The Ecology of Cyanobacteria: Their Diversity in Time and Space

The Ecology of Cyanobacteria: Their Diversity in Time and Space




This text begins with an overview of the cyanobacteria (or blue-green algae for those who are not specialists) then looks at their diversity in the geological record and goes on to describe their ecology in present environments where they play important roles. Why is one of the key groups of organisms in the Precambrian still one of the most important groups of phototrophs today? The importance of ecological information for rational management and exploitation of these organisms for commercial and other practical purposes is also assessed. Accounts are provided of nuisances as well as the ecology of the commercially successful Spirulina and the role of cyanobacteria in ecosystem recovery from oil pollution.



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Published 01 January 2000
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EAN13 0306468557
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List of Authors Preface Colour Plates
Introduction to the Cyanobacteria Brian A. Whitton and Malcolm Potts
Summary I. What are Cyanobacteria? II. Ecological Diversity in the Past and Present Ill. Morphological Diversity IV. Taxonomy V. Molecular Ecology VI. Interactions with Other Organisms VII. Blooms and Toxins VIII. Cyanobacteria as Health Food IX. Use of Cultures and Culture Media X. The Future References
The Fossil Record: Tracing the Roots of the Cyanobacterial Lineage J. William Schopf
Summary I. Tracing the Roots of Cyanobacteria: Progress and Problems II. Ancient Cyanobacteria Ill. How Old is the Cyanobacterial Lineage? IV. Paleobiology: Fossils, Geology, and Geochemistry V. Paleobiology: Final Arbiter of Competing Theories Acknowledgements References
Cyanobacteria in Geothermal Habitats David M. Ward&Richard W.
Summary I. Introduction II. Distribution of Thermophilic Cyanobacteria Based on Morphology and Enrichment Culture Ill. Distribution of Cyanobacteria Based on Molecular Analysis IV. Physiological and Behavioral Ecology of Cyanobacteria of Geothermal Habitats V. Conclusion Acknowledgements References
v xvii xix 1-11
1 1 1 3 4 7 8 8 8 9 9 10
13 14 17 24 25 32 33 33
-37 59
37 38
50 56 56 56
Cyanobacterial Mats and Lucas J. Stal
-61 120
Summary 62 I. Introduction 62 II.Microbial Mats, Stromatolites and their Environments63 Ill.The Organisms: Cyanobacteria that Build Microbial Mats71 IV. Motility, Chemo-Mats 75and Phototaxis of Cyanobacteria in Microbial V. Carbon Metabolism 78 VI. Calcification in Mats and Stromatolites 90 VII. Nitrogen Metabolism and Nitrogen Fixation 95 VIII. Cyanobacteria and the Sulfur Cycle in Microbial Mats 105 IX. Interactions ofCyanobacteria with Iron 108 X. Phosphorus in Microbial Mats 110 XI. Conclusions 111 Acknowledgements 112 References 112 -Marine Plankton 121148 Hans W. Paerl
Summary I. Introduction II.Key Functional Groups of Marine Planktonic Cyanobacteria Ill.Planktonic Cyanobacterial Habitats: Physical, Chemical and Biotic Considerations IV.Synthesis: The Ecosystem Perspective Acknowledgements References
FreshwaterBlooms Roderick L. Oliver and George G. Ganf
I. Introduction II. Bloom-Forming Cyanobacteria Ill. Distribution IV.Gas Vesicles, Buoyancy and its RegulationGas Vacuoles, V.Mixing Regimes and Cyanobacteria VI. Physical Control of Cyanobacteria VII. Cell Size, Growth Rate and Temperature VIII. Light Capture IX. Nutrients X. Phosphorus XI. Nitrogen XII.Responses of Cyanobacteria to N and P XIII.Inorganic Carbon XIV. Grazing XV.Concluding Remarks References
121 122 123
128 142 144 144 -149 194
150 150 151 154 159 167 169 170 174 175 176 178 184 185 186 189
Picoplankton and Other Non-Bloom Forming Cyanobacteria in Lakes John G. Stockner, Cristiana Callieri and Gertrud Cronberg
Summary I. Introduction II. Sampling, Preservation and Enumeration Ill. The Non-Bloom-Formers, What are They? IV. A Common Ecology? V. Conclusions Acknowledgements References
Soils and Rice-Fields BrianA.Whitton
Summary I. Introduction II.Soils Ill. Subaerial Habitats IV. Rice-fields V. Practical Methods VI. Concluding Comments References
Limestones Allan Pentecost and BrianA.Whitton Summary I. Introduction II.Physical and Chemical Features Ill. Environments and their Characteristic Communities IV. The Organisms V. Deposition VI. Colonization, Succession and Weathering in Terrestrial and Freshwater Environments VII. Influence of Temporal Changes in Nutrients VIII. Concluding Comments Acknowledgements References
195 196 197 198 198 224 225 225 -233 255
233 234 234 241 244 247 249
249 -257 279
257 258 258 259 264 267
