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The Visual Dictionary of Animal Kingdom

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174 Pages
English

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The Visual Dictionary of Animal Kingdom takes the reader on a fascinating voyage
into well and less known groups of animals: simple organisms, echinoderms, insects, arachnids, mollusks, crustaceans, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals.
Convenient and affordable, this book is the perfect tool to appreciate the diversity of animal kingdom!

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Published 20 July 2012
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EAN13 9782764408797
Language English
Document size 19 MB

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T H E V I S U A L
DICTION A RY OF
forewing cell
Appendage of flight attached Constituent element of a
to the central segment of the butterfly’s wing contained
thorax. between the wing veins.
ANIMAL
KINGDOM
hind wing
Appendage of flight
attached to the terminal
segment of the thorax.
compound eye
Organ of vision made up
of thousands of facets that
perceive shapes, colors,
motion and distance.
labial palp
Sensory organ of the
mouth having mainly
olfactory and gustatory
functions.
proboscis
Mouthlike part allowing the butterfly
to feed through aspiration; the
proboscis folds back onto itself to
avoid interfering with flight.
foreleg
Articulated member attached to the
abdomen
first segment of the thorax and having Posterior portion of the butterfly’s body
powerful sensory organs.
made up of 10 segments and containing
the major vital organs, such as the heart,
the intestines and the genital organs.ANIMAL KINGDOM
Jean-Claude Corbeil
Ariane Archambault
QA INTERNATIONALACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
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Animal Kingdom was created and produced by ISBN 978-2-7644-0879-7
QA International
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© QA International 2009. All rights reserved.
No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by
any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording,
or by any information storage and retrieval sytem, without permission in
writing by QA International.
Printed and bound in Singapore
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www.qa-international.com
Version 3.5.1E D I T O R I A L S TA F F L AY O U T
Editor: Jacques Fortin Pascal Goyette
Authors: Jean-Claude Corbeil and Danielle Quinty
Ariane Archambault Émilie Corriveau
Editorial Director: François Fortin Preliminary layout: Émilie Bellemare
Editor-in-Chief: Anne Rouleau Sonia Charette
Graphic Designer: Anne Tremblay
D O C U M E N TAT I O N
P R O D U C T I O N Gilles Vézina
Nathalie Fréchette Kathleen Wynd
Josée Gagnon Stéphane Batigne
Sylvain Robichaud
T E R M I N O L O G I C A L R E S E A R C H Jessie Daigle
Jean Beaumont
Catherine Briand D ATA M A N A G E M E N T
Nathalie Guillo Programmer: Éric Gagnon
Josée Gagnon
E N G L I S H D E F I N I T I O N S
Nancy Butchart R E V I S I O N
Rita Cloghesy Veronica Schami
Tom Donovan Jo Howard
Diana Halfpenny Marie-Nicole Cimon
John Woolfrey Liliane Michaud
Kathe Roth
P R E P R E S S
I L L U S T R AT I O N S Karine Lévesque
Artistic Direction: Jocelyn Gardner François Hénault
Jean-Yves Ahern Julien Brisebois
Rielle Lévesque Patrick Mercure
Alain Lemire
Mélanie Boivin
Yan Bohler
Claude Thivierge
Pascal Bilodeau
Michel Rouleau
Anouk Noël
Carl Pelletier
Raymond Martin
C O N T R I B U T I O N S
QA International wishes to extend a special thank you to the following people for their contribution to this book:
Jean-Louis Martin, Marc Lalumière, Jacques Perrault, Stéphane Roy, Alice Comtois, Michel Blais, Christiane Beauregard, Mamadou Togola,
Annie Maurice, Charles Campeau, Mivil Deschênes, Jonathan Jacques, Martin Lortie, Frédérick Simard, Yan Tremblay, Mathieu Blouin,
Sébastien Dallaire, Hoang Khanh Le, Martin Desrosiers, Nicolas Oroc, François Escalmel, Danièle Lemay, Pierre Savoie, Benoît Bourdeau,
Marie-Andrée Lemieux, Caroline Soucy, Yves Chabot, Anne-Marie Ouellette, Anne-Marie Villeneuve, Anne-Marie Brault, Nancy Lepage,
Daniel Provost, François Vézina, Guylaine Houle, Daniel Beaulieu, Sophie Pellerin, Tony O'Riley, Mac Thien Nguyen Hoang, Serge D'Amico.I N T R O D U C T I O N
EDITORIAL POLICY DEFINITIONS
The Visual Dictionary takes an inventory of the physical Within the hierarchical format of The Visual Dictionary's
environment of a person who is part of today's technological age presentation, the definitions fit together like a Russian doll. For
and who knows and uses a large number of specialized terms in a example, the information within the definition for the term insect
wide variety of fields. at the top of the page does not have to be repeated for each of the
insects illustrated. Instead, the text concentrates on defining theDesigned for the general public, it responds to the needs of
distinguishing characteristics of each insect (the louse is aanyone seeking the precise, correct terms for a wide range of
parasite, the female yellow jacket stings, and so forth). personal or professional reasons: finding an unknown term,
checking the meaning of a word, translation, advertising, teaching Since the definition leaves out what is obvious from the
material, etc. illustration, the illustrations and definitions complement one
another.The target user has guided the choice of contents for The Visual
Dictionary, which aims to bring together in 12 thematic books the The vast majority of the terms in the Visual Dictionary are defined.
