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Afrikology and Transdisciplinarity

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This monograph is intended to examine the epistemology of restorative rights in view of the continuing violation of rights in all aspects of life on the African continent and other parts of the world. It is based on the research, which the Marcus Garvey Pan-Afrikan Institute undertook between 2006�2008, under a cross-disciplinary research project entitled Restorative Justice and its Relationship to International Humanitarian Law, which resulted in a Comprehensive Report that was later discussed at an international conference in Nairobi in August 2008. This conference was opened by the Prime Minister of Kenya, Right Hon. Raila Odinga and attended by Ministers of Justice and Constitutional Affairs, judges and other ministers from the five countries in which the research was carried out, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda and Southern Sudan. The objective here is to relate the concept of restorative justice, in its broad and cross-disciplinary meaning to the epistemology of Afrikology and transdisciplinarity, which aim at breaking down disciplinary boundaries between the different academic disciplines, which inhibit our capabilities of looking at realities in a comprehensive, holistic manner; leading to the adoption of fragmented solutions to problems, which inevitably fail to address those problems. As stated in the monograph on the epistemology of Afrikology, knowledge is created holistically by the heart and the basis of the perceptions and experiences of the five senses. The knowledge created through the word, which ultimately constitutes the language and the community, is related to our cosmic forces and reason, which gives cosmic significance to our existence. We cannot therefore detach ourselves from these cosmic forces and reality must be examined from this combinatory holistic understanding.

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Published 22 May 2012
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EAN13 9780798303149
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AfrikologyandTransdisciplinarity: A restorative epistemology
 By Dani Wadada Nabudere
Afrikology andTransdisciplinarity: A Restorative Epistemology
First published in 2012 by the Africa Institute of South Africa PO Box 630 Pretoria 0001 South Africa
ISBN-13: 978-0-7983-0302-6
© Copyright Africa Institute of South Africa 2012. No part of this paper may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted by any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior permission from the copyright owner.
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Opinions expressed and conclusions arrived at in all occasional papers are those of the authors and should not necessarily be attributed to the Africa Institute of South Africa.
Project Manager: Nonjabulo Dladla Design and Layout by Future pre-press, Pretoria. Cover design by Future pre-press, Pretoria. Copy-editor: Puseletso Mompei Proofreader: Lise-Marie Keyser
The Africa Institute of South Africa is a think tank and research organisation, focusing on political, socio-economic, international and development issues in contemporary Africa. The Institute conducts research, publishes books, monographs and a quarterly journal, and holds regular seminars on issues of topical interest. It is also home to one of the best library and documentation centres world-wide, with materials on every African country. For more information, contact the Africa Institute at PO Box 630, Pretoria 0001, South Africa; email ai@ ai.org.za; or visit our website athttp://www.ai.org.za
THIS MONOGRAPH IS BASED ON THE PHILOSOPHICAL MONOGRAPH BY: NABUDERE, D. W. 2011. Afrikology, Philosophy and Wholeness: An Epistemology, Marcus Garvey Pan-African University, Mbale, Uganda which has been published by the Africa Institute of South Africa, Pretoria.
In memory of Prof Dani Wadada Nabudere – an Ode to an African Intellectual Giant
The Africa Institute of South Africa (AISA) had the privilege in recent years of a fruitful association with the late Prof Dani Nabudere. He was the inaugural keynote speaker of our annual Archie Mafeje Memorial Lecture in Tshwane in 2010, in recognition of the late Mafeje, a South African scholar who was denied the opportunity of lecturing at the University of Cape Town (UCT) in 1968 during the height of Apartheid because he was an African. The then Minister of Education Jan De Klerk (father of former president FW de Klerk, wrote to the Vice Chancellor of UCT with the following heading Appointment of a Bantu as Senior Lecturer
It is with a strong feeling of dismay that I have noted from the letter addressed to the Director of Higher Education by your Registrar on the second instant that your Council has decided to appoint a Bantu in the person of a certain Mr A. Mafeje to a post of Senior Lecturer, Social Anthropology. In a serious endeavour to obviate a catastrophe I hasten to express on behalf of the Government our intense displeasure at the decision which is tantamount to flouting the accepted traditional outlook of South Africa. Furthermore it is contrary to the entire spirit underlying to the concession made as an interim arrangement in 1959, when legislation was passed for the establishment of the University Colleges, not to restrict the Universities to the training of white students by white staff, but to allow so called open universities to admit non-white students subject to certain conditions. Although not specifically prohibited, it has always been understood that the staff at open universities would always be white. In light of the foregoing I sincerely trust that your Council will not proceed with the appointment of Mr Mafeje, but will make further attempts to fill the vacancy suitably with a white person, even if it should entail re-advertising the post.”
