChangeJacqueline Gonzalez, DNP, ARNP, MBA, NEA-BC, FAAN Senior Vice President &
Chief Nursing Officer and Patient Safety Officer, Miami Children’s Hospital, Miami,
Florida
Chapter 4: Developing the Role of Manager
Ginny Wacker Guido, JD, MSN, RN, FAAN Regional Director for Nursing and
Assistant Dean, College of Nursing, Washington State University Vancouver,
Vancouver, Washington
Chapter 5: Legal and Ethical Issues
Debra Hagler, PhD, RN, ACNS-BC, CNE, ANEF, FAAN Clinical Professor, College
of Nursing & Health Innovation, Arizona State University, Phoenix, Arizona
Chapter 29: Managing Your Career
Karen Kelly, EdD, RN, NEA-BC Associate Professor & Director, Continuing
Education, Southern Illinois University Edwards, ville School of Nursing, Edwardsville,
Illinois
Chapter 10: Power, Politics, and Influence
Shari Kist, PhD, RN
Assistant Professor, Goldfarb School of Nursing at Barnes-Jewish College, St. Louis,
MissouriChapter 1: Leading, Managing, and Following
Karren Kowalski, PhD, RN, NEA-BC, FAAN
Professor, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, Texas
President and CEO, Colorado Center for Nursing Excellence Denver, Colorado
Chapter 18: Building Teams Through Communication and Partnerships
Chapter 24: Managing Personal/Personnel Problems
Mary E. Mancini, PhD, RN, NE-BC, FAHA, FAAN Professor and Associate Dean of
Undergraduate Nursing Programs, The University of Texas—Arlington, College of
Nursing Arlington, Texas
Chapter 7: Healthcare Organizations
Chapter 8: Understanding and Designing Organizational Structures
Maureen Murphy-Ruocco, ANP, C, MSN, EdM, DPNAP, FNAP Professor and
Associate Dean School of Nursing and Health Education Graduate Program, Felician
College School of Education, Rutherford, New Jersey
Chapter 26: Delegation: An Art of Professional Nursing Practice
Dorothy A. Otto, EdD, MSN, RN, ANEF Associate Professor, University of Texas
Health Science Center-Houston, School of Nursing, Houston, Texas
Chapter 9: Cultural Diversity in Health Care
Elaine S. Scott, PhD, RN, NE-BC Associate Professor, Director, East Carolina
Center for Nursing Leadership, College of Nursing, East Carolina University,
Greenville, North CarolinaChapter 17: Leading Change
Ashley Sediqzad Clinical Informatics Manager, Children’s Mercy Hospitals and
Clinics, Kansas City, Missouri
Chapter 11: Caring, Communicating, and Managing with Technology
Janis B. Smith, RN, DNP Director, Clinical Informatics and Professional Practice,
Children’s Mercy Hospitals and Clinics, Kansas City, Missouri
Chapter 11: Caring, Communicating, and Managing with Technology
Susan Sportsman, PhD, RN, ANEF, FAAN Director, Academic Consulting Group,
Nursing and Health Professions, Elsevier Inc., St. Louis, Missouri
Chapter 13: Care Delivery Strategies
Chapter 14: Staffing and Scheduling
Sylvain Trepanier, DNP, RN, CENP Senior Director, Patient Care Services, Tenet
Healthcare Corporation, Dallas, Texas
Chapter 6: Making Decisions and Problem Solving
Chapter 12: Managing Costs and Budgets
Diane M. Twedell, DNP, RN, CENP Chief Nursing Officer, Southeast Minnesota
Region Mayo Clinic Health System, Austin, Minnesota
Chapter 15: Selecting, Developing, and Evaluating Staff
Chapter 27: Role Transition
Jana Wheeler, RN, MSN, CPN Manager, Clinical Informatics, Children’s Mercy
Hospitals & Clinics, Kansas City, Missouri
Chapter 11: Caring, Communicating, and Managing with Technology
Crystal J. Wilkinson, DNP, RN, CNS-CH, CPHQ Assistant Professor Texas Tech
University Health Sciences Center, School of Nursing, Lubbock, Texas
Chapter 25: Workplace Violence and Incivility
Patricia S. Yoder-Wise, RN, EdD, NEA-BC, ANEF, FAAN Professor and Dean
Emerita, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, Texas
Chapter 2: Safe Care: The Core of Leading and Managing
Chapter 30: Thriving for the Future
Margarete Lieb Zalon, PhD, RN, ACNS-BC, FAAN Professor Department of
Nursing, University of Scranton, Scranton, Pennsylvania
Chapter 21: Translating Research into Practice
Chapter 22: Consumer Relationships
David Zambrana, DNP, MBA, RN Chief Operating Officer, University of Miami
Hospital, Miami, FloridaChapter 19: Workforce Engagement and Collective Action
EVOLVE RESOURCES
Test Bank
Joyce Engel, PhD, RN, BEd, MEd Associate Professor, Department of Nursing
Brock University, St. Catharines, Ontario
Reviewers
Peer review is a critical aspect of most publications. Peers tell us what is strong and
what is missing. They direct the content of a publication from their area of
knowledge and experience. These individuals provide insightful comments and
suggestions to hone the information presented in a text or article, and we are
indebted to them. The end result of their e orts, as in any peer review process, is a
stronger presentation of information for the readership. We are grateful to the
masked reviewers of this publication. Thank you!
Mary T. Boylston, RN, MSN, EdD, AHN-BC Professor of Nursing, Eastern
University, St. Davids, Pennsylvania
Elizabeth P. Crusse, MS, MA, RN, CNE Clinical Assistant Professor, Towson
University, Department of Nursing, Towson, Maryland
Dee Ernesti, RN, MSN, CENP Instructor, University of Nebraska Medical Center
College of Nursing, Omaha, Nebraska
Mary L. Fisher, PhD, RN Professor of Nursing, Associate Vice Chancellor for
Academic Affairs, Indiana University-Purdue University, Indianapolis, Indianapolis,
Indiana
Shirley Garick, PhD, RN Interim Director of Nursing, Professor of Nursing, Texas
A&M University-Texarkana, Texarkana, Texas
Beth Bates Gaul, PhD, RN Professor of Nursing, Grand View University, Des
Moines, Iowa
Evalyn J. Gossett, MSN, RN Clinical Assistant Professor, Indiana University
Northwest, College of Health and Human Services, School of Nursing, Gary, Indiana
Judy Gregg, MS, RN Nursing Instructor, Mount Vernon Nazarene University, Mount
Vernon, Ohio
Nancy Grove, PhD, RN Associate Professor (Retired), University of Pittsburgh,
School of Nursing, Johnstown, Pennsylvania
Emma Kientz, MS, APRN-CNS, CNE Assistant Professor, The University of
Oklahoma, Tulsa, Oklahoma
Mary B. Killeen, PhD, RN, NEA-BC Adjunct Associate Professor, Department of
Nursing, University of Michigan-Flint, Flint, Michigan
Dimitra Loukissa, PhD, RN Associate Professor, North Park University, School of
Nursing, Chicago, IllinoisCatherine Poillon Lovecchio, PhD, RN Assistant Professor of Nursing, The
University of Scranton, Scranton, Pennsylvania
Anne Boulter Lucero, MSN, RN Assistant Director, Nursing Instructor, Cabrillo
College, Aptos, California
Dorothea E. McDowell, PhD, RN Professor of Nursing, Henson School of Science
and Technology, Salisbury University, Salisbury, Maryland
Lynn A. Menzel, RN, BSN, MA Case Management, Martin Health System, Stuart,
Florida
Bettie G. Miller, MSN, MS, BSE, BSN, RN-BC Instructor of Nursing, Eleanor Mann
School of Nursing, PhD (Candidate), Public Policy Program-Policy Studies in Aging,
University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas
Juleann H. Miller, PhD, RN Associate Professor, Assistant Director of the Nursing
Program, St. Ambrose University, Davenport, Iowa
Jack E. Rydell, DNP, RN Assistant Professor, Concordia College, Moorhead,
Minnesota
Charlotte Silvers, RN, MSN, CPHQ Assistant Professor, Texas Tech University
Health Sciences Center School of Nursing, Lubbock, Texas
Darlene Sredl, PhD, RN Professor of Nursing, College of Nursing, University of
Missouri-St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri
Charlotte A. Wisnewski, PhD, RN, CDE, CNE BSN Program Director, University of
Texas Medical Branch School of Nursing at Galveston, Galveston, Texas
Joyce Wright, PhD, RN, CNE, CNL Associate Professor, Coordinator of the RN to
BSN Program, New Jersey City University, Jersey City, New Jersey
Judith Young, DNP, CCRN Clinical Assistant Professor, Indiana University School
of Nursing, Indianapolis, Indiana
5
Acknowledgments
Patricia S. Yoder-Wise, RN, EdD, NEA-BC, ANEF, FAAN, Texas Tech University
Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, Texas
From the beginning of the precedent setting rst edition leadership/management
text to this sixth edition, many people had a part in making this publication possible.
Perhaps the group that is often overlooked is, in a sense, the most important—the
graduates who tell me how valuable information was in this text and how it
prepared them for the evolving role of nurses as they take on new roles and
responsibilities in their careers. Thank you for sharing your wisdom with us!
Special acknowledgment goes to the team at Elsevier—the “behind the scenes”
people who turn Word documents into a graphically appealing and colorful
presentation. To our content strategist, Yvonne Alexopoulos; to our content
development specialist, Danielle Frazier; and to our project manager, Tracey
Schriefer: THANKS!
To the authors who made this edition possible: thank you for helping the next
generation of nurses be well prepared to enter the profession of nursing and to
exercise both leadership and management in responsible and artistic ways. To the
educators who have used this textbook and provided feedback, we listened and, as
with the comments of the reviewers, incorporated suggestions as needed.
Most of all, for me personally, I have to thank my husband and best friend, Robert
Thomas Wise. He has lived through six editions of this text and knows by now that
when the deadlines tighten, his humor and creativity need to increase. And they do!
His willingness to take on more of the things that might be deemed mutual tasks is a
small example of his ongoing support. You are the best!
As has been true since the beginning of Leading and Managing in Nursing, we who
created and revised this edition learned more about a particular area and the impact
of each area on the whole of leadership and management. Our learning re ects the
condition of nursing today: there is no room for stagnation on any topic. The context
in which nurses lead and manage is constantly changing—so the key to success is to
learn continuously. Keep learning, keep caring, and maintain our passion for
nursing and the patients we serve. That message, if nothing else, must be instilled in
our leaders of tomorrow.
Lead on! ¡Adelante!

Preface
Leading and managing are two essential expectations of all professional nurses and
become increasingly important throughout one’s career. To lead, manage, and follow
successfully, nurses must possess not only knowledge and skills but also a caring and
compassionate attitude.
This book results from our continued strong belief in the need for a text that
focuses in a distinctive way on the nursing leadership and management issues of
today and tomorrow. We continue to nd that we are not alone in this belief. This
edition incorporates reviewers from both service and education to be sure that the
text conveys important and timely information to users as they focus on the critical
roles of leading, managing, and following. Additionally, we took seriously the
various comments by educators and learners o! ered as I met them in person or
heard from them by email.
Concept and Practice Combined
Innovative in both content and presentation, Leading and Managing in Nursing merges
theory, research, and practical application in key leadership and management areas.
Our overriding concern in this edition remains to create a text that, while well
grounded in theory and concept, presents the content in a way that is real. Wherever
possible, we use real-world examples from the continuum of today’s healthcare
settings to illustrate the concepts. Because each chapter contributor synthesizes the
designated focus, you will nd no lengthy quotations in these chapters. We have
made every e! ort to make the content as engaging, inviting, and interesting as
possible. Re) ecting our view of the real world of nursing leadership and
management today, the following themes pervade the text:
• Every role within nursing has the basic concern for safe, effective care for the
people for whom we exist—our clients and patients.
• The focus of health care continues to shift from the hospital to the community at a
rapid rate.
• Healthcare consumers and the healthcare workforce are increasingly culturally
diverse.
• Today virtually every professional nurse leads, manages, and follows, regardless
of title or position.8
• Consumer relationships play a central role in the delivery of nursing and health
care.
• Communication, collaboration, team-building, and other interpersonal skills form
the foundation of effective nursing leadership and management.
• Change continues at a rapid pace in health care and society in general.
• Change must derive from evidence-based practices wherever possible and from
thoughtful innovation when no or limited evidence exists.
• Healthcare delivery is highly dependent on the effectiveness of nurses across roles
and settings.
Diversity of Perspectives
Contributors are recruited from diverse settings, roles, and geographic areas,
enabling them to o! er a broad perspective on the critical elements of nursing
leadership and management roles. To help bridge the gap often found between
nursing education and nursing practice, some contributors were recruited from
academia and others from practice settings. This blend not only contributes to the
richness of this text but also conveys a sense of oneness in nursing. The historical
“gap” between education and service must become a sense of a continuum and not a
chasm.
Audience
This book is designed for undergraduate learners in nursing leadership and
management courses, including those in BSN-completion courses and second-degree
programs. In addition, we know that nurses in practice, who had not anticipated
formal leadership and management roles in their careers, use this text to capitalize
on their own real-life experiences as a way to develop greater understanding about
leading and managing and the important role of following. Numerous examples and
The Challenge/Solution in each chapter provide relevance to the real world of
nursing.
Organization
We have organized this text around issues that are key to the success of professional
nurses in today’s constantly changing healthcare environment. So the content ) ows
from the core concepts (leading, managing, and following; patient safety; and role
development as a leader and manager) to the context in which leading and
managing occur (legal considerations, organizational aspects, culture, and power) to
managing resources (technology, costs, sta ng, change, building teams, quality, and
applying research) to personal and professional skills (consumer relationships,
con) icts, delegation, personal role transition, self and career management and
preparing for the future).Because repetition plays a crucial role in how well learners learn and retain new
content, some topics appear in more than one chapter and in more than one section.
For example, because disruptive behavior is so disruptive, it is addressed in several
chapters that focus on con) ict, personal/personnel problems, incivility, and self
management. Rather than referring learners to another portion of the text, the key
information is provided within the specific chapter, but perhaps in less depth.
We also made an e! ort to express a variety of di! erent views on some topics, as is
true in the real world of nursing. This diversity of views in the real world presents a
constant challenge to leaders, managers, and followers, who address the critical
tasks of creating positive workplaces so that those who provide direct care thrive and
continuously improve the patient experience.
Design
The functional full-color design, still distinctive to this text, is used to emphasize and
identify the text’s many learning strategies, which are featured to enhance learning.
Full-color photographs not only add visual interest but also provide visual
reinforcement of concepts, such as body language and the changes occurring in
contemporary healthcare settings. Figures expand and clarify concepts and activities
described in the text graphically.
Learning Strategies
The numerous strategies featured in this text are designed both to stimulate learners’
interest and to provide constant reinforcement throughout the learning process.
Color is used consistently throughout the text to help the reader identify the various
chapter elements described in the following sections.