technical terms required to express the contemporary world, in the Terms are not defined when the illustration makes the meaning
specialized fields that shape our daily experience. absolutely clear, or when the illustration suggests the usual
meaning of the word (for example, the numerous handles).
STRUCTURE
METHODS OF CONSULTATIONEach tome has three sections: the preliminary pages, including the
table of contents; the body of the text (i.e. the detailed treatment Users may gain access to the contents of The Visual Dictionary in
of the theme); the index. a variety of ways:
Information is presented moving from the most abstract to the • From the TABLE OF CONTENTS at the end of the preliminary
most concrete: sub-theme, title, subtitle, illustration, terminology. pages, the user can locate by title the section that is of interest.
• With the INDEX, the user can consult The Visual Dictionary from
a word, so as to see what it corresponds to, or to verify accuracyTERMINOLOGY
by examining the illustration that depicts it.
Each word in The Visual Dictionary has been carefully selected
• The most original aspect of The Visual Dictionary is the fact thatfollowing examination of high-quality documentation, at the
the illustrations enable the user to find a word even if he or sherequired level of specialization.
only has a vague idea of what it is. The dictionary is unique in this
There may be cases where different terms are used to name the feature, as consultation of any other y requires the user
same item. In such instances, the word most frequently used by first to know the word.
the most highly regarded authors has been chosen.
Words are usually referred to in the singular, even if the illustration
shows a number of individual examples. The word designates the
concept, not the actual illustration.
4TERMTITLE
Each term appears in the indexIts definition is found below. If the title refers to
with a reference to the pages oninformation that continues over several pages,
which it appears.after the first page it is shown in a shaded tone
with no definition.
SUB-THEME
DEFINITION
These are shown at the end of the
It explains the inherent qualities, function, or preliminary pages along with their
characteristics of the element depicted in the definitions. They are then repeated on
illustration. each page of a section, but without the
definition.
CARNIVOROUS MAMMALS CARNIVOROUS MAMMALS
cat cat
Carnivorous mammal with a supple muscular body and paws ending in retractable claws; it is a very common pet.
morphology of a cat
cat’s head
Anterior portion of the body containing
the main sensory organs and the brain.
pupil eyelashes eye ear
Central opening of the eye where light Hairs implanted on the free edge of the Organ of sight especially adapted to Highly mobile organ of hearing, also
enters; it is particularly well adapted to eyelid preventing dust and other darkness; it mainly perceives light contributing to equilibrium; cats have a
the dark. particles from landing on the eye. intensity, motion and certain colors. highly developed sense of hearing.
whiskers
Highly sensitive long stiff hairs located tail
Terminal appendage of the bodyabove the eyes and having a tactile
providing equilibrium when the catfunction.
jumps.
upper eyelid
Thin muscular membrane lowering
from the upper edge of the eye to
protect and clean it.
lower eyelid
Thin muscular membrane that is
translucent and movable; it rises from
the lower edge of the eye to protect and
cleanse it.
nictitating membrane
Thin muscular membrane extending
sideways from the inside corner of the
eye to protect and moisten it.
whiskers
Extremely sensitive long stiff hairs
(vibrissae) located on the muzzle
having a tactile function.
nose leather
Terminal end of the muzzle bearing the
nostrils made of strong damp tissue; it
has an olfactory and respiratory
function.
muzzle
furShort round front part of the head with
Hair covering the body, mainly forwhiskers; it has a highly developed
lip maintaining internal body temperature
tactile and olfactory function.Movable muscular part forming the and providing protection from insect
contour of the mouth; a cat has two bites.
upper lips lined with whiskers.
