Biophysical Techniques in Photosynthesis

Biophysical Techniques in Photosynthesis

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English

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Written by prominent specialists in the field, Biosphycial Techniques in Photosynthesis provides, for the first time, a comprehensive overview of the various techniques that have proved to be of great importance in studying the mechanism of both oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis. Each chapter discusses the basic concepts of a technique, practical applications and some of the scientific results. The first section concerns optical techniques, the second magnetic resonance, whereas the third is mainly devoted to various techniques that provide information on the structure of the photosynthetic apparatus, such as X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption and electron microscopy.
Audience: For graduate students and researchers both in photosynthesis as well as in physics, (bio)chemistry and biology.

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Published 01 January 1983
Reads 16
EAN13 0306479605
License: All rights reserved
Language English

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Contents
Preface
Part One:
1
2
3
Optical Methods
Developments in Classical Optical Spectroscopy Jan Amesz
Summary I.Introduction II.Absorption and Absorption Difference Spectroscopy III.Fluorescence References
Linear and Circular Dichroism Garab
Summary I.Introduction II.LinearDichroism III. CircularDichroism IV.Concluding Remarks Acknowledgements References
Fluorescence Kenneth Sauer and Martin Debreczeny
Summary I.Introduction II.SteadyState Fluorescence III.TimeResolved Fluorescence IV.Conclusion Acknowledgements References
v
xi
3
3 3 4 6 8
11
11 12 16 24 35 35 35
41
41 42 45 52 59 59 60
vi
4
5
6
7
Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Photosynthetic Systems Ralph Jimenez and Graham R. Fleming
Summary I.Introduction II.LaserSources III.Fluorescence Upconversion IV.TransientAbsorption V.Concluding Remarks References
Data Analysis of TimeResolved Measurements Alfred R. Holzwarth
Summary I.Introduction II.Methods for TimeResolved Data Analysis III.Some Applications to Photosynthesis IV.Conclusions Acknowledgements References
Photosynthetic Thermoluminescence as a Simple Probe of Photosystem II Electron Transport Yorinao Inoue
Summary I.Introduction II.Origins of TL from Photosynthetic Apparatus III.TL as a Probe of PSII PhotochemistryApplication of IV.and Demerits of TL TechniquePerspective: Merits Acknowledgements References
Contents
Accumulated Photon Echo Measurements of Excited State Dynamics in Pigment– Protein Complexes Thijs J. Aartsma, Robert J.W. Louwe and Peter Schellenberg
Summary I.Introduction II.Homogeneous and Inhomogeneous Linewidths III.Photon Echo Phenomena IV.Accumulated Photon Echo: Experimental V.Energy Transfer VI.Photon Echo Experiments on Reaction Centers VII.Conclusion and Perspectives Acknowledgements References
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63 63 64 66 70 72 72
75
75 76 76 87 89 91 91
93
93 94 94 103 104 105 105
109
109 109 110 111 114 116 118 119 120 120
Contents
8
9
10
11
Spectral Hole Burning: Methods and Applications to Photosynthesis N. Raja S. Reddy and Gerald J. Small
Summary I.Introduction II.Experimental Methods III.Applications Acknowledgements References
Infrared and FourierTransform Infrared Spectroscopy Werner Mäntele
Summary I.100 YearsIntroduction: Looking Back II.What can Infrared Spectroscopy Tell us about the Processes in Photosynthetic Membranes and Reaction Centers? III.From Bands to Bonds: Strategies for Band Assignments IV.FourierTransform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy V.Single Wavelength IR Techniques VI.Sample Preparation for Infrared Spectroscopy VII.Conclusions and Outlook Acknowledgements References
Resonance Raman Studies in Photosynthesis – Chlorophyll and Carotenoid Molecules Bruno Robert
Summary I.Introduction II.Introduction to Raman and Resonance Raman Spectroscopy III.Resonance Raman Spectroscopy of Photosynthetic Pigments IV.Resonance Raman Spectroscopy as Method of Chemical Analysis in Photosynthesis V.Resonance Raman Spectroscopy as a Probe for Molecular Conformation VI.Resonance Raman Spectroscopy as a Probe for Intermolecular Interactions VII.TimeResolved Resonance Raman Studies VIII.Resonance Raman Spectroscopy as a Probe for Studying the Nature of Electronic Transitions IX.Perspectives Acknowledgements References
Stark Spectroscopy of Steven G. Boxer
Photosynthetic Systems