Chapter Opener Elements
• The introductory paragraph briefly describes the purpose and scope of the chapter.
It is a preview of what the chapter contains.
• Objectives articulate the chapter’s learning intent, typically at the application
level or higher.
• Terms to know are listed and appear in color type in each chapter. Definitions
appear alphabetically in the Glossary at the end of the text.
• The Challenge presents a contemporary nurse’s real-world concern related to the
chapter’s focus. It is designed to allow us to “hear” a real-life situation. The
Challenge ends with a question about what you might do in such a situation.
Elements Within the Chapters
Exercises stimulate learners to reason critically about how to apply concepts to the
workplace and other real-world situations. They provide experiential reinforcement

of key leading, managing, and following skills. Exercises are highlighted within a
full-color box and are numbered sequentially within each chapter to facilitate using
them as assignments or activities. Each chapter is numbered separately so that
learners can focus on the concepts inherent in a speci c area and educators can
readily use chapters to fit their own sequence of presenting information.
Research Perspectives and Literature Perspectives illustrate the relevance and
applicability of current scholarship to practice. Perspectives always appear in boxes
with a “book” icon in the upper left corner. These remain the same in the edition of
the text and additional research and literature perspectives are updated on a
scheduled basis so that newer information is available should educators wish to
substitute any perspectives.
Theory Boxes provide a brief description of relevant theory and key concepts.
Numbered boxes contain lists, tools such as forms and work sheets, and other
information relevant to the chapter.
The vivid full-color chapter opener photographs and other photographs throughout
the text help convey each chapter’s key message. Figures and tables also expand
concepts presented to facilitate a greater grasp of important materials.
End of Chapter Elements
The Solution provides an effective method to handle the real-life situations set forth in
The Challenge. It re) ects the response the author of The Challenge took and ends
with a question about how that solution would fit for you.
The Evidence contains one example of evidence related to the chapter’s content or
it contains a summary of what the literature shows to be evidence related to the
topic.
What New Graduates Say is a new feature that illustrates comments recent
graduates have made related to the concepts discussed in the chapter.
The Chapter Checklist summarizes the main point in a brief paragraph and an
itemized list of the major headings from the chapter.
Tips o! er practical guidelines for learners to follow in applying some aspect of the
information presented in each chapter.
References and Suggested Readings provide the learner with a list of key sources for
further reading on topics found in the chapter.
Other Teaching/Learning Strategies
The Glossary contains a comprehensive list of de nitions of all boldfaced terms used
in the chapters.Complete Teaching and Learning Package
In addition to the text Leading and Managing in Nursing, Educator Resources are
provided online through Evolve (http://evolve.elsevier.com/Yoder-Wise/). These
resources are designed to help educators present the material in this text and include
the following assets:
• UPDATED! PowerPoint Slides for each chapter with lecture notes where applicable
• UPDATED! ExamView Test Bank. Answers and a rationale are also provided.
• NEW! TEACH for Nurses
Learning Resources can also be found online through Evolve
(http://evolve.elsevier.com/Yoder-Wise/). These resources provide learners with
additional tools for learning and include the following assets:
• NCLEX-Style Questions
• Sample ResumesP A R T 1
Core ConceptsO v e r v i e w
C H A P T E R 1
Leading, Managing, and
Following
Michael R. Bleich; Shari Kist
Abstract
The hallmark Institute of Medicine report, The Future of Nursing: Leading Change,
Advancing Health, calls for all nurses to lead change, to manage care within
interprofessional teams, and to follow in the spirit of collaboration. As health reform
expands the scope of nursing practice and opportunities for nurses, the concepts of
leading, managing, and following are essential to nursing practice at the point-of-care,
to in uence new settings and models of care delivery used, and to advocate for
individuals, families, and communities.
Learning Outcomes
• Relate leadership and other organizational theories to behaviors that serve the
role(s) and functions of professional nursing.
• Link self-knowledge and emotional intelligence to the constructive use of power and
influence, and the exercise of authority and responsibility needed for professional
practice.
• Develop strength in bringing a professional nursing lens to the interprofessional team
while advocating for quality and safety.
• Improve decision making when acting as a leader, manager, or follower by enlarging
the view of the individual, family, or community being cared for to include the social
network and organizational context for outcomes achievement.
KEY TERMS
Advanced Practice Registered Nurses (APRN)
clinical processes
complexity theory
emotional intelligence
evidence-based organizational practice
followershipleadership
Magnet Recognition Program®
management
management theory
motivation
Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act
process of care
social networking
triple aim
values
vision
The Challenge
Barbara Primm, BSN, RN-BC Assistant Administrator and former Nursing Director
Loch Haven Senior Living Community, Macon, Missouri
Leading Culture Change in Long-Term Care: Where to Begin?
Administrators of our long-term care facility desired to be increasingly responsive
to the needs of our stakeholders. With 180 skilled-care beds, we cared for
individuals with dementia and those who required complex skilled care.
Additionally, we had residents in 24 licensed residential care apartments. Fifteen
semiprivate rooms had been converted to private rooms, but we still had a
waiting list of individuals and their families who requested private rooms. The
leadership team also felt the need to use the private room concept to increase our
focus on resident-centered care. We recognized this national trend of
residentcentered care to be in tune with our mission.
Where does one start when undertaking something as dramatic as a change in
culture and processes of care? What role do sta- , residents, and community
members play in the implementation of resident-centered care?
What do you think you would do if you were this nurse?
Introduction
The nursing profession constitutes the backbone of the healthcare system, both in
numbers and its span of in. uence across the clinical spectrum. Two major
developments reveal the central nature of nursing to the health and well-being of
citizens: the public acknowledgement of nursing in the landmark Institute of
Medicine report (IOM) entitled, The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing
Health (IOM, 2011) and the passage of the Patient Protection and A ordable Care
Act (PPACA). After close analysis of the IOM report and the summary of the PPACA,
one can conclude that no substantial health reform can unfold without active nursing
engagement (Focus on Health Reform). Each document emphasizes that nurses must
lead, manage, and collaboratively follow—not in the traditional sense of following
orders or clinical protocols for care—but as active collaborators with other members
of the health team and with those being served.
Beyond the expectation to lead, manage, and follow, nurses are also expected to
help ful: ll health care’s triple aim. Coined by the Institute for Healthcare
Improvement (IHI), the triple aim relates to access, quality, and cost of care
(Berwick, Nolan, & Whittington, 2008). Nurses who practice in expanded roles help
solve access to care in practice settings beyond traditional hospital and ambulatory
centers. Increasingly, all nurses practice in the widest array of settings of any
healthcare worker, including school clinics; public health; palliative, hospice, and
home care; urgent care; and more. Many states allow advanced practice registered
nurses (APRNs) the freedom to practice independently.
As access increases, nurses are also vigilant in delivering care that is scienti: c,
state of the art, and sensitive to patients’ needs, collectively creating a quality
experience. Beyond respectful treatment, patients want their values and beliefs
accommodated in partnership with the care team. Further, nurses must bring health
literacy into the quality equation, ensuring the patient’s ability to comprehend
health-related information so that appropriate health decisions and informed
posttreatment follow-up is ensured (Koh et al., 2012). Patients also demand a safe
clinical experience, free from medical error and catastrophic events, including death.Lastly, the triple aim includes impacting the cost of health care, as costs have
mounted and even destabilized economies worldwide. Technology, institutional care,
supplies, and human resource requirements place a staggering cost burden on
individuals and businesses. At the individual level, a single major health event could
drive a family into bankruptcy. The cost of insurance, insurance company pro: ts
tied to limits placed on coverage, and high deductibles are active public
conversations—even with passage of the PPACA, which is designed to begin
correcting many of these issues. The new terminology references accountable care
organizations (ACOs), health insurance exchanges, and mandated coverage, all
which challenge the public and health professionals to acquire common meaning
from these and other terms.
This introduction should signal to all that point-of-care service is but one, albeit a
very signi: cant dimension of what it takes to be a high performing nurse in today’s
health system. As a discipline, we are called upon to develop expanded roles
congruent with societal needs. We in. uence policy development within and beyond
institutional settings. We design care processes to ensure patient- and
familycentered experiences that are safe and reflect quality.
Nursing education, focused on individual, family, and community-based needs and
how each intersects, adds to care coordination with health professionals who share a
restricted view of care. Exercising these added functions requires self-con: dence,
knowledge of organizations and health systems, and an inner desire to lead,
manage, and follow. This chapter starts to frame that journey, and the chapters that
follow add to professional formation. In the end, nurses with leadership,
management, and followership abilities will make better clinical decisions, consider
the organizational and societal context of decisions, and act as advocates and
stewards of resources for individuals receiving care and the impact of these decisions
on families and the environment.
Differentiating Leading, Managing, and Following
Too often, nurses new to the profession believe their ability to perform clinical
procedures is what makes them appear professional to those receiving care, to their
peers, or to the public. Often, a view that leadership is isolated to those holding
managerial positions prevails; and so does the view that a direct care nurse is subject
to following by adhering to the direction of others. Such views fail to incorporate the
fact that to be a nurse requires each licensed individual to lead, manage, and follow
when practicing at the point-of-care and beyond. To appreciate why this is the case
requires understanding operational de: nitions and appreciating leadership and
organizational theories.
Leadership has been de: ned by individuals who have represented many di- erent
disciplines over time—it is not unique to health care. Early practitioners inorganizational science noted the di- erences in the ways some organizations or units
within those organizations operated. Morale was di- erent, more uplifted in some
areas over others. Work output was more generative. Relationships were more
congenial. The traits of individuals were studied, leading to awareness that some
individuals possessed traits that seemed to produce better organizational outcomes.
From these studies, trait theory was developed and is still examined as a leadership
factor today.
Closely tied to this appreciation of traits as one leadership ingredient were
observations that a leader could be successful in one environment yet not necessarily
in another. The situation at hand and the work environment itself were variables,
beyond traits, that mattered. Activities being performed were yet another variable
that was studied. When the setting required reproducible and repetitive tasks, a
charismatic leader may be less e- ective than in an unpredictable or unstructured
situation where the tasks required on-the-spot innovation. These variables advanced
knowledge about leading, managing, and following and promoted the development
of other theories that are presented later. These include situational/contingency
theory, which examines variables in the external and internal environment,
including the nature of the work itself, worker behaviors (individually or in groups),
the predictability or unpredictability of work, and the risk associated with work.
Management theories, which require planning, organizing, and directing, and
controlling aspects of the design of work are also included.
These theories, originating from the mid-1950s, are still relevant today. They
continue to evolve and often are combined with other theories to guide professionals
into evidence-based organizational practices, including those in health care.
From this early work, leadership can be de: ned as the use of individual traits and
abilities, in relationship with others, and the ability to (often rapidly) interpret the
environment/context where a situation is emerging, and enter that situation in the
absence of a script or de: ned plan that could have been projected. Leadership is
required when the unknown presents itself, necessitates the use of principles to
improvise solutions, and helps others to cope, thrive, and function at a high capacity
based on the situation. Key traits that leaders possess include articulating a vision for
the desired future state; seeing possibilities in this midst of challenging, often
complex, uncharted, or even dire circumstances; communicating e- ectively,
sometimes powerfully, with others; adapting to new situations and environments;
and using experience and knowledge to judge reasonable risks.
Nurses face the unknown every day. New diseases emerge. Clinical procedures
have to be adapted to a patient’s physical challenges. Natural disasters, such as
hurricanes or tornadoes, create havoc, which leaves many people in need of
immediate health care. Each of these requires stepping into the unknown, using
principles, showing a commanding presence, and taking risks.Management is the ability to plan, direct, control, and evaluate others in
situations where the outcomes are known or preestablished, where one of more ways
of performing have been agreed upon based upon evidence, where feedback and
communication is shared to improve clinical processes and outcomes, and where
sustained relationships advance consistency of purpose. Traits needed for e- ective
managers include (1) the ability to identify recurring problems that exist where the
design of evidence-based routines create structure and improved work eC ciency, (2)
persistent and vigilant behavior in self and others, and (3) communication that
maintains esprit de corps in the face of repetitive work tasks.
Considerable time is spent on developing both leadership and management
abilities. Courses, such as Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS), that emphasize
procedures or clinical algorithms teach management: if “A” happens, then “B”
follows; if “C” emerges from “B”, then “D” is performed. Less emphasis has been
given to leadership development, which deals with relationships and movement
toward an aim. Clinical simulation and experiences provide some opportunities for
increasing these skills. Both leadership and management are needed to deal with
complexity, relationship dynamics, new information, and new organizational
systems and structures.
Management is needed to provide organization in the workplace, a sense of
purpose, and safety. The complexities of blood or chemotherapy administration are
examples of highly complex management routines. Even basic care routines, such as
oral care and skin hygiene, if neglected, have serious clinical outcomes for patients.
Nursing and scienti: c knowledge supports what we know to be best practice, yet
without persistence and vigilance, e- orts shift to monitoring basics such as hand
hygiene and lift practices.
These examples support the idea that leadership and management is not an
either/or scenario. Care routines must be managed. Nurses are on the front line
when dealing with new and unknown experiences, which demands leadership. A
professional nurse must have abilities to both lead and manage.
Either role, leader or manager, requires engagement with others; one does not lead
or manage in isolation. Similarly one cannot follow if no direction is indicated.
Unfortunately, the terms following and followership fail to get credit for what actually
transpires within a healthy leader-follower or manager-follower transaction.
Following sounds passive, non-directed, or unable to perform. In the health team
today, collaboration requires that all team members bring knowledge, skills,
abilities, and experience to deal with many complex clinical issues. A healthy
de: nition of followership is that each member contributes optimally, but acquiesces
to a peer who is leading or managing in a setting where a team has gathered to
ensure the best clinical decision-making and actions are taken to achieve clinical or
organizational outcomes. When in the following role, teamwork is palpable, whereeach person acts together in purpose and in a rhythm that addresses the aim at hand.
Traits that great followers possess include acting synergistically with others,
relieving others and stepping into leading and managing situations to prevent
fatigue, speaking and acting with principle and integrity, adding value to the work
being accomplished, and questioning decisions and directions when they are unclear
or fail to be patient-focused. Box 1-1 is a composite of the traits needed to lead,
manage, and follow.
