Ex Auditu - Volume 20
190 Pages

Ex Auditu - Volume 20



Ex Auditu began as the journal incorporating the papers of the Fredrick Neumann Symposium of Princeton Theological Seminary. After the first four volumes the journal began publishing the papers from the North Park Symposium on the Theological Interpretation of Scripture. The intent from the first has been to provide a forum for doing interdisciplinary theology from a biblical perspective for the benefit of the Church. Each annual publication focuses on a topic crucial to the life of today's Church. Additionally, each issue contains an annotated bibliography and a sermon, which makes it a practical guide for pastors.

Dr. Stephen Chester, Associate Professor of New Testament at North Park Theological Seminary

Dr. Klyne R. Snodgrass, Paul W. Brandel Professor of New Testament Studies at North Park Theological Seminary

Dr. D. Christopher Spinks, Acquisitions Editor at Wipf and Stock Publishers.

Terence E. Fretheim, Luther Seminary, St. Paul, MN; Richard B. Hays, Duke Divinity School, Durham, NC; Jon R. Stock, Wipf and Stock Publishers, Eugene, OR; Miroslav Volf, Yale Divinity School, New Haven, CT; John Wipf, Wipf and Stock Publishers, Eugene, OR

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Symposium on the Theological Interpretation of Scripture at North Park
DETAILS: For more information about the symposium click here.

Other inquiries should be addressed to one of the following:

Dr. Stephen Chester, Associate Professor of New Testament
North Park Theological Seminary
3225 W. Foster Ave.
Chicago, IL 60625
Telephone: (773) 244-6238 / Fax: (773) 244-6244 / Email schester@northpark.edu

Chris Spinks, Acquisitions Editor
Wipf and Stock Publishers
199 W. 8th Ave., Ste. 3
Eugene, OR 97401
Telephone: (541) 344-1528 / Fax: (541) 344-1506 / Email: chris@wipfandstock.com



