Soil Ecology

Soil Ecology

-

English

Description

This book first synthesises in a complete, accessible way all the basic knowledge provided by the different disciplines of Soil Science. It then proposes integrative concepts and models that organise this knowledge, taking into account the multiple interactions that exist at a number of different scales among the living and inanimate components. This consideration of basic knowledge in a novel integrative approach is necessary to make significant progress in such critical issues as the improvement of the sustainability of soil and land use, the maintenance or restoration of soil quality, the understanding of the function and value of soil biodiversity, the role of soils in carbon sequestration, and the effects of global changes upon their function.

Subjects

Informations

Published by
Published 01 January 1983
Reads 19
EAN13 0306481626
License: All rights reserved
Language English

Legal information: rental price per page €. This information is given for information only in accordance with current legislation.

Report a problem
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
FOREWORD by Georges Pedro
FOREWORD by Mike Swift
INTRODUCTION
Chapter I
I.1
INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT‚ MICROCLIMATE AND RESOURCES
THE SOIL ENVIRONMENT
1.1Soil components and structures - the major groupings 1.1.1 The solid phase components 1.1.11The mineral components - soil texture 1.1.1.2Clays and clay minerals 1.1.2 The soil solution 1.1.2.1Biological nutrient and other elemental concentrations 1.1.2.2Pedogenetic importance 1.1.3 The organic components 1.1.3.1Morphology and in situ localisation 1.1.3.2 Physical and chemical characterisation 1.1.3.3Particle size and aggregate fractionation 1.1.3.4Functional characterisation 1.2The soil atmosphere 1.2.1 The composition of the soil atmosphere 1.2.2 Carbon dioxide 1.2.3 Anaerobiosis 1.3Soil structure and micro-relief 1.3.1Components of soil structure 1.3.2 Classification of soil structure 1.3.3 Aggregate formation and stabilisation 1.3.3.1Genesis and size of aggregates 1.3.3.2Organo-mineral bonding 1.3.4 Dynamics and impairment of soil structure v
xv
xvii
xix
xxi
1
1
1 3 6 16 30 30 31 32 32 34 36 36 38 39 40 41 44 46 52 52 52 56 57
vi
I.2
2.1 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.2.1 2.2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.3.1 2.2.3.2 2.2.4 2.2.4.1 2.2.4.2 2.3 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3
I.3
THE SOIL MICROCLIMATE
Soil temperatures Surface energy balance Daily and seasonal variation Effects of vegetation Water in soils The forms of water in soils Mechanisms of water retention Soil water potential The energy status of soil water Response of the soil biota to water stress Microbial tolerance of water stress Faunal responses to water stress A broad classification of soil water Water retention in different soils Water retention by dead plant material and soil organic matter Hydrological regimes Water balance Vegetational and seasonal effects on soil water Effects of topography on soil water
SOIL RESOURCES
3.1Inorganic Nutrients 3.1.1 Classification of the nutrient elements 3.1.2Specific elements 3.1.2.1Carbon 3.1.2.2Nitrogen 3.1.2.3Phosphorus 3.1.2.4Sulphur 3.1.2.5Calcium and magnesium 3.1.2.6.Potassium 3.1.3 General nutrient sources 3.1.4Mechanisms of storage and release 3.1.4.1Nutrient stocks (standing crops) 3.1.4.2Release from dead plant materials and soil organic matter 3.1.4.3Ratios of carbon to nitrogen and other elements 3.1.4.4Roles of symbiotic micro-organisms 3.2Organic Resources 3.2.1 Resource classification 3.2.2 Surface litter 3.2.2.1Quality 3.2.2.2Availability in time 3.2.2.3Spatial distribution
59
59 59 60 63 65 67 67 67 69 70 70 71 72 73 74 74 76 77 78