Box 1-1
Desired Attributes of Leaders, Managers, and Followers
• Use focused energy and stamina to accomplish a vision
• Use critical-thinking skills in decision making
• Trust personal intuition and then back up intuition with facts
• Accept responsibility willingly and follow up on the consequences of actions
taken
• Identify the needs of others
• Deal with people skillfully: coach, communicate, counsel
• Demonstrate ease in standard/boundary setting
• Examine multiple options to accomplish the objective at hand flexibly
• Be trustworthy and handle information from various sources with respect for the
source
• Motivate others assertively toward the objective at hand
• Demonstrate competence or be capable of rapid learning in the arena in which
change is desired
Traditional and Emerging Leadership and Management
Roles
The way nurses lead, manage, and follow has changed over time. Formerly, nurses
took direction from physicians or senior nurses exclusively, such as “head” or
“charge” nurses. These formal roles still exist in title and responsibility today, but the
expectation has shifted from top-down, order-giving tied to an expectation of
unquestioned following to a model in which shared decision making with
collaborative action is the norm. As knowledge expands and the array of treatment
interventions available to patients has grown, care delivery today is far beyond what
a command-and-control top-down structure can accommodate in a traditional
hierarchically-led organization. Especially in acute care settings, acuity requires
immediate and autonomous responses separate from those that can be predicted and
pre-assigned. Health care is now delivered in a collaborative and interprofessionalmanner, such as that reflected in the movement toward primary care/medical homes.
In this model of care, care is delivered by providers who ensure comprehensive,
patient-centered, coordinated, accessible care and quality and safety. With a
teamdriven approach, the model is morphing to consider the needs of populations of
patients with similar care needs, focused on outcomes and true cost, aligning
payment models with value-based improvement, and integrating with specialty
providers, as needed (Porter, Pabo, & Lee, 2013). This holistic approach to care
delivery suggests that holistic leadership is equally important. The literature
perspective on p. 8 relates how communication, mentoring, and professional
development can advance the function of a team.
New theories will emerge to capture the complexity and globalization of health
care and other organizations. Complexity science recognizes that organizations
developed under the bureaucratic model during the industrial age, where the parts in
an assembly-line approach contributed to the whole, . exibility in an environment
was absent, knowledge was contained, the Internet and social media were absent,
and specialized knowledge-workers created webs of relationships with little regard to
organizational boundaries or structures. Health care today is an amalgamation of
both traditional and dynamic structures. It is unpredictable and focused on
deterministic problem solving. Professional nurses will need to practice within a
system that is both predictable and unpredictable.
In this chapter and in Chapters 3 and 4, various perspectives on the concepts of
leading (leadership), managing (management), and following (followership) are
presented. These concepts are integrated, meaning that nurses can lead, manage,
and follow concurrently. Leading, managing, and following are not institutionally
role-bound concepts—the nurse must lead, manage, and follow within any nursing
role, from direct care nurse to chief executive nurse. For organizations to thrive, each
person has to assume personal responsibility by becoming the CEO of his/her own
roles. We need to “lead where we are planted and shine where we : nd ourselves”
(Sharma, 2010, p. 17). We do not have to have a “title” to be a leader; we just have
to be a living human being. In other words, the synchrony of leading, managing, and
following is within each of us.
The collective behaviors that re. ect leading, managing, and following enhance
each other. All interdisciplinary healthcare providers, including professional nurses,
experience situations each day in which they must lead, manage, and follow. Some
institutional formal positions, such as a nurse manager or charge nurse, require an
advanced set of attributes and know-how to establish organizational goals and
objectives, oversee human resources, provide sta- with performance feedback,
facilitate change, and manage con. ict to meet patient care and organizational
requirements. In other positions, the nursing role demands shifting between leading,
managing and following on a moment-by-moment basis. A nurse who discovers apatient in cardiac arrest may initiate leading (dealing with the unknown), use
clinical management/ACLS protocols to resuscitate the patient, and acquiesce to a
follower role when the code team arrives.
Exercise 1-1
Using the de: nitions for leading, managing, and following noted previously,
observe how work is organized on a clinical unit. What situations occurred that
could not be predicted at the onset of the shift? What work followed a routine
nature or was driven by protocol? Identify an activity that was driven by
principles rather than by formal evidence. Identify an activity that was driven by
evidence-based practice or evidence-based organizational practice. Then, notice
team functioning. Who led? Who managed? Who followed? Did this happen
seamlessly, or were there times when there was tension in efforts?
Emotional Intelligence Development for Professional
Practice
Leading, managing, and following require di- erent skills from those associated with
the technical skills-based aspects of nursing. Goleman (2000) and others refer to
emotional intelligence, characterized by social skills, interpersonal competence,
psychological maturity, and emotional awareness that help people harmonize to
increase their value in the workplace. Nurses have countless interactions throughout
the workday in the face of emotionally-laden challenges that involve life and death.
A professional nurse’s portfolio contains : ve domains that are necessary for leading,
managing, and following:
• Deepening self-awareness and encouraging others to do the same (stepping
outside oneself to envision the context of what is happening while recognizing
and owning feelings associated with an event)
• Managing emotions in self and others (owning feelings such as fear, anxiety,
anger, and sadness and acting on those feelings in a healthy manner; avoiding
passive-aggressive and victim responses)
• Motivating self and others (focusing on a goal, often with delayed gratification,
such that emotional self-control is achieved and impulses are stifled)
• Being empathetic (valuing differences in perspective and showing sensitivity to
the experiences of others in ways that demonstrate an ability to reveal another’s
perspective on a situation)Being empathetic and showing sensitivity to the experiences of
others helps nurse leaders develop their emotional intelligence.
• Fostering and handling relationships (exhibiting socially appropriate behavior,
expanding social networks, and using social skills to help others manage
emotions).
Emotionally intelligent nurses are credible as leaders, managers, and followers
because they possess awareness of the individual, family, or community that is the
locus of caregiving, have enhanced organizational skills because they have invested
in relationships, and are able to collaborate, show insight into others, and commit to
self-growth. When coupled with performing clinical tasks tied to critical thinking and
action, the emotionally intelligent nurse demonstrates the capacity to be a
highperforming professional. The synergy associated with credibility and capability fuse
to become makers of success. Without self-re. ective skills, growth in emotional
intelligence is stymied, work becomes routine, and asynchrony with others results.
Exercise 1-2
Re. ect on the world view of how family, friends, and others see you. Think about
the historical markers that in. uenced your life perspective. Think about your
religious or other belief systems. Review the extent to which others with diverse
ideas and beliefs were a part of your life experience. As you journal these
thoughts, how do they impact your emotional intelligence? Are there ways for you
to expand your life experience and build your emotional capacity? What role can
a mentor and continuing education play in advancing your life perspective? Mostof all, do you comprehend that professional nursing demands emotional
intelligence in the : ve domains noted earlier? For you, which domain is the most
developed and which is the least developed?
Theory Development in Leading, Managing, and
Following
Theory has several important functions for the nursing profession. First, theory can
help address important questions that have yet to be answered. Second, theory (and
the expanding array of research methods available to research) adds to
evidencebased care and management practices (Goode, 2004). Third, theory directs and
sharpens the ability to predict or guide clinical and organizational problem solving
and outcomes. Nurses often have less exposure to organizational theories than to
clinical theories. Leadership, management, and organizational theories are still
evolving as the complexity of healthcare organizations grow, and the variables that
in. uence care delivery increase and become more apparent. Unfortunately, a single
universal theory to guide all organizational and human interactions does not exist.
Theory development associated with leading, managing, and following concepts
has been a process of testing, discarding, expanding, creating, and applying. These
theories overlap and have ties to the development of business and industry in the
United States, as noted earlier in the chapter. Terms such as leadership theory,
transformational leadership, servant leadership, management theory, and
motivational theory and even attempts at followership theories are interrelated and
cannot be categorized in any mutually exclusive manner. Developing theories in
leading, managing, and following is a complicated task. Furthermore, the theories
that leaders, managers, and follower use are drawn from yet another set of theories,
many addressed within the later chapters of this book. These include theories related
to change, con. ict, economic, clinical, individual and group interactions,
communication and social networking, and many more. The Theory Box on pp. 9–
11 is organized as an overview to highlight sets of theoretical work that are
commonly referenced for the purpose of demonstrating the variety, approach, and
constant evolution of theory development in organizational studies. The complex
factors associated with clinical care and organizational functioning explain why no
single theory fully addresses the totality of leading, managing, and following.
Literature Perspective
Resource: Hubbard, L.A. (2012). Advancing holistic nursing leadership.
Beginnings, 32(6), 4-7.
All nurses need to be holistic leaders in the profession. Because of the nature of
many nursing positions, nurses are inherently expected to lead, something that is
often either forgotten or ignored. Three critical domains for leading are:communication, mentoring, and professional development. Communication and
mentoring go hand in hand. Maintaining open and appropriate communication
channels are essential in most aspects of nursing practice, especially when
working with other members of the healthcare team. E- ective mentoring of the
team provides social support that improves cohesiveness; builds con: dence and
trust in the knowledge, skills, and abilities of the new member; decreases burnout;
and improves teamwork.
Professional development in three interrelated areas is needed to advance
leadership performance: evidence-based practice, quality improvement, and
informatics. Evidence-based practice can be viewed as holistic care because it
considers the needs and preferences of the patient, along with research-based
scienti: c evidence. Skills in evidence-based practice and technological
applications are used as part of quality improvement processes to enhance patient
safety and outcomes. Collectively, these three domains foster holistic leadership,
with individuals possessing a repertoire of skills.
Implications for Practice
It is just as important for a nurse to have a holistic perspective on leading,
managing, and following as providing holistic care to patients. Whether in a
leadership role or caring for patients, maintaining a holistic focus can be
challenging, particularly during times of change and high stress. Holistic
approaches to leadership require basic and ongoing skill development in the areas
of communication, mentorship, and professional development. None of these
areas has an endpoint in terms of opportunities to improve; novice to seasoned
nurses can improve their approaches with patients and other members of the
healthcare team through ongoing leadership development.
Complexity Science Takes Hold
Too often, theories are believed to have been developed in the distant past, but this
idea was dispelled earlier in this chapter. Complexity theory is important because it
is a nontraditional theory, emerging from the work of physical sciences and, more
recently, social sciences. It is addressed here because healthcare organizations are
going through major transformation during a time of health systems reform.
Classic physical and, now, organizational sciences developed theory based on
assumptions that by reducing something into its component parts it could be better
understood. Think of the learning that took place in biology through the process of
dissection. Organizations are sometime referenced as silos; like dissection, each has
been organized by functional clusters (radiology, laboratory, nutrition, nursing, and
medical services, for instance). Complexity science promotes the idea that the world
is full of patterns that interact and adapt through relationships. These interactivepatterns can be missed when one focuses solely on the part, so complexity scientists
pay keen attention to what naturally occurs as patterns in the universe and how
these patterns create adaptive change rather than planned or forced change. Stated
in nursing terms, professional nurses can care for individual patients repeatedly,
whereas each patient is a unique challenge. But with time and perspective, patterns
emerge and nurses learn that these patterns lead to ways to control pain, engage
family members in care at the end-of-life, and address a host of other issues. As
healthcare providers are very focused on problems and predictable solutions, it is
possible that reframing care to build on an individual, family, or community
strengths presents quite a di- erent perspective that unleashes solutions to complex
problems and shifts human energy toward a positive outcome. Therefore complexity
science expands the repertoire of nursing actions to include strategies that are
multidimensional and with a different patient or organizational view.
Theory Box
Leadership Theories
Application to
Theory/Contributor Key Idea
Practice
Trait Theories
Trait theories were Leaders have a certain set of Self-awareness of
first studied from physical and emotional traits is useful
1900 to 1950. characteristics that are crucial in
selfThese theories are for inspiring others toward a development
sometimes common goal. Some theorists (e.g.,
referred to as the believe that traits are innate and developing
Great Man theory, cannot be learned; others assertiveness)
from Aristotle’s believe that leadership traits can and in seeking
philosophy be developed in each individual. employment
extolling the that matches
virtue of being traits (drive,
“born” with motivation,
leadership traits. integrity,
Stogdill (1948) is confidence,
usually credited as cognitive
the pioneer in this ability, and
school of thought. task
knowledge).
Style TheoriesSometimes referred to Style theories focus on what leaders To understand
Application to
Theory/Contributor Key Ideaas group and do in relational and contextual “style,” leaders
Practice
exchange theories terms. The achievement of need to obtain
of leadership, satisfactory performance feedback from
style theories were measures requires supervisors to followers,
derived in the pursue effective relationships superiors, and
mid-1950s because with their subordinates while peers, such as
of the limitations comprehending the factors in the through the
of trait theory. work environment that influence Managerial
The key outcomes. Grid
contributors to Instrument
this renowned developed by
research were Blake and
Shartle (1956), Mouton (1985).
Stogdill (1963),
Employeeand Likert (1987). centered
leaders tend to
be the leaders
most able to
achieve
effective work
environments
and
productivity.
Situational-Contingency Theories
The situational- Three factors are critical: (1) the The most
contingency degree of trust and respect important
theorists emerged between leaders and followers, implications
in the 1960s and (2) the task structure denoting for leaders are
early 1970s to the clarity of goals and the that these
mid-1970s. These complexity of problems faced, theories
theorists believed and (3) the position power in consider the
that leadership terms of where the leader was challenge of a
effectiveness able to reward followers and situation and
depends on the exert influence. Consequently, encourage an
relationship leaders were viewed as able to adaptive
among (1) the adapt their style according to leadership style
leader’s task at the presenting situation. The to complement
hand, (2) his or Vroom-Yetton model was a the issue beingher interpersonal problem-solving approach to faced. In other
Application to
Theory/Contributor Key Ideaskills, ad (3) the leadership. Path-Goal theory words, nurses
Practice
favorableness of recognized two contingent must assess
the work variables: (1) the personal each situation
situation. characteristics of followers and and determine
Examples of (2) environmental demands. On appropriate
theory the basis of these factors, the action based on
development with leader sets forth clear the people
this expanded expectations, eliminates involved.
perspective obstacles to goal achievements,
include Fiedler’s motivates and rewards staff, and
(1967) increases opportunities for
Contingency follower satisfaction based on
Model, Vroom and effective job performance.
Yetton’s (1973)
Normative
Decision-Making
Model, and House
and Mitchell’s
(1974) Path-Goal
theory.
Transformational Theories
Transformational Transformational leadership refers Transformed
theories arose late to a process whereby the leader organizations
in the past attends to the needs and motives are responsive
millennium when of followers so that the to customer
globalization and interaction raises each to high needs, are
other factors levels of motivation and morally and
caused morality. The leader is a role ethically intact,
organizations to model who inspires followers promote
fundamentally re- through displayed optimism, employee
establish provides intellectual stimulation, development,
themselves. Many and encourages follower and encourage
of these attempts creativity.
selfwere failures, but management.
great attention Nurse leaders
was given to those with
leaders who transformation
effectively al
transformed characteristicsstructures, human experiment
Application to
Theory/Contributor Key Idearesources, and with systems
Practice
profitability redesign,
balanced with empower staff,
quality. Bass create
(1990), Bennis enthusiasm for
and Nanus (2007), practice, and
and Tichy and promote
Devanna (1997) scholarship of
are commonly practice at the
associated with patient-side.
the study of
transformational
theory.
Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow is credited People are motivated by a hierarchy When this theory
with developing a of human needs, beginning with is applied to
theory of physiologic needs and then staff, leaders
motivation, first progressing to safety, social, must be aware
published in 1943. esteem, and self-actualizing that the need
needs. In this theory, when the for safety and
need for food, water, air, and security will
other life-sustaining elements is override the
met, the human spirit reaches opportunity to
out to achieve affiliation with be creative and
others, which promotes the inventive, such
development of self-esteem, as in
competence, achievement, and promoting job
creativity. Lower-level needs change.
will always drive behavior
before higher-level needs will be
addressed.
Two-Factor Theory
Herzberg (1991) is Hygiene factors, such as working Organizations
credited with conditions, salary, status, and need both
developing a two- security, motivate workers by hygiene and
factor theory of meeting safety and security motivator
motivation, first needs and avoiding job factors topublished in 1968. dissatisfaction. Motivator recruit and
Application to
Theory/Contributor Key Ideafactors, such as achievement, retain staff.
Practice
recognition, and the satisfaction Hygiene factors
of the work itself, promote job do not create
enrichment by creating job job
satisfaction. satisfaction;
they simply
must be in
place for work
to be
accomplished.
If not, these
factors will
only serve to
dissatisfy staff.
Transformation
al leaders use
motivator
factors liberally
to inspire work
performance.
Expectancy Theory
Vroom (1994) is Individuals’ perceived needs Expectancy is the
credited with influence their behavior. In the perceived
developing the work setting, this motivated probability of
expectancy theory behavior is increased if a person satisfying a
of motivation. perceives a positive relationship particular need
between effort and performance. based on
Motivated behavior is further experience.
increased if a positive Therefore
relationship exists between good nurses in
performance and outcomes or leadership roles
rewards, particularly when these need to provide
are valued. specific
feedback about
positive
performance.
OB ModificationLuthans (2011) is OB Mod is an operant approach to The leader uses
Application to
Theory/Contributor Key Ideacredited with organizational behavior. OB positive
Practice
establishing the Mod Performance Analysis reinforcement
foundation for follows a three-step ABC Model: to motivate
Organizational A, antecedent analysis of clear followers to
Behavior expectations and baseline data repeat
Modification (OB collection; B, behavioral analysis constructive
Mod), based on and determination; and C, behaviors in
Skinner’s work on consequence analysis, including the workplace.
operant reinforcement strategies. Negative
conditioning. events that
demotivate staff
are negatively
reinforced, and
the staff is
motivated to
avoid certain
situations that
cause
discomfort.
Extinction is
the
purposeful
nonreinforcement
(ignoring) of
negative
behaviors.
Punishment is
used sparingly
because the
results are
unpredictable
in supporting
the desired
behavioral
outcome.
In adaptive leadership, consistent with the de: nition of leadership provided
earlier, the goal in responding to patient and organizational problems is to examine
a problem through a di- erent lens. This view might examine the “whole” that
includes potential threats, exposes con. ict, or challenges norms as part of the art ofimprovising change. An adaptive leader understands that systems are ecological—
they restore themselves—and that change can happen equally from the bottom up or
from the top down. One leads by entering the stream, not observing it and sitting
oto the side to critique it. Questioning, observing patterns, and generating new
patterns through being involved is how change unfolds. Imagine the power of social
networking where no top-down leader exists. Rather, a series of powerful
interactions and messages constantly shift to : rst re-create reality and then major
social change. Adaptive leaders appreciate that they have in. uence and can help
shape direction, with no sense that absolute control is either necessary or possible.
In complexity theory, traditional organizational hierarchy plays a less signi: cant
role as the “keeper of high-level knowledge.” It is replaced with decision making
distributed among the human assets within an organization without regard to
hierarchy. Less time is spent trying to control the future (which is not predictable
anyway), and more time is spent moving toward and into energy while in. uencing,
innovating, and responding to the many factors that are in. uencing health care. In
complexity science, every voice counts and every encounter with patients and
families emerge to co-create a desired outcome.
Change is an important dimension of leadership. Eoyang and Holladay (2013)
contrast three kinds of change, using performance appraisal as an example. The
same example is used here, as each professional nurse is subject to an appraisal of
performance. The : rst example is static change. A performance appraisal in this
model is one where an annual overview of performance is described, with
comparison to the performance of the previous year, against a set of de: ned goals
and objectives. The second model is the dynamic change model. It is illustrated in the
Research Perspective on p. 12. Contrary to the static model, this approach yields
periodic feedback, enough that it functions as a kind of thermostat and with work
assignments that are marked with milestones, especially when meeting project
deadlines or other work targets. The third change model is quite di- erent. The
dynamical model focuses on the interrelationship of the leader with feedback that is
both regular (even daily) and summative (annually). The appraisal provides
feedback relative to systems and interactions, and autonomy is given to move with
opportunities that emerge, not just projects to be completed. These three change
models represent that challenge in health care today: some work is static
(predictable), much is dynamic (aimed at projects that interject incremental
improvement), and some is dynamical (unpredictable and interactive). Adaptive
leaders are driven by complexity science by nature of the shifting environment.
Research Perspective
Resource: Hauck, S., Winsett, R.P., & Kuric, J. (2012). Leadership facilitation
strategies to establish evidence-based practice in an acute care hospital. Journal ofAdvanced Nursing, 69(3), 664-674.
A prospective comparative design was used to assess the e- ect of leadership
facilitation strategies on beliefs regarding change, and use of evidence-based
practice (EBP) as well as organizational readiness for change. A strategic plan to
implement EBP in an acute care hospital was designed. All currently employed
registered nurses (RNs) were surveyed at baseline and 2 years later following
implementation. Three measures were used to assess beliefs, use, and
organizational culture regarding EBP in their hospital. Baseline results
demonstrated that direct care RNs perceived limited support from their unit
directors. In response, an educational program was developed speci: cally for
those in formal nurse leader roles. The follow-up measures demonstrated
statistically signi: cant improvement from baseline on beliefs and readiness
regarding EBP, as well as meeting performance goals that were established in the
strategic plan. The overall use of EBP in nursing practice improved but was not
statistically signi: cant. Evidence-based practice use was signi: cantly lower in
direct care nurses than those nurses in non-direct care who were not considered
part of the management team.
Implications for Practice
This is an example of dynamic change, requiring individual attributes consistent
with leading, managing, and following behaviors as new processes are designed
and implemented in practice. The use of a well-developed plan with speci: c
target measures and engagement of all RNs enhanced the e- ectiveness of this
study. This study demonstrates how important it is for nurses in leadership roles
to be well versed in EBP in order to facilitate EBP use by direct care nurses.
Though the results of this study cannot be generalized to all facilities
implementing EBP, they do demonstrate the importance of a well-designed plan
with measurable outcomes.
Historically, Marion and Uhl-Bien (2001) identi: ed : ve ways in which complexity
science encourages individuals to lead, manage, and follow. Those who use
complexity principles:
Develop Networks
A network is any related group with common involvement in an area of focus or
concern. Social networks are found within organizations but also beyond
organizational boundaries. For example, a nursing program is not considered a part
of the hospital or agency setting where clinical experiences take place; however,
common interests (supply and preparation of a quali: ed workforce and demand for
clinical services) make this network critically important for both organizations.
Encourage Non-hierarchical, “Bottom-up” Interaction Among WorkersAs noted earlier, those who lead, manage, and follow may have responsibilities that
are not served within the traditional hierarchy. Shared governance is an example of
a decision-making structure in which sta- at any level in the hierarchy are engaged
in shaping policy and practices that a- ect patient care. In this model, each nurse is a
valued human resource with rich perspective and possesses a voice in shaping
direction.
Become a Leadership “Tag”
The term tag references the philosophic, patient-centered, and values-driven
characteristics that give an organization its personality, the “energy” that it has; a
tag is sometimes called an attractor or a hallmark of culture, similar to values.
Although clinical organizations often perform similar procedures and functions, an
intangible sense that this particular organization has a “caring” or “good energy”
attractor di- ers from one where the sense is the focus on eC ciency and cost only.
The term tag refers to these distinctions.
Focus on Emergence
The concept of emergence addresses how individuals in positions of responsibility
engage with and discover, through active organizational involvement, those
networks that are best suited to respond to problems in creative, surprising, and
artful ways—those who think “outside the box.” Emergence is tied to unleashing
constructive energy rather than constraining energy.
Think Systematically
The principles of systems thinking theory have been characterized classically by
Anderson and Johnson (1997) as:
• Thinking of the “Big Picture” The nurse who looks past an individual assignment and
comprehends the needs of all units of the hospital, or who can focus on the needs
of all the residents in a long-term care facility, or who can think through the
complications of emergency department overcrowding in an urban setting is
seeing the big picture. These nurses have the ability to envision the context of
their work beyond the immediate tasks.
• Balancing Short-Term and Long-Term Objectives The nurse who recognizes the
consequences of actions taken today on the long-term effect of the organization
or patient care, such as the decision of a patient to terminate clinical treatment,
can guide thinking about how to balance decision making for quality outcomes.
• Recognizing the Dynamic, Complex, and Interdependent Nature of Systems All things
are connected. Patients are connected to families and friends. Together, they are
connected to communities and cultures. Communities and cultures make up the
fabric of society. The cost of health care is linked to local economies, and local
businesses are connected to global industries. Identifying and understanding these
relationships helps solve problems with full recognition that small decisions canhave a large impact.
• Using Measurable versus Nonmeasurable Data Systems This thinking triggers a
“tendency to ‘see’ only what we measure.” If we focus our measuring on morale,
working relationships, and teamwork, we might miss the important signals that
only objective statistics can show us. On the other hand, if we consider only
numbers, (e.g., number of patients seen), we might miss a big perspective, such
as lack of engagement in the workplace.
Exercise 1-3
Identify a clinical scenario in which a complex problem needs to be addressed.
Who would you include in a network to engage in creative problem solving? How
would you go about linking to other social networks if the problem was “bigger
than” your immediate contacts? Identify one member of the network and map the
potential connections of that individual that could in. uence problem resolution.
Concentrate on the power of these in. uencing individuals. The patient/family is
part of the network. What role would they play in co-creating the resolution
strategies? How would you encourage non-hierarchical interaction among
workers? Cite instances (personally or professionally) in which a small change in
a system has had a big effect.
Tasks of Leading, Managing, and Following
When dealing with theory and concepts, we can lose sight of the practical behaviors
that are needed to put these ideas into practice. Gardner (1990) was the : rst to
recognize this. He described tasks of leadership in his seminal book, On Leadership.
The purpose of describing tangible behaviors associated with leading, managing, and
following is to facilitate an understanding of the distinctions between the tasks and
the de: nitions of leadership, management, and followership presented earlier in the
chapter.
Gardner’s Tasks of Leadership
Gardner’s leadership tasks are presented in Table 1-1 to demonstrate that leading,
managing, and following are relevant for nurses who hold clinical positions, formal
management positions, and executive positions. Note that each role represents the
interests of the organization, although the locus of attention is different.
Table 1-1
Gardner’s Tasks of Leading/Managing Applied to Practice, Management, and
Executive PositionsBehaviors
ManagementManagement
Gardner’s Task Clinical Position Position Executive PositionGardner’s Task Clinical Position Executive PositionPosition
Envisioning Visioning patient Visioning patient Visioning
goals outcomes for outcomes for community
single aggregates of health and
patient/families; patient organizational
assisting populations and outcomes for
patients in creating a vision aggregates of
formulating of how systems patient
their vision of support patient populations to
future well-being care objectives; which the
assisting staff in organization can
formulating their respond
vision of
enhanced clinical
and
organizational
performance
Affirming Assisting the Assisting the staff in Assisting other
values patient/family interpreting organizational
to sort out and organizational leaders in the
articulate values and expression of
personal values strengthening community and
in relation to staff members’ organizational
health problems personal values values;
and the effect of to more closely interpreting
these problems align with those values to the
on lifestyle of the community and
adjustments organization; staff
interpreting
values during
organizational
change
Motivating Relating to and Relating to and Relating to and
inspiring inspiring staff to inspiring
patients/families achieve the management,to achieve their mission of the staff, and
Behaviors
vision organization and community
Mantaheg evmisieonnt leaders to
Gardner’s Task Clinical Position Executive PositionPoassistoicoinated with achieve desired
organizational levels of health
enhancement and well-being
and appropriate
use of clinical
services
Managing Assisting the Assisting the staff Assisting other
patient/family with planning, executives and
with planning, priority setting, corporate
priority setting, and decision leaders with
and decision making; ensuring planning,
making; that systems priority setting,
ensuring that work to enhance and decision
organizational the staff’s ability making;
systems work in to meet patient ensuring that
the patient’s care needs and human and
behalf the objectives of material
the organization resources are
available to
meet health
needs
Achieving Assisting Assisting staff to Assisting
workable patients/families achieve optimal multidisciplinary
unity to achieve functioning to leaders to
optimal benefit transition achieve optimal
functioning to to enhanced functioning to
benefit the organizational benefit patient
transition to functions care delivery
enhanced health and
functions collaborative
care
Developing Keeping promises to Sharing Representing
trust patients and organizational nursing and
families; being information executive views
honest in role openly; being openly and
performance honest in role honestly; beingperformance honest in role
Behaviors
performance
Explaining Teaching and Teaching and Teaching and
Management
interpreting interpreting interpreting
Gardner’s Task Clinical Position Executive PositionPosition
information to information to organizational
promote promote and
communitypatient/family organizational based health
functioning and functioning and information to
well-being enhanced promote
services organizational
functioning and
service
development
Serving as Representing the Representing the Representing the
symbol nursing nursing unit values and
profession and service and the beliefs of the
the values and values and organization
beliefs of the beliefs of the and patient care
organization to organization to services to
patients/families staff, other internal and
and other departments, external
community professional constituents
groups disciplines, and
the community
at large
Representing Representing Representing Representing the
the group nursing and the nursing and the organization
unit in task organization on and patient care
forces, total assigned boards, services on
quality councils, assigned boards,
initiatives, committees, and councils,
shared task forces, both committees, and
governance internal and task forces, both
councils, and external to the internal and
other groups organization external to the
organization
Renewing Providing self-care Providing self-care Providing self-care
to enhance the to enhance the to enhance the
ability to care ability to care for ability to carefor staff, staff, patients, for patients,
Behaviors
patients, families, and the families, staff,
families, and the Manoarggaenm izeanttion and the
Gardner’s Task Clinical Position Executive Positionorganization Posseirtvieodn organization
served served
Envisioning Goals
Leading requires envisioning goals in partnership with others. At the point of care,
leading helps patients envision their life journey when health outcomes are
unknown. It might help a patient envision walking again, participating in family
events, or changing a lifestyle pattern. In the case of leading peers (not dissimilar to
working with patients and family members), leader competence, trustworthiness,
self-assuredness, decision-making ability, and prioritization skills envision crafting
solutions to care delivery problems. Imagine leading a change to an electronic health
record from a traditional paper record: the leader uses the aforementioned abilities
to engage with, convince, or persuade colleagues about the relevance of this change
and proceeds with setting direction. Envisioning goals is contingent upon trustful
relationships, shared information, and agreement on mutual expectations.