The abhorrent treatment of Prof Mafeje was the daily experience of Africans in South Africa, and was supposed to have ended with the dawn of democracy and majority rule in 1994. Unfortunately, lightening struck twice for Prof Mafeje when UCT again denied him employment in the mid-1990s when he returned from exile (having left immediately after his first rejection by UCT). Those who forget their history are bound to repeat its mistakes, which is why we must keep the memory of Prof Mafeje and his ideas alive.
These two African intellectual giants met whilst both were in exile, and they developed a lifelong friendship. They were further linked by Prof Nabudere being married to a South African, who originates from the Eastern Cape Province, like Prof Mafeje. Their intellectual association was cemented through their academic work as part of the University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and an intense engagement with the Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa (CODESRIA), since its formation in 1973. Indeed, they both contributed tremendously to knowledge production in Africa. In March 2010 we had a two-week programme for Prof Nabudere, beginning with a two-day lecture at the Walter Sisulu University (WSU), engaging both the students and lecturers in a scholarly dialogue. The central thesis he left the university community with was: how would WSU become a university in tandem with the community in which it is located, and contribute to its sustainable development? He then moved to Tshwane where he delivered the memorial lecture onArchie Mafeje: the scholar and political activist which has since been published as a monograph, and is a tour de force; the contribution of Mafeje to African-centered knowledge production; his critiques of western intellectual dominance, especially anthropology and alterity; his advocation for a Pan-African identity; and emancipation of African people globally. His visit ended with a lecture at the University of South Africa and then at our Young Graduate and Scholars symposium, building on the issues he had raised at the beginning of the week. The youth were very enthused to interact with this African sage. From this visit we also publishedThe United States of Africa: Challenges and Prospects, by Prof Nabudere. The association grew and Prof Nabudere then suggested that AISA publish a number of manuscripts that he had developed, these being Afrikology, Philosophy and Wellness: an epistemology. This was followed by the current monograph titledAfrikology and Transdisciplinarity: a restorative espitemology. In May 2011 AISA had the pleasure of working again with Prof Nabudere when he was the keynote speaker at our First Scramble for Africa international symposium, which we organise jointly with the Tshwane University of Technology, Department of Science and Technology, National Research Foundation, Centre for Black Arts and African Civilisation, Thabo Mbeki African Leadership Institute and Ditsong Museum; and is linked to the commemoration of Africa Day. We were in the process of publishing Afrikology and Transdisciplinarity: a restorative epistemology when Prof
th Nabudere sadly passed away on 9 November 2011, a month before his 79 birthday. We are heartened to have published this monograph by the time the Marcus Garvey Pan-Afrikan University, of which he was a founder and Chancellor, held the Nabudere Memorial Conference from 16–17 March 2012. One of the highlights of the conference was the launch and showcasing of Prof Nabudere’s works published by AISA. This university will not be a typical ivory tower; it seeks to marry all forms of knowledge, especially Community Sites of Knowledge and Wisdom, where popular-level engagement by the people in tackling the crisis of modernity, locally and globally will ensue. As a continuation of the partnership, Professor Mukasa Luutu, Vice Chancellor of the university, participated in AISA Young Graduates and Scholars symposium, held at the University of Venda from 21–23 March 2012. There is agreement that our two institutions will continue to work together in furthering the works of Profs Archie Mafeje and Dani Nabudere in order to reverse the trend where knowledge producers in Africa are not given the required recognition, both during their lives and when they have departed to the great beyond.