80
80 81 87 87 94 97 101 102 104 105 107 107 111 112 115 115 115 119 119 123 124
3.2.2.4 3.2.3 3.2.3.1 3.2.3.2 3.2.3.3 3.2.3.4 3.2.4 3.2.4.1 3.2.4.2 3.2.4.3 3.2.4.4 3.2.4.5 3.2.5
I.4
4.1 4.2 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3
Chapter II
I.1
1.1 1.2 1.3
Annual inputs and standing crop Roots Chemicalquality Availability in time Spatial distribution Annual inputs and standing crop Soil organic matter Quality Isotope natural abundance Spatial distribution patterns Quantity Conclusions Soluble resources
SOIL HETEROGENEITY
Diversity of energy types Heterogeneity Spatial heterogeneity Temporal heterogeneity Functional heterogeneity
SOIL FORMATION
SOIL HORIZONS AND THEIR NOMENCLATURE
Predominantly organic horizon Predominantly mineral horizons Transitional and sub-horizons
II.2THE SOIL FORMING FACTORS
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5
Climate The parent material Time Biota Topography
vii
124 125 126 128 128 128 129 129 132 134 136 139 139
141
141 141 141 142 142
143
145
146 147 148
149
149 150 151 152 153
II.3THE STAGES OF SOIL FORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT154
3.1 3.1.1 3.1.2 3.1.3
Weathering Physical fragmentation Chemical processes Biologically-mediated processes
154 155 156 159
The pedoclimax concept and its limitations Pedogenetic processes in tropical climates Pedogenetic processes in cold and temperate climates Cold climate processes Temperate climate processes Calcareous bedrock Acid rocks Chronosequences Temperateclimates Tropical climates Palaeosols Toposequences Classification of soils Introduction Problems of soil classification Types ofsoil classifications Man-made and man-influenced soils
179 181 184 184 185 185 186 186 187 190 191 193 195 195 196 197 200
M1CROBIAL COMMUNITIES
Taxonomic composition Viruses Bacteria Actinobacteria Fungi
SOIL ORGANISMS
GENERAL FEATURES
201
201
203 203 204 205 206
203
160 161 161
179
3.1.4 3.1.4.1 3.1.4.2 3.1.5
viii
3.2 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.3 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.4
162 165 165 168 169 170 173 177
II.4
III. 2
2.1 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 2.1.4
Chapter III:
III.1
MAJOR PROCESSES OF SOIL FORMATION
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.2.1 4.3.2.2 4.4 4.4.1 4.4.2 4.4.3 4.5 4.6 4.6.1 4.6.2 4.6.3 4.6.4
The major weathering patterns Aplasmogenic weathering Plasmogenic weathering Effects of climate on the world distribution of the major weathering processes Formation and structure of organic reserves Dynamics of accumulation Factors regulating abundance Translocation Physical and chemical processes Biological translocation: bioturbation Erosion
2.1.5 Algae 2.2Quantitative estimates 2.2.1 Techniques for estimating abundance 2.2.2 Density, biomass and productivity of the microflora 2.3Biology of soil micro-organisms 2.3.1 General characteristics 2.3.1.1Bacteria 2.3.1.2Fungi 2.3.2 Survival 2.4Microbial communities 2.4.1 Spatial distribution 2.4.1.1Verticaldistribution 2.4.1.2Horizontal distribution 2.4.2 Temporal variation 2.4.2.1Short-term variation 2.4.2.2Seasonal variation 2.4.3 Turnover of microbial biomass: the sleeping beauty paradox 2.4.4 Community structure 2.4.4.1Species richness 2.4.4.2Community structures and dynamics
III.3
ROOTS
3.1system.The morphology of the root 3.1.1 Definitions 3.1.2 Rooting strategies 3.1.2.1Root: shoot ratios and specific root length 3.1.2.2Horizontal and vertical distributions of roots in the soil profile 3.1.2.3Root biomass and production 3.2Biology of roots 3.2.1 Uptake of water and nutrients 3.2.1.1Plant feeding regimes 3.2.1.2Internal and external factors of nutrient assimilation. 3.2.1.3Dynamics of absorption 3.2.2Resistance to water stress 3.2.2.1Short-term mechanisms 3.2.2.2Medium-term mechanisms 3.2.3 Exudation and rhizodeposition 3.2.3.1Definition 3.2.3.2Sites and mechanisms of exudation 3.2.3.3Chemical composition of exudates(sensu lato) 3.2.3.4Quantitative estimates