Establishing a shared vision is an important leadership concept. “Visioning”
requires the leader to engage with others to assess the current reality, determine and
specify a desired end-point state, and then strategize to reduce the di- erence. When
this is done well, the nurse and the patient or nurses within an organization
experience creative tension. Creative tension inspires the patient and others to work
in concert to achieve a desired goal. Shared visioning gives direction to accelerate
change.
Affirming Values
Values are the connecting thoughts and inner driving forces that give purpose,
direction, and precedence to life priorities. An organization, through its members,
shares collective values that are expressed through its mission, philosophy, and
practices. Leaders in. uence decision making and priority setting as an expression of
their values. People (either patients or peers being in. uenced by the leader) also use
their values to achieve their goals, which are then manifested through behavior.
The word value connotes something of worth; intentional actions re. ect our
values. A leader continuously clari: es and acknowledges the values that draw
attention to a problem and the resources in human and material terms to solve it.
Values are powerful forces that promote acceptance of change and drive
achievement toward a goal.
Motivating
When values drive our actions, they become a source of motivation. Motivation2
energizes what we value, personally and professionally, and stimulates growth and
movement toward the vision. Motivators are the reinforcers that keep positive
actions alive and sustained, fueling the desire to engage in change. Theories of
motivation identify and describe the forces that motivate people. Examples of
motivation theory are presented in the Theory Box on Motivation on pp. 9–11.
Managing
The ability to manage is an important aspect of organizational functioning, because
management requires determining routines and practices that o- er structure and
stability to others. This is especially true in certain positions of in. uence within a
clinical setting, such as a nurse manager, clinical nurse specialist, or clinical nurse
leader, all of whom share responsibility for creating e- ective structures that support
clinical and organizational outcomes. Being e- ective as a manager requires
behaviors di- erent from those associated with e- ective leadership, and vice versa.
Ideally, those charged with managing are good leaders and followers, because no
organizational position is limited to one exclusive set of behaviors over another.
Good leaders need management skills and abilities, and good managers need leading
skills and abilities, and good followers need both skills too. The tasks of management
are discussed on p. 18.
Achieving Workable Unity
Another leadership challenge is to achieve workable unity between and among the
parties being a- ected by change and to avoid, diminish, or resolve con. ict so that
vision can be achieved (see Chapters 17 and 23). Con. ict resolution skills are
essential for leaders. When a dispute occurs as a result of con. icting values or
interests, following a de: ned set of principles to guide con. ict resolution is an
excellent aid. In their classic work, Ury, Brett, and Goldberg (1988) described a
highly e- ective approach for restoring unity and movement toward positive change
through conflict management, as shown in Box 1-2.
Box 1-2
Principles of Con ict Resolution
1. Put the focus on interests:
• Examine the real issues of all parties.
• Be expedient in responding to the issues.
• Use negotiation procedures and processes such as ethics committees and other
neutral sources.
2. Build in “loop-backs” to negotiation:
• Allow for a “cooling off” period before reconvening if resolution fails.
• Review with all parties the likely consequences of not proceeding so that they
understand the full consequences of failure to resolve the issue.3. Build in consultation before and feedback after the negotiations:
• Build consensus and use political skills to facilitate communication before
confrontation, if anticipated, occurs.
• Work with staff or patients after the conflict to learn from the situation and to
prevent a similar conflict in the future.
• Provide a forum for open discussion.
4. Provide necessary motivation, skills, and resources:
• Make sure that the parties involved in conflict are motivated to use procedures
and resources that have been developed; this requires ease of access and a
nonthreatening mechanism.
• Ensure that those working in the dispute have skills in problem solving and
dispute resolution.
• Provide the necessary resources to those involved to offer support, information,
and other technical assistance.
Modified from Ury, W., Brett, J., & Goldberg, S. (1988). Getting disputes resolved:
Designing systems to cut the costs of conflict. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Developing Trust
A hallmark task of leadership is to behave with consistency so that others believe in
and can count on the leader’s intentions and direction. Trust develops when leaders
are clear with others about this direction, and the way to achieve high performance
is through building on strengths and mitigating poor performance. Inherent in this
concept is the behavior of truth telling. Although leaders cannot always share all
information, it is unwise to misdirect others in their thinking and actions. Trust,
according to Lencioni’s (2002) classic work, is the key component of a team. Without
it, the team is dysfunctional. Trustworthiness is re. ected in actions and
communications.
Explaining
Leading and managing require a willingness to communicate and explain—again
and again. The art of communication requires the leader to do the following:
1. Determine what information needs to be shared.
2. Know the parties who will receive the information. Ask, “What will they ‘hear’ in
the process of the communication?” Information that addresses the listener’s
selfinterest must be presented.
3. Provide the opportunity for dialogue and feedback. Face-to-face communication is
preferred when the situation requires immediate feedback because it offers the
opportunity to clarify information. Written communication through the use of
email and text messages increasingly are used as primary communication
mechanisms. Although expedient, these mechanisms have limitations that must beacknowledged.
4. Plan the message. Giving too much information can temporarily paralyze the
listener and divert energy away from key responsibilities.
5. Be willing to repeat information in different ways, at different times. The more
diverse the group being addressed, the more important it is to avoid complex
terms, concepts, or ideas. Information should be kept simple. Remember, a
message is heard when a person is ready to hear it, not before.
6. Always explain why something is being asked or is changing. The values behind
the change should be reinforced.
7. Acknowledge loss and provide the opportunity for honest communication about
what will be missed, especially if change is involved.
8. Be sensitive to nonverbal communication. It may be necessary in complex
situations to have someone reinterpret key points and provide feedback about the
clarity of the message after the meeting. Leaders must use every opportunity for
explaining as a vehicle to fine-tune communication skills. (See Chapter 18 for
additional discussion of communication.)
Serving as a Symbol
Every leader has the opportunity to be an ambassador for those he or she represents.
Nurses may be symbolically present for patients and families, represent their
department at an organizational event, or be involved in community public relations
events. Serving as a symbol reflects unity and collective identity.
Representing the Group
More than being present symbolically, many opportunities exist for leaders to
represent the group through active participation. Progressive organizations create
opportunities for employees to participate in and foster organizational innovation
(e.g., organizations seeking Magnet Recognition Program® designation). Nurses
may participate on human resource committees, patient safety task forces,
improvement committees, and departmental initiatives. When nurses o- er their
“voice” in each of these leadership opportunities, they are thinking beyond personal
needs and staying clear on group outcomes. When decision making is decentralized
and layers of management are compressed, nurses have more leadership
accountability. A leader treats these newfound opportunities with respect and
represents the group’s interests with openness and integrity. Ultimately, leaders must
understand the organization’s objectives and contribute to its mission and purpose.
Renewing
Leaders can generate energy within and among others. A true leader attends to the
group’s energy and does not allow it to lose focus. In organizations and nursing
practice, constantly balancing problem solving (energy-expending) with vision
setting (energy-producing) is important. When changes are made based on a sharedvision, they can be made with renewed spirit and purpose. Taking time to celebrate
individual accomplishments or creating a “Hall of Honor” to post photos, letters, and
other forms of positive feedback renews the spirit of workers.
Furthermore, leaders must be proponents of self-care—eat a balanced diet, get
adequate sleep and exercise, and participate in other wellness-oriented activities—to
maintain their own perspective and necessary energy level. Likewise, they must
ensure that their constituents are given similar opportunities for physical and mental
renewal. Gardner (1990) states, “The consideration leaders must never forget is that
the key for renewal is the release of human energy and talent” (p. 136). This
requires focused energy and personal well-being.
Bleich’s Tasks of Management
The ability to manage is very much aligned with how an organization structures its
key systems and processes to deliver service.
A care delivery system is composed of multiple processes to achieve all of the
requisite components required by patients. Some of the key processes relate to
medication procurement, ordering, and administration; patient safety practices;
patient education; and discharge planning and care coordination. A process of care
speci: es the desired sequence of steps to achieve clinical standardization, safety, and
outcomes. E- ective management depends on knowing, adhering to, and improving
processes for eC ciency and e- ectiveness. Each person must respect and act on his or
her prescribed role in a process of care. Data-driven outcome measurements add to
good management and support feedback, coaching, and mentoring opportunities.
Rewards for individual and team effectiveness reinforce desired behaviors.
Box 1-3 lists tasks of management that are essential to effective functioning.
Box 1-3
Bleich’s Tasks of Management
1. Identify systems and processes that require responsibility and accountability,
and specify who owns the process.
2. Verify minimum and optimum standards/specifications, and identify roles
and individuals responsible to adhere to them.
3. Validate the knowledge, skills, and abilities of available staff engaged in the
process; capitalize on strengths; and strengthen areas in need of
development.
4. Devise and communicate a comprehensive big picture plan for the division of
work, honoring the complexity and variety of assignments made at an
individual level.
5. Eliminate barriers/obstacles to work effectiveness.
6. Measure the equity of workload, and use data to support judgments aboutefficiency and effectiveness.
7. Offer rewards and recognition to individuals and teams.
8. Recommend ways to improve systems and processes.
9. Use a social network to engage others in decision making and for feedback,
when appropriate or relevant.
Followers complement leaders and managers with their skills. Followers and
leaders : ll gaps that exist to build on each other’s cognitive, technical, interpersonal,
and emotional strengths. Followers, showing sensitivity to leaders, o- er respite in
times of stress. Followers need and respond to feedback from leaders to stay on
course. The follower must acquiesce to the skills and abilities of the leader or
manager to promote teamwork. This does not mean that the follower does not have
the skills and abilities of the leader or manager, because the follower may be thrust
into one of those roles when circumstances demand.
The relationship between followers and leaders or managers is complex. The key
to building a competent team requires transformational leaders, who can envision a
desired future (Hutchinson & Jackson, 2013), or patient quality will su- er. Equally,
peers need to invest in each other in terms of time, knowledge, and resources if
leadership skills are to be enhanced (Perkins, 2013). “Transformational leaders
recognize a clear consistent focus on the vision by the team and an ability to keep
the dream bigger than any fears are a key ingredient to success” (Marshall, 2011, p.
ix).
Exercise 1-4
Examine one structured process in the delivery of patient care from start to : nish
(e.g., food ordering, preparation, and delivery). How is the process organized?
How many steps does the process take? Who is responsible for each step in the
process? Who has the responsibility and authority for managing the process?
What data are available in the organization to measure how well the process is
working?
Images associated with followers portray workers who are passive, uninspired,
not intellectual, and waiting for direction. In reality, the e- ective follower is
willing to be led, to share time and talents, to create and innovate solutions to
problems synergistically, and to take direction from the manager. Simultaneously,
followers must perform their assigned structured duties. These duties are not
devoid of critical thinking or decision making (see Box 1-4).
Box 1-4
Bleich’s Tasks of Followership1. Demonstrate individual accountability while working within the context of
organizational systems and processes; do not alter the process for personal
gain or shortcuts.
2. Honor and implement care to the standards and specifications required for
safe and acceptable care/service.
3. Offer knowledge, skills, and abilities to accomplish the task at hand.
4. Collaborate with leaders and managers; avoid passive-aggressive or
nonassertive responses to work assignment.
5. Include evidence-based feedback as part of daily work activities as a
selfguide to efficiency and effectiveness and to contribute to outcome
measurement.
6. Demonstrate accountability to the team effort.
7. Take reasonable risks as an antidote for fearing change or unknown
circumstances.
8. Evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of systems and processes that
affect outcomes of care/service; advocate for well-designed work.
9. Give and receive feedback to others to promote a nurturing and generative
culture.
At times the leader is the follower and vice versa. In any given work shift, a
charge nurse may hold a leading/managing role. During a shift, the charge nurse
assesses resources needed, sees the unit as a complete entity, notes when patients
may be admitted or discharged, and delegates according to this big picture view.
Throughout the shift, critical clinical events arise that are better led by one of the
senior direct care nurses. Ideally, the charge nurse and senior direct care nurse shift
their relationship so that the functioning of the unit is balanced. Assignments are
temporarily adjusted and talents and skills of individual nurses are deployed to
patients and families in need, all with little or no fanfare. But, examine the
complexity, respect, and team achievement factors at play as the system adapts!
Leading, Managing, and Following in a Diverse
Organization
The healthcare industry is spiraling through unparalleled change, often away from
the traditional industrial models that reigned throughout the twentieth century. The
culture in most healthcare organizations today is more ethnically diverse; has an
expansive educational chasm (from non–high school graduates to
doctorallyprepared clinicians); has multiple generations of workers with varying values and
expectations of the workplace; involves the increased use of technology to support
all aspects of service functioning; and challenges workers, patients, families, andcommunities environmentally with medical waste, antibiotic-resistant strains of
microorganisms, and other risks.
The complexity of the healthcare system is marred with chronic problems,
information imbalance (sometimes too much, sometimes not enough), an abundance
of job roles that challenge resource allocation, intense work that makes examining
patterns of practice diC cult, increased consumer and regulatory demands, and
fatigue from too many cues and reminders! Reforms will exacerbate this problem.
These and other variables make leading, managing, and following increasingly
challenging. A leader must address the needs of the diverse community of those
seeking care. Language and cultural barriers create the opportunity for
misunderstanding. Those who manage the systems and processes of care may : nd a
temporary workforce—individuals unfamiliar with organizational standards of care
and practice—as their primary resource. Followers may have leaders of other
generations with values di- erent from their own, and therefore the opportunity for
conflict is omnipresent.
Conclusion
Developing the leading, managing, and following skills and abilities noted
throughout this chapter will sustain professional nurses to adapt to and accept
di- erences as a positive rather than a negative force in daily work life. Building on
gender strengths; generational values, gifts, and talents; cultural diversity; varying
educational and experiential perspectives; and a mobile and . exible workforce is
rewarding. It is also rewarding to be led in di- erent ways, to experience the strength
of a good manager, and to achieve positive outcomes as a follower, knowing that the
team approach generated a successful work experience.
The Solution
Engaging stakeholders in the shared development of a vision for the care model,
thinking through the triple aim (access, quality and cost), and creating a plan
together that would change the culture was a conscious strategy by those who held
formal leadership roles. Based in a small town in northeast Missouri, we did not
have the : scal resources that some organizations do to bring in consultants, but
nonetheless, we self-educated ourselves. Two videos, Tale of Transformation and
Green House Project, exempli: ed how culture change in long-term care could be
implemented and we studied these references. In addition, a member of the
leadership team visited two facilities in other parts of the United States that were
using the cottage model to provide care to 10 to 14 residents in a more home-like
environment. Seeing the positive results at those facilities developed a sense of
urgency in getting our project underway. In small group sessions, sta- at all
levels, residents, nursing home board of directors, and community members
helped envision what the living and care delivery experience would look like. Asis typical of change, early adopters were excited about the planning, others less
so. With a long history of recognizing and satisfying resident needs, we discussed
change—what was and was not changing—with sta- in groups large and small,
helping naysayers move to a more positive place. What was actually changed is
that some residents receive care in a cottage-like environment, and all residents
receive more personal, more intimate, and more digni: ed care. Most recognized
that this focus had been key to the success of our organization’s 40 years in
operation.
