Modern Biogeochemistry

Modern Biogeochemistry

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English

Description

Modern Biogeochemistry is aimed to generalize modern ideas of biogeochemical developments during the last decades. It is designed to support a general course in biogeochemistry, and as such, is likely to have a broad market among the many universities and colleges that are adding such courses to their curricula. This book aims to supplement the existing textbooks by providing modern understanding of biogeochemistry, from evolutionary biogeochemistry to practical applications of biogeochemical ideas such as human biogeochemistry, biogeochemical standards and biogeochemical technologies.
To a certain extent this textbook is a summary of both scientific results of various authors and classes in biogeochemistry, that have been given to students by authors during the last 5 to 10 years at different universities throughout the world such as Cornell, Moscow, Seoul and Bangkok. Biogeochemistry is becoming an increasingly popular subject for graduate and postgraduate education. Courses in ecology, geography, biology, chemistry, environmental science, public health and environmental engineering all tend to have a biogeochemical component in their syllabuses to a greater or lesser extent.

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Published by
Published 01 January 1983
Reads 16
EAN13 0306481030
License: All rights reserved
Language English

Legal information: rental price per page €. This information is given for information only in accordance with current legislation.

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Preface
TABLEOF CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.The Basic Concepts and Approaches to the Subject
2.
Historical Development of Biogeochemistry Further Reading Questions and Problems
CHAPTER 2: EVOLUTIONARY BIOGEOCHEMISTRY
1.
2.
3. 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4
4. 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5
Introduction
Origin of Elements
Earth Evolution Evolution of the Lithosphere Evolution of the Atmosphere Evolution of the Hydrosphere Prebiotic Earth and Mineral Cycling
Origin of Life When Did Life Originate? Primordial Soup Clays and Life PyriteBased Life Origin The “Thioester World”
5.Evolution of Biogeochemical Cycles 5.1Application of Isotopic Analysis for the Geological History of the Biogeochemical Cycles 5.2Evolution of Oxygen Biogeochemical Cycle 5.3Evolution of the Nitrogen Biogeochemical Cycle 5.4Evolution of Carbon and Sulfur Biogeochemical Cycles
6.Role of Biogeochemical Cycles in Biogenic Deposition Formation 6.1Formation of Biogenic Depositions from Kerogen 6.2Geological and Biological Factors of Oil Composition Formation Further Reading Questions and Problems
vii
1
1
5 10 11
13
13
14
15 15 21 27 31
35 36 38 42 43 47
50
50 53 54 56
61 63 65 68 69
ii
CHAPTER 3: BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLING OF MACROELEMENTS
1.ElementsIntroduction to Biogeochemical Cycling of 1.1BiogeochemicalCycling of Macroelements in the Atmosphere 1.2BiogeochemicalCycling of Macroelements in Terrestrial Aquatic Ecosystems 1.3Macroelements in SoilsBiogeochemical Cycling of
2.BiogeochemistryCycle of Carbon 2.1Turnover of Carbon in the Biosphere 2.2Carbon Fluxes in Terrestrial Ecosystems 2.3Comparison of Carbon Biogeochemical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems 2.4Global Carbon Fluxes
3.Biogeochemistry Cycle of Nitrogen 3.1Nitrogen Cycling Processes 3.2Main Nitrogen Species 3.3GeneralCharacterization of Nitrogen Biogeochemical Cycling Processes 3.4Global Nitrogen Cycle