III.4
INVERTEBRATE COMMUNITIES
ix
207 207 207 209 211 211 211 213 215 216 216 217 219 221 221 222 224 225 225 227
230
230 230 232 233 235 240 242 242 242 243 245 245 246 246 246 246 247 248 251
253
x
4.1Microfauna 4.1.1 Protoctista (formerly Protozoa) 4.1.1.1General biology 4.1.1.2Community structure 4.1.2 Nematodes 4.1.2.1General biology 4.1.2.2Community structure 4.2Mesofauna 4.2.1 Collembola 4.2.1.1General biology 4.2.1.2Community structure 4.2.2 Acari 4.2.2.1General biology 4.2.2.2Community structure 4.2.3 Enchytraeidae 4.2.3.1General biology 4.2.3.2Community structure 4.2.4 Other soil mesofauna 4.3 Macrofauna 4.3.1 Earthworms 4.3.1.1General biology 4.3.1.2Ecological categories 4.3.1.3Density and biomass of communities 4.3.1.4Communitystructure 4.3.2 Termites 4.3.2.1Distribution and general biology 4.3.2.2Ecological categories 4.3.2.3Population densities and biomasses 4.3.2.4Community structure 4.3.2.5Interactions between termites 4.3.2.6The natural enemies of termites 4.3.3 Ants 4.3.3.1Taxonomy 4.3.3.2Development 4.3.3.3Colony ontogeny 4.3.3.4Food materials and feeding habits 4.3.3.5Geographic distribution of ants 4.3.3.6Spatial distribution of ants 4.3.3.7Ant populations and biomasses 4.3.3.8Effects of ants on soils 4.3.4 Macroarthropod communities 4.3.4.1General biology 4.3.4.2Population densities and biomasses 4.4Determination of soil faunal biodiversity and function 4.4.1 Adaptive strategies of soil invertebrates
253 253 253 256 257 257 261 263 263 263 268 270 270 276 279 279 282 284 285 285 285 288 289 291 294 294 307 310 313 315 315 316 318 318 320 322 328 330 333 334 334 335 338 339 340
4.4.1.1 4.4.1.2 4.4.1.3 4.4.1.4 4.4.1.5 4.4.1.6
4.4.2 4.4.2.1 4.4.2.2 4.4.2.3 4.4.3 4.4.3.1
4.4.3.2 4.4.3.3
Principal constraints to soil invertebrate activities Digestion Locomotion Adaptations to temporarily unfavourable climatic conditions Response to soil constraints Functional guilds: microfoodwebs, litter transformers and ecosystem engineers Determination of species richness Phylogeny and species richness Biogeographical effects Environmental determinants Determination of soil invertebrate communities Local responses to the vertical gradient of food resources and environment predicability: trade-offs in adaptive strategies Regional effects: vegetation and types of land use Geographical effects: changes of temperature linked to altitude and latitude
Chapter IV:FUNCTIONING OF THE SOIL SYSTEM
IV.1
DECOMPOSITION
1.1General processes 1.1.1 The role of organic matter in soil function 1.1.2 Physical aspects: rates of disappearance and transfers of decomposing material 1.1.3 Chemical aspects: resource quality and chemical transformation during decomposition 1.2An hierarchical model of the abiotic and biotic factors determining decomposition 1.2.1 Dynamics of decomposition 1.2.2 Hierarchy of the factors governing decomposition 1.3Processes involved at each level of the hierarchy 1.3.1Microbial processes 1.3.2Abiotic limitations to decomposition 1.3.3Resource quality and decomposition processes 1.4 Biological systems of regulation 1.4.1 Definition and general properties 1.4.2 Litter-superficial roots system 1.4.3 The rhizosphere 1.4.4 The drilosphere 1.4.5 The termitosphere 1.5Basic processes within the biological systems of regulation
xi
340 341 342 343 343
344 347 347 348 348 351
351 352
353
357
359
359 359
360
362
364 364 366 369 369 369 372 376 376 378 379 379 380 381
xii
1.5.1
1.5.2 1.5.3
IV.2
2.1 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4 2.3 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.4 2.4.1 2.4.2 2.4.3 2.5 2.5.1 2.5.2 2.5.3 2.5.4 2.5.5 2.6 2.6.1 2.6.2 2.6.3