Using change theory as a basis for our work, Kotter’s eight-step change model
was the organizing framework for the project (Kotter & Cohen, 2002). Stakeholder
sessions developed a sense of urgency that change was needed to meet consumer
preferences. Building something that was tangible—two cottage-style buildings
with 12 private rooms each—allowed us to share that our vision was taking a
physical reality and that the physical design would help modify how we delivered
personalized services.
To mitigate naysayers, a sustaining strategy was ongoing education of sta- and
community members with the intent of gaining buy-in. Extensive sta- education
was provided to those who would be resident caregivers in the cottages. An
important second strategy was to not forget the value of service for caregivers
who would not be going over to the cottage model. The concept of
residentcentered care that was not limited by physical structures was reinforced for those
in the traditional parts of our facilities. And throughout, we made presentations to
about every community group possible and those that asked about the changes we
were making. In the end, we created a new model of care, everyone adhered to a
new resident-sensitive care delivery model, and the community held us to a level
of accountability tied to those new standards.
Evaluating change in the short and long term is a critical aspect of change
management. Both sta- and community members have had overwhelmingly
positive responses. Projects such as this are never really complete. They must be
monitored and adjustments made on an ongoing basis.
—Barbara Primm
Would this be a suitable approach for you? Why?
The Evidence
The roles of leader, manager, and follower are di- erent, and each is needed in a
successful organization. Leaders are known by their actions, not by their titles, so
top-down only organizational structures are no longer sustainable in creating
change. Change can originate at any point and is e- ective when supported by webs
of interested and committed individuals.
Collaboration requires a set of special conditions between leaders and followers.Among these conditions is the idea that each voice will be valued in an equitable
manner, that power is evenly distributed among all of the stakeholders, and that
conditions exist for innovation to occur.
Organizations often function with e- ective leaders and managers who preside
over work groups with common, short-term goals. When true team work is required
the work is longer to allow for team relationships to build.
Complexity science does not refer to the complexity of the decision to be made or
to the work environment but, rather, to examining how systems adapt and function
—where co-creation of ideas and actions unfold in a non-prescriptive manner. The
goal of leadership and management should be to reduce the complexity of the work
itself. Only in simplicity does compliance and useful “fit for practice” occur.
Social networking is being recognized as a web of relationships that can be tapped
and used for communication, problem solving, support, and real-time information,
critical to decision making. It is a real tool for individuals to use when leading,
managing, or following.
What New Graduates Say
• I learned in school all nurses are leaders … not sure I really understood that.
However, it is true.
• I feel like I am a leader especially when I work with nursing students, nursing
techs, and families.
• I now better understand the difference between management and leadership …
not all managers are leaders.
Chapter Checklist
This chapter provided an overview of leading and managing and how following
relates to both. Understanding the theoretical basis for these role elements in nursing
provides the basis for nurses moving health care ahead and making the best care
possible for many people.
• Differentiating leading, managing, and following
• Traditional and emerging leadership and management roles
• Emotional intelligence development for professional practice
• Theory development in leading, managing, and following
• Complexity science takes hold
• Develop networks
• Encourage non-hierarchical, bottom-up interaction among workers
• Become a leadership tag
• Focus on emergence
• Think systematically
• Tasks of leading, managing, and following• Gardner’s tasks of leadership
• Envisioning goals
• Affirming values
• Motivating
• Managing
• Achieving workable unity
• Developing trust
• Explaining
• Serving as a symbol
• Representing the group
• Renewing
• Bleich’s tasks of management
• Leading, managing, and following in a diverse organization
Tips for Leading, Managing, and Following
• Recall that leading and managing require making decisions and taking collective
action. If the situation is mostly known, refer to the tasks of management. If the
situation is mostly unknown, refer to the tasks of leadership.
• To be effective in clinical care, nurses must be able to lead, manage, and follow. It
is about the actions, not the titles.
• Examine how decisions get made. Some decisions are made through a formal
hierarchy; others are autonomous. Knowing when and how to make clinical and
organizational decisions adds to credibility early in one’s career.
• Remember that both contingency theory and complexity science approaches
require knowledge about the context of care. Use this knowledge to examine the
individual patient in the context of family and community.
• Leadership, management, and organizational theories provide useful frameworks
when faced with complex decisions. Select relevant theories to guide thoughtful
reflection and to aid in advancing clinical and organizational outcomes.
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C H A P T E R 2
Safe Care
The Core of Leading and Managing
Patricia S. Yoder-Wise
Abstract
In any discipline, most practitioners think of a leader as someone with positional authority. Terms such as manager,
director, chief, and leader convey positional authority. Realistically, however, every registered nurse is legally a leader—
someone who has the opportunity and authority to make changes for his or her patients. Although Florence Nightingale
was concerned with safety, it wasn’t until the end of the twentieth century that major e orts became intense. This shift to
being consumed with a passion for patient safety is a hallmark of today’s healthcare delivery and the target for the care of
tomorrow. This chapter provides an overview of some major patient safety e orts as the basis for all aspects of leading
and managing in nursing. Patient safety, and subsequently quality of care, is why the public entrusts us with licensure and
why we use our passion for caring.
Learning Outcomes
• Differentiate the key organizations leading patient safety movements in the United States.
• Value the need for leaders and managers to focus on patient safety.
• Apply the concepts of today’s expectations for how patient safety is implemented.
KEY TERMS
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ)
American Board of Quality Assurance and Utilization Review Physicians (ABQAURP)
Det Norske Veritas (DNV)
Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI)
Institute of Medicine (IOM)
Magnet Recognition Program®
National Integrated Accreditation for Healthcare OrganizationsSM (NIAHO)
National Quality Forum (NQF)
Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN)
TeamSTEPPS (an AHRQ strategy to promote patient safety)
The Joint Commission"
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The Challenge
Vickie S. Simpson, BA, BSN, RN, CCRN, CPN Dell Children’s Medical Center of Central Texas, Austin, Texas
Over the years, our hospital has focused on pressure ulcers. In 2002, for example, we reviewed literature on pediatric
pressure ulcer risk assessment scales and prevention interventions. Later, as we were doing our pediatric pressure ulcer risk
policy, we realized that pressure ulcers were not tracked. So it was impossible to determine the true incidence. Thus we
instituted a tracking system. We also developed a pediatric SKIN bundle. SKIN stands for Surface selection, Keep turning,
Incontinence management, and Nutrition.
Many of these e orts included broad interdisciplinary teams. For example, after moving to our new facility we noticed a
trend of pressure ulcer development in nasally intubated patients. When a root cause analysis was completed with members
of the anesthesia and respiratory therapy departments, sta in the critical care unit, and the cardiovascular surgeon,
numerous issues were identi0ed. These issues included not purchasing arms for the new ventilators and identifying the need
for a di erent taping process for nasally intubated children, which was developed by our respiratory therapists. Our
outcome is that now we have no pressure ulcers on nasally intubated children in our facility.
Then we identified a trend in our patient population: more overweight teenagers. We had to decide what to do.
What do you think you would do if you were this nurse?
Introduction
This book focuses on the concepts of leading and managing. The question is, however, leading and managing for what? No
issue is more prominent in the literature or in healthcare organizations than the concern for patient safety, and that is at the
core of leading and managing in nursing. Many factors and individuals have in3uenced the nursing profession’s and the
public’s concern about patient safety, but the seminal work was To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System (2000),
produced by the Institute of Medicine (IOM). From that report through the numerous additional publications, the IOM has
focused its work on multiple issues surrounding patient safety. This focus 0ts well with the basic patient advocacy role that
nurses have supported over decades and that makes us so valued by patients.
Because the core of concern in any healthcare organization is safety, it also is the core for leaders and managers in nursing.
Safety, and subsequently quality, should drive such aspects of leading and managing as sta7 ng and budgeting decisions,
personnel policies and change, and information technology and delegation decisions. Three major driving forces are behind the
current emphasis on quality: the IOM, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), and the National Quality
Forum (NQF). Other groups such as The Joint Commission, the Det Norske Veritas (DNV), and the Magnet Recognition
Program® have incorporated speci0c standards and expectations about safety and quality into their respective work.
Additionally, speci0cally focused e orts such as those of the Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) and
TeamSTEPPS initiatives, have addressed patient safety issues. The American Board of Quality Assurance and Utilization
Review Physicians provides a certi0cation program for physicians, nurses, and other healthcare professionals. No nurse can
function today without a focus on patient safety, nor can any nurse leader or manager.
The Classic Reports and Emerging Supports
Several reports are re3ective of the e orts to refocus health care to quality. Many other reports also support these e orts.
Table 2-1 highlights the key groups.Table 2-1
Major Forces Influencing Patient Safety
Implications for Leaders and
Element Core Relevance
Managers
Institute of To Err is Human (2000): Defined the number of deaths attributed Moved safety issues from the incident
Medicine to patient safety issues report level to an integrated patient
Reports safety report for the organization
Crossing the Quality Chasm (2001): Identified the six major aims Moved care from discipline-centric foci
in providing health care (see Box 2-1) to patient-centered foci
Reinforced the disparities that occur
within health care, which, in turn, led
to a focus on best practices (and
reinforced the need to be patient
centered)
Addressed issues such as healing
environments, evidence-based care
and transparency, which led to a
more holistic environment that was
built on evidence and that was
transparent
Health Professions Education: A Bridge to Quality (2003): Addressed Attempted to shrink the chasm between
the issue of silo education among the health professions in education and practice so that
basic and continuing education (see Box 2-2) interprofessional teams would work
more effectively together
Increased expectation for
participation in lifelong learning
Keeping Patients Safe: Transforming the Work Environment of Nurses Focused on direct care nurses, supporting
(2004): Identified many past practices that had a negative their involvement in decision making
impact on nurses and thus on patients related to their practice
Supported the concept of shared
governance
Provided a framework for considering
how nurses could determine staffing
requirements
Moved the Chief Nursing Officer into
the boardroom as a key spokesperson
on safety and quality issues
Improving the Quality of Health Care for Mental and Substance-Use Provided a focus on mental health needs
Conditions (2005): Addressed issues related to this patient of patients who were not admitted for
population, including those who can be found among a the primary reason of mental health
general care population issues
Preventing Medication Errors (2006): Addressed many of the issues Validated the complexity of providing
surrounding the use of medications medications to patients
Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health (2010): Created state coalitions focused on
Identified 8 recommendations based on evidence that the improving nursing
profession must attend to (See Box 2-3) Created nursing/community/business
coalitions to accomplish the work
Moved the issue of nurses as leaders
to a more visible level
Agency for Federal agency devoted to improving quality, safety, efficiency, Outcomes research sections provide
Healthcare and effectiveness (2008) resources for nurses.
Research and www.ahrq.gov Source of Five Steps to Safer Health
Quality Care
(www.ahrq.gov/consumer/5step.htm)(see Box 2-4)
Implications for Leaders and
Element Core Relevance Source of Stay Healthy checklists for
Managers
men and women
Source of TeamSTEPPS
National Quality Membership-based organization related to quality measurement Source for Centers for Medicare &
Forum and reporting Medicaid’s never events
www.nqf.org Resource for Healthcare Facilities
Accreditation Program (a
CMSdeemed authority) (uses NQF’s Safe
Practices)
Source of nurse-sensitive care
standards
The Joint Not-for-profit organization that accredits healthcare Focused on outcomes redirected
Commission organizations internationally accreditation processes and thus
www.jointcommission.org nurses’ roles with the process
Changed to unannounced visits and
thus changed the way organizations
prepared for accreditation
Issues annual patient safety goals
Issues sentinel event announcements
Det Norske Internationally based organization that accredits many fields, Based on an internationally understood
Veritas/National including health care set of standards known as ISO
Integrated www.dnvaccreditation.com (International Organization for
Accreditation Standardization)
for Healthcare Visits annually and thus changed the
Organizations way accreditation is viewed
Magnet A designation built on and evolving through research Created unified approaches to seek this
Recognition Emphasizes outcomes designation
Program® www.nursecredentialing.org/Magnet/ProgramOverview.aspx Redirected focus to outcomes,
including data and efforts related to
patient safety
Institute for Independent, not-for-profit Provides rapid cycle change projects
Healthcare Source of TCAB (Transforming Care at the Bedside) designed to improve care rapidly (see
Improvement Theory Box on p. 29)
Quality and Safety Comprehensive resource, including references and video modules Created knowledge, skills, and attitudes
Education for www.qsen.org for students and graduates related to
Nurses safety
The Institute of Medicine Reports on Quality
Of the eight reports from the IOM cited in Table 2-1, two focus speci0cally on nursing, whereas the others include nursing in a
broader context. For example, To Err is Human spelled out six major aims in providing health care, as shown in Box 2-1. Those
aims apply equally to all professions.
Box 2-1
The Aims of Providing Health Care
• Safe
• Effective
• Patient-centered
• Timely
• Efficient
• Equitable
From Institute of Medicine (IOM). (2001). Crossing the quality chasm: A new health system for the 21st century. Washington,
DC: National Academy Press.For the 0rst time, the concern about education in silos was identi0ed in Health Professions Education (IOM, 2003), which
exposed publicly one of the major concerns about safety, namely that we educate disciplines in silos and then expect them to
function as an integrated whole. Box 2-2 emphasizes five competencies this report endorsed.
Box 2-2
Competencies of Health Professionals
• Provide patient-centered care
• Work in interdisciplinary teams
• Employ evidence-based practice
• Apply quality improvement
• Utilize informatics
From Institute of Medicine (IOM). (2003). Health professions education: A bridge to quality. Washington, DC: National Academy
Press.
Knowing the relevant literature about safe patient care guides nursing practice.
One 0nal report of importance, even though it is not focused directly on patient safety, is The Future of Nursing: Leading
Change, Advancing Health (IOM, 2011). The numerous citations of evidence related to education, scope of practice, and
leadership clearly indicate that if the eight recommendations (see Box 2-3) were fully implemented, the quality of care,
including safety, would be enhanced.
Box 2-3
The Future of Nursing Recommendations
1. Remove scope-of-practice barriers.
2. Expand opportunities for nurses to lead and diffuse collaborative improvement efforts.
3. Implement nurse residency programs.
4. Increase the proportion of nurses with a baccalaureate degree to 80% by 2020.
5. Double the number of nurses with a doctorate by 2020.
6. Ensure that nurses engage in lifelong learning.
7. Prepare and enable nurses to lead change to advance health.
8. Build an infrastructure for the collection and analysis of interprofessional healthcare workforce data."
"
"
"
From Institute of Medicine (IOM). (2011). The future of nursing: Leading change, advancing health. Washington, DC: National
Academies Press.
Exercise 2-1
The Institute of Medicine, through its report, The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health (2010), advocated for
having at least 80% of the registered nurse population prepared at the baccalaureate level. This recommendation is based
on research indicating that lower morbidity and mortality rates are correlated with a better educated nursing workforce.
