Local Livelihoods and Protected Area Management
232 Pages
English
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Local Livelihoods and Protected Area Management

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232 Pages
English

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Cameroon�s tropical forest is home to numerous plants and animals. It is also inhabited by Baka pygmies who are foragers and Bantu farmers. These communities have developed forest�dependent livelihoods, cultures and religions. Destruction of the forest by commercial and state interests, subsistence agriculture and the harvesting of products has necessitated a considerable upsurge in environmental protection projects to conserve and rehabilitate ecosystems, forests, soils and water resources. Ultimately, the approach to conservation that is applied is the responsibility of the government and international development agencies. The case studies documented seek to demonstrate that a broader perspective linking environmental protection and human welfare is important for two reasons. First, it addresses the rights and needs of local people and more marginal groups in society. Second, it also ensures that fundamental conservation objectives are achieved in practice with the participation of local people. The book develop guidelines for a more integrative and socially�aware approach to environmental planning and project design and implementation. It outlines a participatory mapping procedure for the design and implementation of community forest programmes. This is a valuable book for land resource managers, environmentalists, environmental biologists, conservators, field workers and technicians involved with environmental conservation. With the professionalisation of courses in most universities, the book will constitute good reading for students of geography, biology, agriculture, forestry, botany and natural resource management.

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Published by
Published 26 July 2011
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EAN13 9789956717460
Language English
Document size 10 MB

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Local Livelihoods and Protected Area Management
LocalLivelihoodsandProtectedAreaManagement
BiodiversityConservationProblemsinCameroon
EmmanuelNebaNdenecho
Local Livelihoods and Protected Area Management Biodiversity Conservation Problems in CameroonEmmanuel Neba Ndenecho Langaa Research & Publishing CIG Mankon, Bamenda
Publisher: LangaaRPCIG Langaa Research & Publishing Common Initiative Group P.O. Box 902 Mankon Bamenda North West Region Cameroon Langaagrp@gmail.com www.langaa-rpcig.net Distributed in and outside N. America by African Books Collective orders@africanbookscollective.com www.africanbookcollective.com
ISBN: 9956-717-54-1 ©Ndenacho Emmanuel Neba 2011
DISCLAIMER All views expressed in this publication are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of Langaa RPCIG.
Dedicated to Elizabeth; with the hope that her generation will see the African elephant. iii
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Table of Content Acknowledgements............................................................................... vii Preface................................................................................................ ix 1. Social and Political Dimension of Environmental Protection................................................................................................... 1 2. Forest-Based Livelihoods and Sustainability Issues In Unprotected Forests.............................................................................. 23 3. Population Dynamics, Livelihoods And Forest Protection................................................................................ 45 4. Livelihoods and Threats to Biodiversity Management........................................................................... 63 5. Rural Livelihoods and the Management of National Parks.................................................................. 83 6. Contribution of Non-Timber Forests Products To Household Revenue in Forest-Adjacent Communities......................... 99 7. Forest-User Groups And Forest-Dependent Livelihoods in Community Forests............................................................ 107 8. Gender Roles and Power Relationships In Environmental Protection...................................................................... 139 v
9. Ecological Planning and Ecotourism Development in Protected Areas............................................................... 10. Climate Change, Livelihoods And Protected Area Management..............................................................
11. Sustainable Forest Management by Communities.........................
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Acknowledgements The author is grateful for helpful and constructive comments on draft for this book from Professor C.M. Lambi, Dr. Z. Fogwe, Dr. C.A. Akob, and Professor N. R. Jeffers. Some of the case studies which they reviewed have previously been published in a different form. I am therefore grateful for the reproduction of some of the material from: -Journal of Environmental Sciences, University of Jos, Nigeria. -International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology 14 (2007) 250 – 259, London. -The Cameroon Geographical Review, the University of Yaounde, Cameroon. -Journal of the Cameroon Academy of Sciences, University of Buea, Cameroon. -International NGO Journal 4(5) May 2000, Academic Journals. -Journal of Human Ecology, Kerela, India.
Special thanks go to Professor P. Utting and Professor G. Dharam for the material that constitutes the basis of the first chapter, that is, the social and political dimensions of environmental protection. The last chapter focuses on the participatory mapping methodologies for community forest management projects. It was realized thank to the work of Dr. Mike Nurse, Dr. Bill Jackson and Dr. H. Singh for the Rural Development Forestry Network (ODI, London). The following students of the University of Yaounde I and University of Buea deserve special recognition for their contribution in the field phase of the case studies: E. Effange, Mgbe Selestin, Ichick Mbenga, Jai Julius, Y. Mbenmbem, K. Kemi, R. Fonyuy, M. J. Kwanga and Ndenecho Leslie. The conservator of the Kimbi Game Reserve and Staff of the Takamanda Forest Reserve also deserve special recognition. The survey of Tubah Mountain Forest was realized thanks to the contribution of Rolf Boiler, Kum Sylvester and Ernestine Yende. The ethnobotanical data for Oku Mountain Forest was realized thanks to Jai Julius and staff of the Kilum Mountain Forest Reserve. Data for the Takamanda Forest Reserve is attributed to the contribution of T.C. Sunderland, Schmidt-Soltan, Tchouto and Mgbe Selestin. The photographs documented in this book are reproduced from th publications of the National Geographic (Special Publication for the 25 vii
Anniversary), Washington D.C.; and Mountain Research and Development, Berne (Switzerland). Insights into the problems documented in the book are also the result of my consultancy work with local non-governmental organizations and International funding agencies such as the Swiss Association for Technical Cooperation (Helvetas) and the Netherland Development Organisation (SNV). I acknowledge with thanks my interaction with their projects in Cameroon. Finally, I acknowledge the encouragement of my teachers, students and family.
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Preface Tropical forest of Africa constitute nearly a fifth of the world’s remaining forest. The forest is the home to numerous plants and animals. It is also inhabited by Baka pygmies who are foragers and Bantu farmers. The Baka are hunter-gatherers. They sometimes cultivate staple crops or trade agricultural work and forest products such as medicinal plants, “bush meat”, medicinal plants, spices, edible vegetables, fruits, roots and tubers, mushrooms and honey, for commodities they could not otherwise obtain. Despite their gradual integration into mainstream society, they still possess many of their old ways, reaping from the forest a rich bounty. Forests from time immemorial have provided sustenance to forest dwellers and forest-adjacent communities. These communities have therefore developed forest – dependent livelihoods, cultures and religions. It is becoming clear that tropical forest is not just a place apart, albeit a most astonishing complicated, extraordinary place. It is a world, too, of commerce and trade. This world takes form in transactions as simple as our exchange for honey or mushrooms on the porch and as intricate as the international market in mahogany logs. The destruction of tropical forests by commercial and state interests, subsistence agriculture and the harvesting of products is alarming. This has necessitated a considerable upsurge in environmental protection projects to conserve and rehabilitate ecosystems, forests, soil and water resources. Ultimately, the approach to conservation that is applied is the responsibility of the government and international development agencies. There is no reason why a Baka hunter or Bantu farmer should favour the protection of wildebeest and plants, just because the government and western opinion thinks he should. Indigenous people have evolved livelihoods and cultures that are supported by forests. The diverse complex interactions between people and the environment have often been ignored by conservation programmes and projects. This has resulted in livelihoods being negatively affected by protection projects. Consequently, local people respond in ways involving conflicts, illegal activities or “apathy” and “non-cooperation”, which make programme / project implementation extremely difficult. The case studies documented in this book seek to demonstrate that a broader perspective linking environmental protection and human welfare is important for two reasons. First, it addresses the rights and needs of local people and more marginal
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