140 141
ILLUSTR ATION
It is an integral part of the
visual definition for each of
the terms that refer to it.
NARROW LINES
These link the word to the item indicated. Where too many
lines would make reading difficult, they have been replaced
by color codes with captions or, in rare cases, by numbers.
5CONTENTS
8 EVOLUTION OF LIFE 66 AMPHIBIANS
8 Origin and evolution of species 66 Frog
73 Examples of amphibians
10 SIMPLE ORGANISMS AND ECHINODERMS
74 REPTILES10 Animal cell
12 Unicellulars 74 Dinosaurs
14 Sponge 76 Snake
15 Echinoderms 78 Turtle
81 Examples of reptiles
18 INSECTS AND ARACHNIDS
84 BIRDS18 Butterfly
24 Honeybee 84 Bird
35 Examples of insects 97 Examples of birds
39of arachnids
40 Spider 106 INSECTIVOROUS MAMMALS
106 Mole
44 MOLLUSKS 108 Examples of insectivorous mammals
44 Snail
48 Univalve shell 109 RODENTS AND LAGOMORPHS
49 Bivalve shell
109 Rodent
52 Octopus 112 Examples of rodents
114 Rodent’s and lagomorph’s jaws
56 CRUSTACEANS 116 Examples of lagomorphs
56 Lobster
117 UNGULATE MAMMALS
60 FISHES 117 Horse
60 Cartilaginous fish 127 Examples of hoofs
62 Bony fish 128of ungulate mammals
6133 CARNIVOROUS MAMMALS
133 Dog
138 Dog breeds
140 Cat
143 Cat breeds
144 Examples of carnivorous mammals
149 MARINE MAMMALS
149 Examples of marine mammals
152 Dolphin
156 PRIMATE MAMMALS
156 Gorilla
158 Examples of primates
160 MARSUPIAL MAMMALS
160 Kangaroo
163 Examples of marsupials
164 FLYING MAMMAL
164 Bat
168 Examples of bats
169 INDEX
7E V O L U T I O N O F L I F E
origin and evolution of species
Since its formation some 4.6 billion years ago, the Earth has witnessed the genesis of continents and oceans
and the appearance of animals and vegetation.
cyanobacteria
PrecambrianBlue-green algae, among the first living
The oldest and longest geological era,microscopic organisms to appear on
marked by the formation of continentsEarth.
and the appearance of ocean life.
ferns
These plants developed by the water’s
archaeognatha edge. Consisting of roots, a stem and
The oldest known insect fossil; it was leaves, they could reach the height of
wingless and had long antennae. present-day trees.
Ordovician Carboniferous
Geological period marked by the appearance of Geological period marked by the
the first vertebrates and new marine appearance of reptiles and winged
invertebrates. Corals, sponges and mollusks insects. Plants (ferns, cereals) continued
were especially abundant. evolving.
Cambrian Silurian Devonian
Geological period marked by the evolution of Geological period marked by the Geological period marked by the
animals (appearance of mollusks, appearance of fish with jaws and the appearance of amphibians, insects and the
crustaceans) and the extinction of half of the first land plants. first land animals. This period saw the
marine invertebrates. proliferation of fish and plants.
8E V O L U T I O N O F L I F E
origin and evolution of species
flowering plants
Appearing at the end of the Jurassic
period, these plant species diversified
widely over time; today, they form the
largest group of plants on Earth.
megazostrodon
About the size of a mouse, one of the
first mammals to appear on Earth was a homo sapiens sapiens
mainly nocturnal insectivore. proconsul The representative of the first modern
Large primate fossil, thought to be the man appeared about 100,000 years
ancestor of the chimpanzee. ago.
archaeopteryx
Animal fossil capable of flight; it had
certain characteristics of a reptile (claws,
teeth, long bony tail) and others of a bird
(wings, feathers).