Conduct a brief online search regarding the rationale behind this recommendation. Assume that you work in a facility that
does not require an all baccalaureate-prepared nursing sta and does not provide support (time o , tuition reimbursement,
recognition of educational achievement). How could you use the information you found to change workplace policies and
practices to benefit patients and nurses who do not hold the baccalaureate degree in nursing?
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality
The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) is the primary federal agency devoted to improving quality,
safety, e7 ciency, and e ectiveness of health care (AHRQ, 2013). An example of AHRQ’s work is the fairly well known, “Five
Steps to Safer Health Care,” which is available at http://www.ahrq.gov/patients-consumers/care-planning/errors/5steps/index.html.
Nurses who work in clinics 0nd these steps especially helpful in working with patients. This list identi0es ways in which nurses
can support people in assuming a more in3uential role in their own care. Further, supporting people in assuming a larger role
in their care helps them receive care that is patient-centered. Box 2-4 lists the five steps.
Box 2-4
Five Steps to Safer Health Care
1. Ask questions if you have doubts or concerns.
2. Keep and bring a list of ALL medications you take.
3. Get the results of any test or procedure.
4. Talk to your doctor about which hospital is best for your health needs.
5. Make sure you understand what will happen if you need surgery.
From www.ahrq.gov/consumer/5steps.htm. Retrieved March 10, 2013.
AHRQ is also the source for the stay healthy checklists for men and women. These checklists can be useful in any clinical
setting in helping people assume a greater understanding of their own care.
Exercise 2-2
Go to www.ahrq.gov/legacy/consumer and review what sources of information are available to people for whom you may
provide care. Click on “Staying Healthy,” and then scroll to “Preventing Disease & Improving Your Health” and click on
“Men: Stay Healthy at 50 + .” Review the information there, and then use the back button to return to the prior page and
click on “Women: Stay Healthy at 50 + .” What are the differences in the checklists based on gender?
AHRQ also provides TeamSTEPPS: a well-used resource in nursing practice. TeamSTEPPS is an evidence-based system
designed to improve various skills, especially communication. The curriculum includes special foci on patients with limited
English skills, those in long-term care, and those who receive primary care. This site also provides a rapid response team
curriculum.
More recently, the AHRQ issued a report on evidence-based practices, Making Health Care Safer II(AHRQ, 2013). The outcome
was the identi0cation of 22 practices that were either strongly encouraged (n = 10) or encouraged (n = 12). Among the
strongly encouraged practices were preoperative checklists, bundles to prevent central line–associated bloodstream infections,
interventions to reduce urinary catheter care, hand hygiene, “do not use” abbreviations, and barrier precautions to prevent
healthcare-associated bloodstream infections. Among the encouraged practices were multicomponent interventions to reduce
falls, documentation of patient preferences for life-sustaining treatment, team training, rapid response systems, and simulation
exercises in patient safety e orts. Examples of these practices are cited in the evidence section at the end of the chapter (see
p. 32).
Exercise 2-3
Refer to Gardner’s Tasks of Leadership in Chapter 1 (pp. 14-15). Create a 3 × 10 grid. Enter Gardner’s tasks in the left
vertical column. Go to the AHRQ Website and 0nd the report on Making Health Care Safer II. Select one of the encouraged or"
"
strongly encouraged practices. Using your selected practice, enter one behavior expected of a leader in column two to
illustrate each of Gardner’s tasks. Then in the third column, enter one behavior expected of a manager to illustrate each
task. Finally re3ect on your latest day in the clinical setting. Did you see evidence of the best practices being employed?
What leadership and management behaviors were observable?
The National Quality Forum
The National Quality Forum (NQF) is a membership-based organization designed to develop and implement a national
strategy for healthcare quality measurement and reporting. As a result, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS)
formed its no-pay policy based on NQF’s identi0cation of “never-events.” In other words, CMS will no longer pay for certain
conditions that result from what might be termed poor practice or events that should never have occurred while a patient was
under the care of a healthcare professional. The Healthcare Facilities Accreditation Program, a CMS-deemed authority, has
adopted the NQF’s 34 Safe Practices.
NQF refers to nurses as “the principal caregivers in any healthcare system” (National Quality Forum [NQF], 2008). This
acknowledgment, while welcome, is also a challenge for nurses to perform in the best manner possible to lead organizations in
their quests for quality and safety. Examples of measures related directly to nurses are pressure ulcer prevalence,
ventilatorassociated pneumonia, skill mix, voluntary turnover, and nursing care hours per patient day.
The Joint Commission
The Joint Commission (TJC), formerly known as the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO), is
a not-for-pro0t organization that accredits healthcare organizations. It has “deemed” status from the CMS, which means that
an organization that meets TJC standards is deemed to have met the standard that CMS sets.
When TJC changed its focus from process to outcomes, it also emphasized patient safety. As a result, TJC issues, with input
from hospitals and healthcare professionals, annual patient safety goals that are setting speci0c; a list of “do-not-use” terms,
symbols, and abbreviations; and sentinel events. All of these e orts are directed toward improving patient safety. In addition,
with the NQF, TJC sponsors the Eisenberg Award for patient safety to highlight exemplars of quality.
The Det Norske Veritas/National Integrated Accreditation for Healthcare
SMOrganizations
More recently, an internationally based organization that provides accreditation in a variety of 0elds entered healthcare
SMaccreditation. The Det Norske Veritas (DNV), or National Integrated Accreditation for Healthcare Organizations
SM(NIAHO ), is a direct competitor of TJC, and is also concerned with quality of care. The DNV/NIAHO work is based on a set
of international standards known as International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
The main di erence between TJC and the DNV/NIAHO is that the latter surveys accredited organizations annually rather
than the every three years of the TJC so that an organization has considerably more information to work with. Also, the
DNV/NIAHO employs in health care the same approaches it has used in other fields where safety and quality are concerns.
Theory Box
Diffusion Theory
Theory/C
ontribu Key Idea Application to Practice
tor
Rogers • A process of communication about innovation to share • Engage key leaders in a change to infuse the
(2003) information over time and among a group of people. energy from early adopters.
• Allows for nonlinear change. • Using Twitter in the hospital culture to
• More complex change is less likely to be adopted. engage employees communicates changes
• Early adopters serve as role models quickly.
Magnet Recognition Program®
The Magnet Recognition Program® is the only national designation built on and evolving through research that is designed
to recognize nursing excellence of healthcare organizations through a self-nominating, appraisal process. Through the Magnet
Recognition Program® Model (www.nursecredentialing.org/Magnet/ProgramOverview/New-Magnet-Model), organizations must
demonstrate how they provide excellence. Five elements comprise the model: transformational leadership; structural
empowerment; exemplary professional practice; new knowledge, innovation, and improvements; and empirical quality results.
From initial designation to redesignation, greater emphasis is placed on empirical quality results. Magnet™, like other
organizations mentioned here, focuses on quality care."
"
Institute for Healthcare Improvement
The Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) is dedicated to rapidly improving care through a variety of mechanisms
including rapid cycle change projects. (See the Theory Box for the classic view of rapid cycle change.) IHI’s work, Transforming
Care at the Bedside (TCAB), has created numerous clinical practice changes for nursing. The common core of most projects is
patient safety. The Open School (www.ihi.org/offerings/IHIOpenSchool/Pages/default.aspx) provides numerous resources for
individuals to enhance their skills that relate to improving care.
Quality and Safety Education for Nurses
Equally important for actual safe practice is the education students receive about safety. As a result, a project known as
Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) serves as a repository for resources related to the knowledge, skills and
attitudes that learners need to develop to serve as safe practitioners. Competencies are identi0ed for both prelicensure and
graduate students, and numerous resources are available. In the prelicensure competencies, for example, one element relates
directly to leading and managing: teamwork and collaboration. An example of what is expected in communication is this:
Analyze differences in communication style Communicate with team members, Value teamwork and the
preferences among patients and families, adapting own style of relationships upon which it is
nurses and other members of the health communicating to needs of the based
team team and situation Value different styles of
Describe impact of own communication Demonstrate commitment to team communication used by
style on others goals patients, families and health
Discuss effective strategies for Solicit input from other team care providers
communicating and resolving conflict members to improve individual, as Contribute to resolution of
well as team, performance conflict and disagreement
Initiate actions to resolve conflict
Source: http://qsen.org/competencies/pre-licensure-ksas/#teamwork_collaboration.
Meaning for Leading and Managing in Nursing
Many of the approaches to patient safety, and before that, aviation and nuclear energy safety, consist of strategies to alert us
to safety issues. For example, the use of SBAR (Situation, Background, Assessment, and Recommendation) and checklists are
designed to decrease omission of important information and practices. These practices are not designed to limit a professional’s
distinctive contributions. Rather they are designed to increase the likelihood of safe practice. Related issues of worker safety,
such as the work environment itself and safe patient handling, also impinge on basic safe care of patients.
This concern for patient safety is not limited solely to hospitals or to the United States. For example, Accreditation Canada
International (www.internationalaccreditation.ca/accreditation/patientsafety.aspx) identi0es nine required organizational practices
related to safety. The World Health Organization provides information on patient safety in 0ve languages
(www.jointcommissioninternational.org/WHO-Collaborating-Centre-for-Patient-Safety-Solutions). Practices that were once mostly
studied in hospital settings are now scrutinized in other settings. For example, outpatient clinics (KuKanich, Kaur, Freeman, &
Powell, 2013), nursing homes (Castle, Wagner, Ferguson, & Handler, 2011), and rural settings (MacKinnon, 2011) report work
related to patient safety.
To think that manager and leader decisions do not a ect patient safety is erroneous. Creating a positive environment,
assuring appropriate staffing, intervening and supporting others in doing so in cases of incivility, and supporting the use of the
best evidence in practice all create a safer patient environment.
Often managerial and leadership tasks, like many others we perform, are squeezed into a hectic day. By stopping to
concentrate on the work before us, we increase our chances of understanding the complexity of the situation and the
ramifications of various decisions. By thinking through various scenarios, we are likely to eliminate strategies and methods that
would not meet our needs and be more likely to narrow our choices of best actions to take. Then, if after an action, we took
time to re3ect on how well some decision was enacted, we would increase our knowledge about particular types of problems
and enhance our skill at making decisions.
One of the challenges for nurses in any position, and especially for leaders and managers, is the obligation to have the
greatest in3uence for patient safety. For example, Hendrich et al. (2012) identi0es how nurse executives maximize their
in3uence in advancing quality and safety. (See the following Literature Perspective.) Malloch and Melnyk (2013) refer to the
nurse executive as having “evidence-driven consciousness” (p. 62). Many frontline nurses are unaware of the work that
happens at this level on behalf of patient safety. Yet this work is equally critical to the organization’s overall success in
addressing patient safety issues.
Literature Perspective
Resource: Hendrich, A.L., Batcheller, J., Ellison, D.A., Janik, A.M., Je ords, N.B., Miller, L. Perlich, G.L., Sta7 leno, G.,"
"
"
Strom, M., & Williams, C. (2012). The Ascension health experience: Maximizing the chief nursing o7 cer role in a large,
multihospital system to advance patient care quality and safety. Nursing Administration Quarterly, 36(4), 277-288.
Because of the magnitude of this healthcare system, the chief nursing o7 cers (CNOs) created an advisory council to
achieve multiple purposes, one of which was the identi0cation and dissemination of best practices throughout the various
hospitals and health ministries. The original focus was to align the work of nursing with the patient safety goals identi0ed
by The Joint Commission. The work then turned to other objectives including promoting interdisciplinary practice,
involving the CNO with shared governance and considering major system issues to build consensus.
Six clinical examples were presented along with the identi0ed issue and the impact and performance related to the
example. For hand hygiene, as an example, the advisory council wanted to develop a standardized process and monitoring
tool. The CNOs knew variation in handwashing procedures existed and wanted to unify all of the hospitals and ministries
around best practices. A more dramatic example related to an expenditure of $60 million on new beds and surfaces to
prevent pressure ulcers. The rate of decubiti across the system reduced by 43.4%.
Implications for Practice
A focus on patient safety is required of everyone in an organization. Nurses in administrative positions have the opportunity
to in3uence patient safety in very di erent ways from frontline nurses. Maximizing everyone’s potential advances the cause
of patient safety.
The challenge for competent practice today is to stay well-informed about the best evidence or best practices that exist in
any practice situation, including that of management and leadership. Eliminating barriers to integrating best practices is the
role of leaders and managers. When they fail to support an environment that embraces evidence-based practice work, frontline
nurses recognize that as a stumbling block for doing their best for patients. (See the following Research Perspective.)
Research Perspective
Resource: Melnyk, B.M., Fineout-Overholt, E., Gallagher-Ford, L., & Kaplan, L. (2013). The state of evidence-based practice
in US nurses: Critical implications for nurse leaders and educators. The Journal of Nursing Administration, 42(9), 410-417.
This descriptive study, involving a sample of 20,000 nurse members of the American Nurses Association and conducted by
an email link to SurveyMonkey, included a demographic questionnaire, an 18-item Likert-scale survey about clinician’s
perspectives and needs related to evidence-based practices (EBP), and open-ended questions. Only 1105 nurses responded,
which is a 5% response rate. One of the demographic questions allowed the researchers to compare Magnet™-designated
hospitals from those without such designation. Nurses in Magnet™ organizations reported more consistency in implementing
EBP, greater availability of experts, a supportive culture, and routine education and recognition about EBP.
One of the open-ended questions asked what barriers existed for implementing EBP. In addition to the culture and lack of
skills and access to knowledge, leader/manager resistance was identi0ed by 51 of the respondents as an issue. When asked
about what would help them implement EBP routinely, manager support was identified by 55 of the respondents.
Implications for Practice
Although the number of nurses identifying that “leaders/managers” was an area to be addressed was small, the 0nding is
still a concern. Coupling the number of responses for manager/leader resistance (n = 51) with the organizational culture
(an area of accountability for the leader/manager) (n = 123), concerns should arise related to how to develop e ective
leaders and managers for today’s healthcare practice.
Conclusion
Creating a culture of safety is everybody’s business; and nurses, who are so integral to care, are key players in this important
work. Every nurse has the accountability to challenge any act that appears unsafe and to stop actions that are not in the
patient’s best interest. Being proactive is insu7 cient in itself; examining practices and conditions that support errors is critical,
as is sharing knowledge that can redirect care. In this challenging context, nurses continue to provide care and provide the
organizational “glue” that supports patient care being accomplished in a safe, e ective, and e7 cient manner. Nurses who
serve as leaders and managers have additional opportunities to create conditions where ideas are heard, problems are solved,
and the best evidence is employed.
The Solution
Vickie S. Simpson
A multidisciplinary group was formed to address the problem. Our facility did not have some of the necessary equipment
such as lift equipment, adult-sized positioning devices, and beds large enough to accommodate larger patients. We
purchased the necessary equipment, and we also implemented a safe patient-handling program. The facility “skin
champions “also developed an incontinence protocol and a friction/shear protocol."