4.Biogeochemistry Cycle of Phosphorus 4.1Phosphorus Forms in the Biosphere 4.2Phosphorus in the BiosphereFluxes and Pools of
5.Biogeochemistry Cycle of Sulfur 5.1Sulfur in the Earth 5.2Sulfur in the Biosphere 5.3Global Fluxes and Pools of Sulfur
6.SiliconBiogeochemical Cycle of 6.1Silicon in the Earth 6.2Accumulation of Silicon CompoundsMigration and in SoilWater Systems 6.3BiogeochemicalMigration of Silicon in Arid Tropical Ecosystems 6.4Biogeochemical Migration of Silicon in Wet Boreal and Tropical Ecosystems 6.5The Importance of Silicon in Coastal Ecosystems 6.6Global Pools and Fluxes of Silicon
7.Biogeochemistry Cycle of Calcium 7.1Calcium in the Earth 7.2Calcium Pools and Fluxes in the Biosphere 7.3Solubility of Calcium Species in Natural Waters
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73 76
80 87
92 95 99
101 106
109 110 111
113 120
125 125 128
134 134 136 139
144 144
144 146
147 151 151
152 152 153 153
7.4Overall Global Biogeochemical Fluxes of Calcium Further Reading Questions and Problems
CHAPTER 4: BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLING OF TRACE ELEMENTS
1.Biogeochemistry of Copper 1.1Copper Speciation 1.2Global Cycle of Copper
2.Biogeochemistryof Zinc 2.1Zinc in Biosphere 2.2BiogeochemicalFluxes of Zinc 2.3Global Biogeochemical Fluxes and Pools of Zinc
3.Biogeochemistryof Selenium 3.1Selenium in the Biosphere 3.2Selenium Enriched Biogeochemical Food Webs 3.3Case Studies 3.4Global Selenium Cycle
4.Biogeochemistryof Boron 4.1Boron Enriched Biogeochemical Food Webs in Arid Ecosystems
5.Biogeochemistry of Molybdenum 5.1MoEnriched Biogeochemical Food Web 5.2Biochemical and Physiological Response to High Content of Molybdenum in Biogeochemical Food Webs Further Reading Questions and Problems
CHAPTER 5: INTERACTIONS OF BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
1.Uptake and Nutrient LimitationStoichiometric Aspects of Nutrient of Living Matter Production 1.1Interactions of Biogeochemical Cycles in Terrestrial Ecosystems 1.2Eutrophicationof Natural Waters
2.Stoichiometric Aspects of Nutrient Recycling 2.1Stoichiometric Aspects of Nutrient Recycling in Terrestrial Ecosystems 2.2Stoichiometric Aspects of Nutrient Recycling in Aquatic Ecosystems
3. 4.
Thermodynamics of Bacterial Energetics Biogeochemical modelling
iii
157 158 158
161
161 162 166
167 168 171 173
173 174 175 175 184
185 185
192 192
195 196 196
199
199 201 204
214 214 219
221
225
iv
4.1General Principles 4.2Models Further Reading Questions and Problems
CHAPTER 6: REGIONAL BIOGEOCHEMISTRY
1.Biogeochemistry of Arctic Ecosystems 1.1Geographical Peculiarities 1.2Landscape and Vegetation Impacts 1.3Chemical Composition of Plants 1.4Biogeochemistry of Soils 1.5BiogeochemicalCycles
2.Biogeochemistryof Tundra Ecosystems 2.1Plant Uptake of Trace Metals 2.2Biogeochemistryof Tundra Soils 2.3Productivityof Tundra Ecosystems and Cycling of Elements
3.Biogeochemistry of Boreal and SubBoreal Forest Ecosystems 3.1Elements in Forest EcosystemsBiogeochemical Cycling of 3.2Biogeochemical Fluxes in Soils of Boreal Forest Ecosystems 3.3Biogeochemical Processes in the SoilWater System of Boreal and SubBoreal Forest Ecosystems
4.Biogeochemistry of Steppes and Deserts 4.1Biogeochemical Cycle of Nutrients in Arid Ecosystems 4.2Soil Biogeochemistry in Arid Ecosystems 4.3Role of Biogeochemical Processes in Aqueous Migration of Elements in Steppe Ecosystems
5.Biogeochemistry of Tropical Ecosystems 5.1Chemical Species in Tropical EcosystemsBiogeochemical Cycles of 5.2BiogeochemicalPeculiarities of Tropical Soils 5.3Biogeochemistry of Mangrove Ecosystems Further Reading Questions and Problems