Quaternary
The most recent geological period in
the Earth’s history; it is marked by
glaciations and the appearance of
modern humans.
Tertiary
Period marked by the diversification and
dominance of mammals (appearance of
horses, whales and others). First primates
also appeared.
Triassic Jurassic Cretaceous
Geological period marked by the Geological period during which the This period was marked by the
breaking apart of the great dinosaurs ruled the world. The Atlantic extinction of 75% of plant and animal
protocontinent, the formation of today’s Ocean was formed at this time. species, including the dinosaurs.
continents and the appearance of
mammals.
Permian
Geological period marked by the
predominance of reptiles and amphibians. The
continental mass now formed into a great
protocontinent: Pangea.
9S I M P L E O R G A N I S M S A N D E C H I N O D E R M S
animal cell
Smallest living structure and constituent unit of all animals, including human beings; its size and shape vary
according to function.
nuclear envelope
Envelope formed of two layers surrounding
the nucleus and pierced with small holes,
which allow exchanges between the
cytoplasm and the nucleus.
nucleus
Organelle containing a cell’s genes and
controlling its activities.
nucleolus
Small spherical body located inside the
nucleus, within which the ribosomes, or
protein-synthesizing structures, are
produced.
chromatin
Mass of very fine filaments of DNA, the
genetic material of the cell; it is
compressed into chromosomes during
cell division.
microtubule
Cylindrical structure supporting the
cell and allowing organelles and
substances inside the cell to move
about.
mitochondrion
Ovoid organelle that produces the
energy necessary for cell activity.
peroxisome
Organelle containing enzymes that
neutralize the cell’s toxic substances.
centriole
Structure consisting of small rods that
play a major role in cell division. Each
cell usually contains two.
10S I M P L E O R G A N I S M S A N D E C H I N O D E R M S
animal cell
ribosome
Organelle, free or attached to the
endoplasmic reticulum, producing
lysosomeproteins essential to the constitution and
Small spheroid organ containing enzymes
functioning of living beings.
that break down food, spent cell
components and other harmful substances
that have been absorbed.
Golgi apparatus
Organelle composed of a series of pockets that
receive proteins produced by the ribosomes
and either transport them outside the cell or to
other organelles.
endoplasmic reticulum
Organelle formed of walls to which the
ribosomes are attached.
microfilament
Rod-shaped structure supporting the
cell and giving it its shape.
cytoplasm
Clear gelatinous substance
surrounding the various cellular
structures.
vacuole
Spherical cavity containing water,
waste and various substances required
by the cell.
cell membrane
The cell’s flexible outer casing; it separates the
cell from the surrounding environment and
works as a filter to control the entry and exit of
certain substances.
cilium
Filament-like extension of the
cytoplasmic membrane allowing the
cell and certain substances on its
surface to move about.
11S I M P L E O R G A N I S M S A N D E C H I N O D E R M S
unicellulars
Single-cell organisms living in freshwater or salt water, in humid soil or as parasites of other organisms (plants
or animals).
amoeba
Variably shaped one-cell organism, found in
freshwater or salt water, in humid soil or,
sometimes, as a parasite of animals. It moves
about and feeds with the help of pseudopodia.
plasma membrane
The cell’s flexible outer casing; it separates
the cell from the surrounding environment
and works as a filter to control the entry
and exit of certain substances.contractile vacuole
Spheroid cavity acting as a pump to
evacuate excess water and waste from
the cell.
pseudopod
Extension of the cytoplasmic
membrane and cytoplasm allowing thefood vacuole nucleus
amoeba to move about and to trap itsSpheroid cavity in which the amoeba Organelle containing a cell’s genes and
prey.traps its prey to digest it. controlling its activities.