Participation by our hospital in a multisite research study on pressure ulcer development in critically ill children has
shown that our pressure ulcer incidence is significantly lower than that of other participating children’s hospitals.
Success of the pediatric pressure ulcer prevention program is the result of extensive multidisciplinary
collaboration—support from hospital administration, physicians, and frontline nurses. Use of evidence-based practice and
research has also driven successful changes in our program. The desire to continually improve pressure ulcer prevention
strategies has become the culture within our hospital.
Would this be a suitable approach for you? Why?
The Evidence
Making Health Care Safer II: An Updated Critical Analysis of the Evidence for Patient Safety Practices (AHRQ, 2013) identi0ed 10
strongly encouraged practices and 12 encouraged practices, both sets of which are based on evidence. (The full listings are
available at http://archive.ahrq.gov/clinic/ptsafety.)
Sample evidence
Strongly Encouraged Encouraged
1. Preoperative checklists 1. Multicomponent interventions to reduce falls
2. Bundles that include checklists to prevent central line– 3. Documentation of patient preferences for
lifeassociated bloodstream infections sustaining treatment
5. Hand hygiene 5. Team training
6. “Do Not Use” list for hazardous abbreviations 9. Rapid response systems
12. Use of simulation exercises in patient safety
efforts
What New Graduates Say
• Know how to retrieve literature related to best practice and evidence in your area of practice.
• Wash your hands so patients see you do this.
• Practice what to say to stop an unsafe practice.
• Observe and listen to what nurses say about patient safety on your unit.
• Act on behalf of patients.
Chapter Checklist
This chapter focused on the core of leading and managing in nursing, namely an intense passion for patients and their safety.
To lead and manage e ectively, a nurse must be passionate about quality and patient safety. The nurse leader and manager,
as well as followers, must be able to identify potential safety issues, intervene quickly when a safety issue exists, and think
skillfully after a safety violation so that all may learn.
• The classic reports and emerging supports
• The Institute of Medicine reports on quality
• Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality
• The National Quality Forum
• The Joint Commission
SM• The DNV/NIAHO
• Magnet Recognition Program®
• Institute for Healthcare Improvement
• Quality and Safety Education for Nurses
• Meaning for leading and managing in nursing
Tips for Patient Safety
• Use the IOM competencies to frame your actions.
• Keep current with the evidence and best practices.
• Use only quality sources, especially Websites.
• Read general nursing literature regarding other organizations’ work related to safety.
References
Accreditation Canada International. Required organizational practices. Retrieved March 14, 2013 from
www.internationalaccreditation.ca/accreditation/patientsafety.aspx.
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). AHRQ mission. Retrieved March 10, 2013, fromhttp://www.ahrq.gov.
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). Making health care safer II: An updated critical analysis of the evidence
for patient safety practices. Retrieved March 6, 2013 from
www.ahrq.gov/research/findings/evidence-basedreports/ptsafetyuptp.html
Castle NG, Wagner LM, Ferguson JC, Handler SM. Safety culture of nursing homes: Opinions of top managers. Health
Care Management Review. 2011;36(2):175–187. doi:10.1097/HMR.0b013e3182080d5f.
Det Norske Veritas (DNV). Managing risk to improve patient safety. Retrieved March 14, 2013, from
www.dnv.com/industry/healthcare/index.asp
Hendrich AL, Batcheller J, Ellison DA, Janik AM, Jeffords NB, Miller L, et al. The ascension health experience:
Maximizing the chief nursing officer role in a large, multihospital system to advance patient care quality and safety.
Nursing Administration Quarterly. 2012;36(4):277–288. doi:10.1097/NAQ.0b013e31826692a6.
Institute of Medicine (IOM). To err is human: Building a safer health system. Washington, DC: National Academy Press;
2000.
Institute of Medicine (IOM). Crossing the quality chasm: A new health system for the 21st century. Washington, DC: National
Academy Press; 2001.
Institute of Medicine (IOM). Health professions education: A bridge to quality. Washington, DC: National Academy Press;
2003.
Institute of Medicine (IOM). Keeping patients safe: Transforming the work environment of nurses. Washington, DC: National
Academy Press; 2004.
Institute of Medicine (IOM). Improving the quality of health care for mental and substance-use conditions: Quality Chasm
Series. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 2005.
Institute of Medicine (IOM). Preventing medication errors: Quality Chasm Series. Washington, DC: National Academy Press;
2006.
Institute of Medicine (IOM). The future of nursing: Leading change, advancing health. Washington, DC: National Academy
Press; 2011.
KuKanich KS, Kaur R, Freeman LC, Powell DA. Evaluation of a hand hygiene campaign in outpatient health care clinics.
American Journal of Nursing. 2013;113(3):36–42.
MacKinnon K. Rural nurses’ safeguarding work: Reembodying patient safety. Advances in Nursing Science.
2011;34(2):199. doi:10.1097/ANS.0b013e3182186b86 29.
Malloch K, Melnyk BM. Developing high-level change and innovation agents: Competencies and challenges for executive
leadership. Nursing Administration Quarterly. 2013;37(1):60–66. doi:10.1097/NAQ.0b013e318275174a.
Melnyk BM, Fineout-Overholt E, Gallagher-Ford L, Kaplan L. The state of evidence-based practice in US nurses: Critical
implications for nurse leaders and educators. The Journal of Nursing Administration. 2013;42(9):410–417.
doi:10.1097/NNA.0b013e3182664e0a.
National Quality Forum. Nursing care quality at NQF. 2008. Retrieved Mary 15, 2013, from
www.qualityforum.org/nursing.
Quality and Safety Education for Nurses. Competencies: Prelicensure KSAs. Retrieved March 14, 2013, from
http://qsen.org/competencies/pre-licensure-ksas
Rogers EM. Diffusion of innovations. 5th ed. New York: The Free Press; 2003.
World Health Organization. Patient safety solutions. Retrieved March 14, 2013, from
www.jointcommissioninternational.org/WHO-Collaborating-Centre-for-Patient-Safety-Solutions
Suggested Readings
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. www.ahrq.gov
Ashe PA, Weeks SK. Positive changes, positive outcomes: The DNV/ISO/NPPM connection. Nurse Leader. 2012;10(4):20–
23.
Institute for Healthcare Improvement. www.ihi.org
Institute of Medicine. www.iom.org
McHugh MD, Stimpfel AW. Nurse reported quality of care: A measure of hospital quality. Research in Nursing and Health.
2012;35(6):566–575. doi:10.1002/nur.21503.
Petersen MA, Blackmer M, McNeal J, Hill PD. What makes handover communication effective?. Nursing Management.
2013, January;15–18 10:1097/01.NUMA.0000424026.21411.65.
West G, Patrician PA, Loan L. Staffing matters—Every shift. American Journal of Nursing. 2012;112(12):22–27.
C H A P T E R 3
Developing the Role of Leader
Michael L. Evans
Abstract
This chapter focuses on leadership and its value in advancing the profession of
nursing. Leadership development is explained with examples of how to survive
and thrive in a leadership position. The di erences between the emerging and
entrenched workforce generations are explored, and the desired characteristics
of a leader for the emerging workforce are described. Leadership in a variety of
situations, such as clinical settings, community venues, organizations, and
political situations, is described. This chapter provides an introduction to the
opportunities, challenges, and satisfaction of leadership.
Learning Outcomes
• Analyze the role of leadership in creating a satisfying working environment for
nurses.
• Evaluate transactional and transformational leadership techniques for effectiveness
and potential for positive outcomes.
• Value the leadership challenges in dealing with generational differences.
• Compare and contrast leadership and management roles and responsibilities.
• Describe leadership development strategies and how they can promote leadership
skills acquisition.
• Analyze leadership opportunities and responsibilities in a variety of venues.
• Explore strategies for making the leadership opportunity positive for both the leader
and the followers.
KEY TERMS
emerging workforce
entrenched workforce
leadership
management
mentor$
$
$

transactional leadership
transformational leadership
The Challenge
Katheren Koehn, MA, RN Executive Director Minnesota Organization of
Registered Nurses, Minneapolis MN
Leadership is occasionally about the heroic moment. More often, it is about the
day-to-day e orts to keep your team headed generally the same way, guiding
them and making sure they have what they need to do their best work. As a
leader, I have found that one of the most important things I can do is to make
sure that all members of the team know where we are headed by having a
common definition of the terms we are using.
Why would we worry about a common de nition for the terms we use? They
are all in English, aren’t they? They are common and easily understood, aren’t
they? Maybe yes, but then, maybe no …
The rst time I became aware that standard de nitions could be a problem is
when I was president of a state nurses association. As our board of directors was
reviewing the previous board’s strategic plan, we saw that one of the main goals
was to increase the diversity of our membership. Our board noted that we had
failed this one miserably; our members were no more ethnically or racially diverse$
$
$
$
$
than they had been before the creation of this goal. We talked about steps we
might take to try to achieve this goal, never considering what the word “diversity”
meant. Everyone knows, we thought, that diversity is ethnic and racial. No
question.
It was more than a year later, when we were still unable to achieve that goal
that we nally talked to some people who had helped write it in the rst place.
Much to our surprise, their de nition of diversity was not based on race or
ethnicity. It was based on education and practice setting! The state nurses’
association membership was primarily made up of direct care nurses, and the
former board’s goal was to add educators, managers, and others to the
demographics of the membership. Without knowing the de nition of diversity, our
board was unable to create strategies that could help us achieve that goal. We
failed before we started.
This experience was put to even greater use a couple of years later. The hospital
where I worked had a newly formed patient care delivery committee made up of
direct care nurses, managers, and directors, plus human resources representatives.
The Vice President of Nursing and I, as a direct care nurse, were co-chairs of the
committee. Practice changes were to come to our committee for deliberation
before implementation. This was shared decision making at a higher level than we
had tried before and making it work was going to take a lot of growing pains.
At one meeting, a discussion about a proposed change turned into a
disagreement, then an argument. The meeting ended abruptly, no solution
available. As co-chairs, we decided to stop meeting for a while. We needed a
“cooling-off” period. This had been a really big disagreement!
What do you think you would do if you were this nurse?
Introduction
Leadership is a complex, highly important, and challenging skill expected of all
nurses. Leader refers to performance, not a formal position. We lead when we
intervene with courage for a patient. We lead when we organize a group of
colleagues to address an organizational problem. We lead when we are formally
placed in charge of a project or when we are promoted to a speci c management
position.
What is a Leader?
A leader is an individual who works with others to develop a clear vision of the
preferred future and to make that vision happen. Historically, Oakley and Krug
(1994) called that type of leadership enlightened leadership, or the ability to elicit a
vision from people and to inspire and empower those people to do what it takes to
bring the vision into reality. Leaders bring out the best in people. McBride (2011)





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states that “leaders develop over time rather than being born with ‘the right stu ’”
(p. 16).
Leadership is a very important concept in life. Great leaders have been responsible
for helping society move forward and for articulating and accomplishing one vision
after another throughout time. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., called his vision a dream,
and it was developed because of the input and lived experiences of countless others.
Mother Teresa called her vision a calling, and it was developed because of the
su ering of others. Steven Spielberg calls his vision a nished motion picture, and it is
developed with the collaboration and inspiration of many other people. Florence
Nightingale called her vision nursing, and it was developed because people were
experiencing a void that was a barrier to their ability to regain or establish health.
Leaders have followers. An individual can have an impressive title, but that title
does not make that person a leader. No matter what the person with that title does,
he or she can never be successful without having the ability to inspire others to
follow. The leader must be able to inspire the commitment of followers.
McBride (2011) sees leadership as much larger than simply inspiring followers. It
is about “moving a profession, or institution, or some aspect of health care down a
new path with di erent expectations, structures, and ways of conceptualizing how to
achieve the mission in light of changing conditions” (p. 165).
Covey (1992), in his classic work, identi ed eight characteristics of e ective
leaders (Box 3-1). E ective leaders are continually engaging themselves in lifelong
learning. They are service-oriented and concerned with the common good. They
radiate positive energy. For people to be inspired and motivated, they must have a
positive leader. E ective leaders believe in other people. They lead balanced lives
and see life as an adventure. E ective leaders are synergistic; that is, they see things
as greater than the sum of the parts and they engage themselves in self-renewal.
Box 3-1
Covey’s Eight Characteristics of E ective Leaders
1. Engage in lifelong learning
2. Are service-oriented
3. Are concerned with the common good
4. Radiate positive energy
5. Believe in other people
6. Lead balanced lives and see life as an adventure
7. Are synergistic; that is, they see things as greater than the sum of the parts
8. Engage themselves in self-renewal
Exercise 3-1





List Covey’s eight characteristics of e ective leaders on the left side of a piece of
paper or a word document. Next to each characteristic, list any examples of your
activities or attributes that reJect the characteristic. Some areas may be blank;
others will be full. Think about what this means for you personally.
Healthcare organizations are complex. In fact, health care is complex. Continual
learning is essential to stay abreast of new knowledge, to keep the organization
moving forward, and to continue delivering the best possible care. An emphasis must
be present on organizations becoming learning organizations, to provide
opportunities and incentives for individuals and groups of individuals to learn
continuously over time. A learning organization is one that is continually expanding
its capacity to create its future (Senge, 2006). Leaders are responsible for building
organizations in which people continually expand their ability to understand
complexity and to clarify and improve a shared vision of the future—“that is, they
are responsible for learning” (Senge, 2006, p. 340).
The roles of manager and leader are often considered interchangeable, but they
are actually quite di erent. The manager may also be a leader, but the manager is
not required to have leadership skills within the context of moving a group of people
toward a vision. The term manager is a designated leadership position. Leadership is
an abilities role, and it is most e ective if the manager is also a leader.
Management can be taught and learned using traditional teaching techniques.
Leadership can also be taught, but it is usually a reJection of rich personal
experiences.
Management and leadership are both important in the healthcare environment.
Leaders are developed over time and through experience. Thus we must value,
support, and provide our leaders with the one thing vital for good leadership—good
followership. Leadership is a social process involving leaders and followers
interacting. Followers need three qualities from their leaders: direction, trust, and
hope (Bennis, 2009). The trust is reciprocal. Leaders who trust their followers are, in
turn, trusted by them. Leaders have learned to be e ective leaders from their
experience of being e ective followers. Followers learn the skills involved in
leadership from the follower vantage point. E ective leaders support and nurture
their followers in part because they are creating the next generation of leaders.
The manager is concerned with doing things correctly in the present. The role of
manager is very important in work organizations because managers ensure that
operations run smoothly and that well-developed formulas are applied to staMng
situations, economic decisions, and other daily operations. The manager is not as
concerned with developing creative solutions to problems as with using known
strategies to address today’s issues. A well-managed entity may be proceeding
correctly but, without leadership, may be proceeding in the wrong direction (Covey,