Synchrony and synlocalisation of nutrient element release and uptake The role of priming effects: an hypothesis Micro-foodwebs
THE LITTER SYSTEM
Composition Classification Litter systems and humus forms Mulls Moder Mor Structure of litter systems Vertical structure Horizontal and temporal patterns Decomposer communities Micro-organisms Roots Invertebrates Processes in the litter system Comminution Transfers Regulation of mineralisation by invertebrates Effects of white-rot fungi Root activities Organic matter fluxes in the litter system Carbon mineralisation in the litter system Nutrient cycling Synchrony in the litter system
IV.3RHIZOSPHERE
3.1General characterisation 3.1.1Spatial extension 3.1.1.1Longitudinal characterisation 3.1.1.2Radial extension 3.1.1.3Micro-environment 3.1.2Rhizosphere communities 3.1.2.1Non-symbiotic micro-organisms and the micropredator foodweb 3.1.2.2Symbiotic micro-organisms 3.1.2.3Faunal communities 3.1.3 Classification of rhizospheres 3.2Rhizosphere processes 3.2.1 Nutrient uptake from the soil
381 382 383
388
388 389 389 390 391 392 393 393 395 404 404 404 406 410 410 410 411 415 416 417 417 419 423
426
426 427 427 428 428 430 430 432 441 445 446 446
3.2.1.1Mobilisation of nutrients from soil organic matter: the role of microfoodwebs 3.2.1.2Roles of mycorrhizae 3.2.1.3N-fixation by prokaryotes 3.2.2 Stimulation of growth and defence against competitors and pathogens 3.2.2.1Plant growth promoting substances 3.2.2.2Allelopathy 3.2.2.3pathogens by micro-organisms andInhibition and spread of invertebrates 3.2.3 Effects on soil structure
IV.4
THE DRILOSPHERE
4.1Classification of drilospheres 4.1.1 Determinants of earthworm community structure 4.1.2 Earthworm digestive systems 4.2The anecic drilosphere 4.2.1 Distribution of anecic earthworms 4.2.2 Ingestion of above-ground litter by field communities 4.2.3 Anecic structures 4.2.3.1Casts 4.2.3.2Galleries 4.2.4 Associated microflora and fauna 4.2.5 Flux of litter and soil through the anecic drilosphere 4.2.6 Functioning of the anecic drilosphere 4.2.6.1Effects of anecic earthworms on C and nutrient cycling 4.2.6.2Soil physical properties 4.3The endogeic drilosphere 4.3.1 Distribution of endogeic earthworms 4.3.2 Endogeic structures 4.3.3 Associated microflora 4.3.4 Functioning of the endogeic drilosphere 4.4Influence of the drilosphere on plant growth
IV.5
5.1 5.2 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.2.2.1 5.2.2.2 5.2.2.3 5.2.3
THE TERMITOSPHERE
Introduction Subdivisions of the termitosphere Ecological categorisation Biogenic structures Nests and nest materials Galleries Aggregates, voids and other structures Associated organisms
xiii
446 450 454
457 457 457
459 460
463
463 464 469 472 472 472 474 474 475 476 477 478 478 480 481 481 482 483 483 494
497
497 498 498 501 501 505 506 507
xiv
5.3 5.3.1 5.3.1.1 5.3.1.2 5.3.2 5.3.2.1 5.3.2.2 5.3.2.3 5.3.2.4 5.4
5.4.1 5.4.2 5.4.2.1 5.4.2.2 5.4.2.3 5.4.2.4 5.5
Interactions between termites and the non-living environment Soil physical characteristics Termites and soil textural relationships Effects on soil structure Termites and soil organic matter Organic matter fluxes associated with the termitosphere Short-term effects: the importance of adjustment of the C:N ratio Intermediate scale effects Large scale effects Interactions between termites‚ higher vegetation and micro-organisms Direct effects Indirect effects Termites and the local distribution of vegetation The vegetation associated with epigeal termite mounds Termitaria‚ roots and mycorrhizal fungi Hightermitaria Interactions between termites and higher animals
REFERENCES
INDEX
508 510 510 511 514 515 515 518 518
522 522 524 524 525 526 529 529
531
619