Summary I.Introduction II.Methods III.Limitationsand Conceptual Issues IV.Examples of Recent Results for Photosynthetic Systems Acknowledgements References
vii
123
123 124 126 129 134 135
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137 138 139
139 141 152 155 157 157 157
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161 162 162 163 167 168 169 171 172
173 174 174
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177 177 178 1 8 1 184 188 188
viii
12
The Photoacoustic Method in Photosynthesis – Monitoring and Analysis of Phenomena Which Lead to Pressure Changes Following Light Excitation Shmuel Malkin
Part Two:
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16
Summary I.Introduction – Historical Notes and Main Aspects II.Experiments and Results with the Gasphase Coupled Microphone III.Time Domain with a Sample CoupledExperiments and Results in the Piezoelectric Sensor IV.Applications to Physiological Studies References
Magnetic Resonance
Magnetic Resonance: An Introduction Arnold J. Hoff
TimeResolved Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy – Principles and Applications Haim Levanon
Summary I.Introduction II.Experimental III.Results IV.Concluding Remarks Acknowledgements References
Electron Spin Echo Methods in Photosynthesis Research R. David Britt
Summary I.Introduction II.ESEEM III.ESEENDOR IV.Additional Examples of ESE Applications in Photosynthesis V.Instrumentation Acknowledgements References
ENDOR Spectroscopy Wolfgang Lubitz and Friedhelm Lendzian
Summary I.Introduction II.Principles of Electron–Nuclear Multiple Resonance III.Selected Applications of ENDOR to Photosynthesis IV.Concluding Remarks Acknowledgements References
Spectroscopy
Contents
191
191 192 194 202
204 204
209
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211 212 213 218 229 229 230
235
235 235 238 243 246 249 252 252
255
255 256 258 268 272 272 272
Contents
17
18
Optically Detected Magnetic Resonance (ODMR) of Triplet States in Photosynthesis Arnold J. Hoff
Summary I.Introduction II.The Triplet Spin Hamiltonian in Zero Magnetic Field III.Optical Detection of Magnetic Resonance, ODMR IV.Double Resonance V.ODMR in Photosynthesis VI.ConcludingRemarks References
Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Photosynthetic Components Huub J.M. de Groot
Summary I.Introduction II.Magic Angle Spinning NMR Spectroscopy III.Probing the Local Environment of M(Y)210 inRb. sphaeroidesR26 RC with MAS IV.The Configuration of the Spheroidene in theRb. sphaeroidesRC V.The Asymmetric Binding inRb. sphaeroidesR26 VI.New Developments. CIDNP and Correlation Spectroscopy VII.Concluding Remarks Acknowledgements References
Part Three:
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20
Structure and Oxygen
Structure Determination of Proteins by XRay Diffraction Marianne Schiffer
Summary I.Introduction II.Theory, Equations, and Some of the Terms Used in XRay Structure Determination III.Determination of Protein Structure IV.Quality of the Structure V.Comparison with Structural Information Obtained with Other Techniques Acknowledgements References
Electron Microscopy Egbert J. Boekema and Matthias Rögner
Summary I.Principles II.Periodic Averaging III.Single Particle Averaging IV.Concluding Remarks Acknowledgements References
ix
277
277 278 278 279 284 288 295 295
299
299 300 300 302 305 306 309 312 312 312
317
317 317 318 318 323 323 323 324
325
325 326 330 332 335 335 335
x
21
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XRay Absorption Spectroscopy: Determination of Transition Metal Site Structures in Photosynthesis Vittal K. Yachandra and Melvin P. Klein
Summary I.Introduction II.XRay Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) III.Applications of XANES and EXAFS in Photosynthesis IV.Future Directions Acknowledgements References
Mössbauer Spectroscopy Peter G. Debrunner
Summary I.Introduction II.MössbauerSpectroscopy: Physics and Formalism III.Applications References
Contents
Characterization of Photosynthetic Supramolecular Assemblies Using Small Angle Neutron Scattering David M. Tiede and P. Thiyagarajan
Summary I.Introduction II.Small Angle Neutron Scattering III.SANS Studies of Photosynthetic Complexes IV.Concluding Remarks Acknowledgements References
Measurement of Photosynthetic Oxygen Evolution Hans J. van Gorkom and Peter Gast
Index
Summary I.Introduction II.Polarography III.EPR Oximetry IV.Mass Spectrometry V.Photoacoustic Spectroscopy VI.Galvanic Sensors VII.Prospects Acknowledgements References
337
337 338 338 345 350 351 352
355
355 356 357 365 371
375
375 376 377 379 388 388 389
391
391 392 392 398 401 402 402 402 403 403
407