12S I M P L E O R G A N I S M S A N D E C H I N O D E R M S
unicellulars
paramecium
Ovoid-shaped one-cell organism generally
found in freshwater and covered with cilia,
which allow it to move about and to feed,
mainly on bacteria.
cilium
Filament-like extension of the
cytoplasmic membrane allowing the
cell and certain substances on its
surface to move about.
food vacuole
Spheroid cavity in which food particles
from the cytopharynx are digested.
plasma membrane
The cell’s flexible outer casing; it separates the
cell from the surrounding environment and
works as a filter to control the entry and exit ofmicronucleus
Small nucleus ensuring cell certain substances.
reproduction.
peristome
Depression lined with cilia, which
undulate to direct food particles toward
the cytostome.
cytostome
macronucleus Opening corresponding to the mouth
Large nucleus controlling cellular and allowing ingestion of food and
activities. rejection of undesirable elements.
cytopharynx
Fold of the plasma membrane; food
particles originating in the cytostomecytoplasm
Clear gelatinous substance are directed toward it.
surrounding the various cellular
structures.
forming food vacuole
The paramecium continually produces food vacuoles out
of cytoplasmic membrane. Each food vacuole traps food
particles accumulated in the bottom of the cytopharynx.
contractile vacuole
Spheroid cavity acting as a pump to
evacuate excess water and waste from the
cytoproctcell.
Orifice corresponding to the anus; the
food vacuole opens into it, allowing
waste to be eliminated.
13S I M P L E O R G A N I S M S A N D E C H I N O D E R M S
sponge
Porous multicell organism, mostly marine (currently about 5,000 species); it anchors itself to a support and
filters water to take in food particles.
calcareous sponge
Marine sponge with a skeleton
composed of small calcareous needles
(spicules).
anatomy of a sponge
osculum
Large opening protected by spicules,
through which the sponge discharges
water from the gastric cavity.
pinacocyte
Flat ectodermal cell forming the outer
covering of the sponge.
water flow
Choanocyte flagella allow water to
move inside the sponge, carrying
oxygen and food particles to it.
mesohyl
Gelatinous substance, rich in water, incurrent pore
located between the ectoderm and the
Opening into the gastric cavity,
endoderm. through which water enters the
sponge.
choanocyte
Inner cell having a filament (flagellum),
which allows water to circulate and endoderm
food particles to be caught and
Inner layer of the sponge formed of
digested. cells (choanocytes) whose role is
mainly to feed the organism.
spongocoel
Hollow portion of the sponge covered ectoderm
with choanocytes, in which water Outer layer of the sponge formed of
circulates before exiting through the cells (pinacocytes) whose role is
osculum. mainly to protect the organism.
14S I M P L E O R G A N I S M S A N D E C H I N O D E R M S
echinoderms
Marine invertebrates (currently more than 6,000 species) covered with calcareous plates; an ambulacral ossicle runs
along the body, helping the organism to move, anchor itself to a support and capture its prey.
morphology of a starfish
Starfish: carnivorous echinoderm found in the
ocean depths; it generally has five arms, which
allow it to crawl slowly along surfaces.
spine
More or less movable outgrowths of
calcareous plates forming the skeleton
and enabling the starfish to ward off its
predators.
arm
Movable appendage radiating around the
central disk; it has a mainly tactile and
olfactory function. The starfish can
regenerate an amputated arm.
central disk
Central region of the body; the
starfish’s arms are attached to it.
madreporite
Porous dorsal plate that allows water to
enter the body; it connects the ambulacral
ossicle to the outside world, and thus
ensures locomotion.
eyespot
Small light-sensitive structure located
at the terminal end of each arm,
allowing it to locate surfaces and prey.
tube foot
Small flexible tube extending and retracting with
the action of the ampulla; it mainly allows the
organism to move about, anchor itself to a
support and capture its prey.
15S I M P L E O R G A N I S M S A N D E C H I N O D E R M S
echinoderms
anatomy of a starfish
rectal cecum
Lateral duct of the terminal part of the
digestive tract, where waste is stored
before being expelled through the
anus.
anus
Terminal orifice of the digestive tract
allowing waste to be ejected; most of the
undigested food is regurgitated rather than
expelled through the anus.
gonopore
intestine Dorsal opening through which
Section of the digestive tract between the gametes (spermatozoids and ovules)
stomach and the anus where absorption are expelled into the water to be
of nutrients is carried out and waste is fertilized.
transformed into fecal matter.
stomach
Dilated section of the digestive tract
preceding the intestine; it receives food
to be digested.
esophagus
Muscular membranous channel of the
anterior section of the digestive tract; it
allows food to reach the stomach.
radial canal
Canal running the length of the arm; it
receives water from the annular canal,
which then passed into the tube feet.
mouth
Anterior cavity of the digestive tract
located on the ventral surface that
allows food to be ingested.
16