May his soul rest in peace.
Matlotleng Matlou Chief Executive Officer Africa Institute of South Africa March 2012
Contents
Introduction . . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. 1 A. Restorative movement . . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .3 B. What is justice?. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .6
1. Theoretical Problems Revealed By The Research . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. 9 2. The Central Problem: A Fragmented, Polarised Worldview. . .. . 19  A. The historical origin of the problem .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . 19  B. A hermeneutic attempt to resolve the problem .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .25
3. Quantamisation And Transdisciplinarity.. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . 30  A. The quantum leap . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .30  B. The transdisciplinary manifesto .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .33
4. Research, Method And Methodology . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . 45  A. The building blocks .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .45  B. Natural Sciences and the Social Sciences: The problem of . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .47epistemology .. . .. . .. . .. . ..  C. Hermeneutics and the sciences. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .50 (i)Cognitive psychology and the schema theory. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .55 (ii)Geometry and ‘triangulation’.. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .57 (iii)Simulation and modelling.. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .59 (iv)Relational theory and philosophy.. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .60
5. Science, Non-Science And Co-Evolution . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . 70
6. Afrikology And Research . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . 78  A. Continuity and the word . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .78  B. The spiritual and ethical foundations of the word .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .81
7. Transdisciplinarity And The Word .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . 85  A. A reconvergence of man and nature .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .85  B. Towards a theory of collective action . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .90  C. Social innovation . . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . ..100  D. Integral innovation .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . ..103  E. Social constructivism . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . ..106  F. Agricology and a global green economy .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . ..109
8. Deconstruction Of The Hegemonic Undirectional Scholarship 117  A. The recovery of ancient egypt as african civilisation .. . .. . .. . .. 117  B. Anthropology .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . ..120  C. History .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. 127  D. African studies . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. 143  E. African women and feminist-gender studies . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. 149  F. African philosophy. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. 151
9. Research, Language And Epistemology . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. 159
10.Indigenous Knowledge Systems And Afrikology . .. . .. . .. . .. .171
11.. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .176Against Transhumanism
Conclusion .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .191
References .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. 194
Introduction
This monograph is intended to examine the epistemology of restorative rights in view of the continuing violation of rights in all aspects of life on the African continent and other parts of the world. It is based on the research, which the Marcus Garvey Pan-Afrikan Institute undertook between 2006–2008, under a cross-disciplinary research project entitled Restorative Justice and its Relationship to International Humanitarian Law,which resulted in a Comprehensive Report that was later discussed at an international conference in Nairobi in August 2008. This conference was opened by the Prime Minister of Kenya, Right Hon. Raila Odinga and attended by Ministers of Justice and Constitutional Affairs, judges and other ministers from the five countries in which the research was carried out, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda and Southern Sudan. The objective here is to relate the concept ofrestorative justice, in its broad and cross-disciplinary meaning to theepistemology of Afrikology and transdisciplinarity, which aim at breaking down disciplinary boundaries between the different academic disciplines, which inhibit our capabilities of looking at realities in a comprehensive, holistic manner; leading to the adoption of fragmented solutions to problems, which inevitably fail to address those problems. As stated in the monograph on the epistemology of Afrikology, knowledge is created holistically by the heart and the basis of the perceptions and experiences of the five senses. The knowledge created through the word, which ultimately constitutes the language and the community, is related to our cosmic forces and reason, which gives cosmic significance to our existence. We cannot therefore detach ourselves from these cosmic forces and reality must be examined from this combinatory holistic understanding. The research was undertaken during the period when sharp debate about the role of the International Criminal Court (ICC) in Africa was under way and when it appeared that the court was taking its adversarial responsibilities too far by intervening in regionalised local conflicts without a clear understanding of their complex cultural, political and historical contexts. The concept of retributive justice rooted in the Nuremburg and Tokyo Military Trials was being applied through international law and its variants such as the international humanitarian law without taking into
Dani W Nabudere
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