272 274 275 276 276
Salts and Brines Aharon Oren
-281 306
Summary I. Introduction II. Hypersaline Environments and their Cyanobacterial Communities Ill. Physiological Properties of the Major Halophilic Cyanobacteria IV. Anoxygenic Photosynthesis by Cyanobacteria in Hypersaline Environments V. Osmotic Adaptation of Cyanobacteria Living at High Salt Concentrations VI. Interactions Between Cyanobacteria and other Microorganisms in Hypersaline Environments VII. Biotechnological Aspects of Halophilic Cyanobacteria VIII. Conclusions Acknowledgements References
Oil Pollution and Cyanobacteria Samir S. Radwan and Redha H. Al-Hasan
Summary I. Introduction II. Composition of Crude Oil Ill. Biodegradability of Hydrocarbons IV. Cyanobacteria in the Biogenesis of Oil V. Hydrocarbon-Degradation Potential of Cyanobacteria VI. Concluding Remarks Acknowledgements References
Cyanobacterial Dominance in the Polar Regions Warwick F. Vincent
Summary I.Introduction II. Habitats and Communities III. Biodiversity and Endemism IV. Ecophysiology of Polar Cyanobacteria V. Why Do Cyanobacteria Dominate (Or Not)? Acknowledgements References
282 282 283 289
299 300 301 301 301
-307 319
307 307 307 308 309 310 316 316 316 321-340
321 322 323 330 330 335 337 338
Cyanobacteria in Deserts-Life at the Limit? D.D. Wynn-Williams
Summary I. A Historical Perspective II. Diversity of Desert Ecosystems Ill. The Organisms-Biodiversity IV. Desert Niches and Interactions V. Stress Factors in Arid Regions VI. Bio-weathering and Nutrient Availability VII. Thresholds and Extinction Acknowledgements References
Detecting the Environment Nicholas H. Mann
Summary I. Introduction II. Protein Phosphorylation Ill. Light/Dark and Redox Sensing IV. Low Molecular Weight Signalling Molecules V. Behavioural Responses VI Alterations in Transcriptional Specificity VII Other Signalling Processes Vlll Cross-IntegrationTalk and IX Conclusions Acknowledgements References
Molecular Responses to Environmental Stress Devaki Bhaya, Rakefet Schwarz and Arthur R. Grossman
Summary I. Introduction II. Acclimation to Light Ill. Responses to Nutrient Limitation IV. Concluding Remarks Acknowledgements References
Metal Metabolism and Toxicity: Repetitive DNA Nigel J. Robinson, Julian C. Rutherford, Mathew R. Pocock and JenniferS.Cavet
Summary I. Metal Metabolism and Toxicity II. Repetitive DNA in Cyanobacteria Ill. Concluding Remarks Acknowledgements References
341 342 344 346 350 354 358 359 362 362
-367 395
367 368 369 376 377 381 384 386 387 388 388 388
398 398 399 408 431 431 431
443 444 454 459 460 460
Malcolm Potts
Summary I. Introduction II. Natural Communities III.Evolution IV. Physiology and Growth V. Patents and Applications VI. A Chronology ofNostoc VII. Epilogue Acknowledgements References
Arthrospira (Spirulina): Systematics and Ecophysiology Avigad Vonshak and Luisa Tomaselli
Summary I. Introduction II. Morphology Ill. Systematics IV. Occurrence and Distribution V. Physiology ofArthrospira VI. Concluding Remarks References
Symbiotic Interactions David G. Adams
Summary I. Introduction II. The Symbioses and their Environmental Impact Ill.The Symbionts IV. Host-Cyanobacteria Interactions Prior to Infection V. Host Structures and their Infection VI. Host-Cyanobiont Interactions Post-Infection VII. Reconstitution of the Symbioses VIII. Concluding Remarks Acknowledgements References
-465 504
466 466 466 474 485 494 495 498 498 498 -505 522
505 506 507 508 510 514 519 520 -523 561
523 524 525 536 539 541 546 552 552 553 553
Cyanophages and Their Role in the Ecology of Cyanobacteria Curtis A. Suttle
Summary I. Introduction II. Taxonomy, Morphology and Evolution of Cyanophages Ill. Diversity IV. Distribution, Abundance and Seasonal Dynamics V. Fate of Cyanophages in the Natural Environment VI. Effect of Cyanophages on Cyanobacterial Populations and Communities VII. Environmental and Physiological Effects on Cyanophages VIII. Lysogeny IX. Conclusion Acknowledgements References
Cyanobacterial Responses to UV-Radiation RichardW.Castenholz and Ferran Garcia-Pichel
Summary I.Introduction II. Strategies of UVR Tolerance by Cyanobacteria Ill. Effects of UVR in Nature and Whole Community Responses IV. Conclusions Acknowledgements References
22 Cyanotoxins CrawfordSDow and UthayaKSwoboda
Organism index
Summary I. Introduction II. Poisoning Incidents Ill. Which Taxa are Toxic? IV. Types of Cyanobacterial Toxins V. Toxin Analysis VI. Ecological Implications VII. Concluding Comments References
Gene and Gene Product Index
Subject Index
-563 589
564 564 565 567 570 573 574
580 583 584 585 585
-591 611
591 592 599 605 606 607 607
614 614 614 616 617 622 624 627 627