CHAPTER 7: BIOGEOCHEMICAL MAPPING
1.Characterizationof SoilBiogeochemical Conditions in the World’s Terrestrial Ecosystems 1.1Eurasia 1.2North America 1.3Latin and South America
225 229 235 236
239
239 239 240 242 243 244
246 246 246 247
247 247 265
269
274 274 282
285
287 288 294 299 304 304
307
307 312 320 325
1.4Africa 1.5Australia
2.Biogeochemical Classification and Simulation of Biosphere Organization 2.1Biogeochemical Classification of the Biosphere 2.2Methodology of biogeochemical cycling simulation for biosphere mapping
3.Biogeochemical Mapping on Continental, Regional and Local Scales 3.1Methods of Biogeochemical Mapping 3.2Regional Biogeochemical Mapping of North Eurasia 3.3Biogeochemical Mapping of the South Ural Region, Russia Further Reading Questions and Problems
CHAPTER 8: ENVIRONMENTAL BIOGEOCHEMISTRY
1.Environmental Biogeochemistry of Nitrogen 1.1Environmental Biogeochemistry of Nitrogen in the North Atlantic Region 1.2Environmental Biogeochemistry of Nitrogen in the East Asian Region
2. 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5
3. 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5
Environmental Biogeochemistry of Mercury Speciation of Mercury Anthropogenic Mercury Loading Biological Effects of Mercury Environmental Biogeochemical Cycling of Mercury Global Mass Balance of Mercury
Environmental Biogeochemistry of Lead Speciation of Lead Anthropogenic Lead Loading Biological Effects of Lead Environmental Biogeochemistry of Lead Global Mass Balance of Lead Further Reading Questions and Problems
CHAPTER 9: HUMAN BIOGEOCHEMISTRY
1.Biogeochemical and Physiological Peculiarities of Human Population Health 1.1Cancer Diseases in the Carpathian Mountain SubRegion of the Biosphere
v
328 330
332 332
335
341 341 343 343 352 353
355
356 356 382
403 404 407 407 409 413
416 417 417 417 418 424 427 428
431
431
435
vi
1.2Cancer Diseases in Middle Volga Silicon SubRegion of the Biosphere 1.3Cancer Diseases in the Boron Biogeochemical SubRegionof the Biosphere
2 .Human Health Indices in Technogenic and Agrogenic BiogeochemicalProvinces 2.1 Physiological Indices for Human Biogeochemical Studies 2.2Case study of Interactions between Human Health Indexes and Pollution in Crimea Dry Steppe Region of the Biosphere Further Reading Questions And Problems
CHAPTER 10: BIOGEOCHEMICAL STANDARDS
1.Critical Load Concept for Impact Oriented Emission Abatement Strategy of Sulfur and Nitrogen AcidForming and Eutrophication Compounds 1.1 Critical Load Approach: Challenges and Biogeochemical Fundamentals 1.2 General Approaches for Calculating Critical Loads 1.3Environmental Risk Assessment under Critical Load Calculations 1.4Sensitivity of European Ecosystems to Acid Deposition 1.5Sensitivity of North American Ecosystems to Acid Deposition 1.6Sensitivity of East Asian Ecosystem to Acid Deposition 1.7AcidDeposition Influence on the Biogeochemical Migration of Heavy Metals in the Food Web
2.Calculation of critical loads for heavy metals at terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems 2.1Selection of Receptor 2.2Critical Limits 2.3Calculation Methods 2.4Input Data
3.Examplesof Critical Loads Calculations for Heavy Metals 3.1Critical Loads for HM in GermanyCalculation and Mapping of 3.2Calculation and Mapping of Critical Loads for Cd and Pb in the European Part of Russia Further Reading Questions and Problems
CHAPTER 11: FUTURE TRENDS IN MODERN BIOGEOCHEMISTRY References Index
436
440
447 447
452 455 455
457
457
457 464 466 471 476 489
508
510 512 514 520 524
525 525
528 531 532
535 539 555