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Published 12 February 2005
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An International Journal for the Theological Interpretation of Scripture
Volume 20
Ex Auditu is published annually by Wipf & Stock Publishers, 199 West 8th Avenue, Eugene, Oregon 97401, U.S.A.
Individuals:  U.S.A. and all other countries (in U.S. funds)  $20.00  Students  $12.00
Institutions:  U.S.A. and all other countries (in U.S. funds)  $30.00
This periodical is indexed in the ATLA Religion Database, published by the American Theological Library Association, 250 S. Wacker Dr., 16th Flr., Chicago, IL 60606, Email: atla@atla.com, WWW: http://www.atla.com/;Internationale Zeitschriftenshau für Bibelwissenschaft;Religious and Theological Abstracts; andOld Testament Abstracts.
Please address all subscription correspondence and change of address information toWipf & Stock Publishers.
©2004 by Wipf & Stock Publishers ISSN 08830053
EXAUDITU An International Journal for the Theological Interpretation of Scripture
Klyne R. Snodgrass,EditorNorth Park Theological Seminary 3225 West Foster Avenue Chicago, Illinois 606254987 USA Tel. (773) 2446243 Fax: (773) 2446244 email: ksnodgrass@northpark.edu Website: http://www.northpark.edu/sem/exauditu
Terence E. Fretheim,Luther Seminary, St. Paul, MN Richard B. Hays,The Divinity School, Duke University,  Durham, NC John E. Phelan, Jr.,President of North Park Theological  Seminary, Chicago, ILJon R. Stock,Wipf & Stock Publishers, Eugene, OR Miroslav Volf,Yale Divinity School, New Haven, CT John Wipf,Wipf & Stock Publishers, Eugene, OR
THE EDITORIAL BOARD MEMBERS AND CONSULTANTS represent various disciplines and denominations. Theological Interpretation of Scripture is a task to be taken seriously by scholars who are committed to the Christian faith and tradition. However, as one editorial consultant stated: “let people gradually get used to the idea that a sane hermeneutics is both oriented in advance toward agreement/consent and is simultaneously exigent, discriminating, critical.” EDITORIAL CONSULTANTS RICHARD BAUCKHAM KATHLEEN M. O'CONNOR KEVIN J. VANHOOZER University of St. Andrews Columbia Theological Seminary Trinity Evangelical Divinity St. Andrews, Scotland Decatur, Georgia School Deerfield, Illinois M. DANIEL CARROLL R. IAIN PROVAN Denver Seminary Regent College GEOFFREY WAINWRIGHT Denver, Colorado Vancouver, B.C. The Divinity School Duke University JAN DU RAND GRAHAM STANTON Durham, N. Carolina Rand Afrikaans University University of Cambridge Johannesburg, South Africa Cambridge, England SONDRA WHEELER Wesley Theological Seminary WILLIE JENNINGS ANTHONY THISELTON Washington, D.C. The Divinity School University of Nottingham Duke University Nottingham, England WILLIAM H. WILLIMON Durham, N. Carolina Bishop AUGUSTINE THOMPSON The North Alabama Conference ROBERT JOHNSTON University of Virginia The United Methodist Church Fuller Theological Seminary Charlottesville, Virginia Birmingham, Alabama Pasadena, California MARIANNE MEYE N. T. WRIGHT R. WALTER L. MOBERLY THOMPSON Bishop of Durham University of Durham Fuller Theological Seminary Durham, England Durham, England Pasadena, California
Volume 20
Announcement of the 2005 Symposium
Introduction Klyne Snodgrass
Judgment in the Book of Revelation Richard Bauckham
The Judgment of God in the Old Testament J. Gordon McConville
Response to McConville Terence E. Fretheim
The Nature of Hell Clark H. Pinnock
Response to Pinnock Michael A. Van Horn
Revelation, Empire, and the Violence of God John E. Phelan, Jr.
Response to Phelan Grant R. Osborne
Justice and Judgment in the Book of Jeremiah: Discerning the Boundaries of God’s Wrath Pamela J. Scalise
Judgment: By Whose Authority? Who Will Come to Judge the Quick and the Dead? D. Stephen Long
Response to Long D. Lyle Dabney
The Implicit “Judgment of God” in the Narrative Theology of Mark: Some Postcolonial Reservations Emerson B. Powery
The Unity of Judgment and Love Randall C. Zachman
A Goat’s Perspective: Matthew 25:31–46 Paul Scott Wilson
Annotated Bibliography on Judgment
Presenters and Respondents
Persons in Attendance
Ex Auditu– Volumes Available
 North Park Theological Seminary in Chicago, Illinois, is pleased to announce that the twenty-first Symposium on the Theological Interpretation of Scripture will take place September 22–24, 2005. The symposium will start at 7:00 p.m. on September 22 in Nyvall Hall and will extend through a Saturday afternoon worship service on September 24. The theme in 2005 will be Health and Healing. The following persons have agreed to make presentations:
James Bruckner, North Park Theological Seminary, Old Testament Warren S. Brown, Fuller Theological Seminary, Psychology Mary Chase-Ziolek, North Park Theological Seminary, Health Care Michelle Clifton-Soderstrom, North Park Theological Seminary, Theology Fred Gaiser, Luther Seminary, Old Testament Dwight Peterson, Eastern University, Preaching Joel Shuman, King’s College, Theology John Christopher Thomas, Lee University, New Testament Alan Verhey, Duke University Divinity School, New Testament and Ethics
 Perso ns int erest ed in at t ending t he sessio ns sho uld writ e befo r e September 1 to:
Ms. Guylla Brown North Park Theological Seminary 3225 W. Foster Avenue Chicago, Illinois 60625
 Meals may be taken at North Park and assistance can be provided in finding nearby lodging.
Anchor Bible Dictionary
Ex Auditu
Horizons in Biblical Theology
Journal of Biblical Literature
Journal for the Study of the New Testament: Supplement Series
Journal for the Study of the Old Testament
Journal for the Study of the Old Testament: Supplement Series
Liber antiquitatum biblicarum
Masoretic Text
New International Dictionary of Old Testament Theology and Exegesis
New International Greek Testament Commentary
New International Version
Novum Testamentum Supplements
New Revised Standard Version
New Testament Studies
Perspectives in Religious Studies
Society of Biblical Literature
Scottish Journal of Theology
Word Biblical Commentary
Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament
Word and World
Hardly anyone discusses judgment any more, which is one reason we thought it should be treated. The assumption of the church and the whole society is that everyone—except for the likes of Adolf Hitler and Saddam Hussein—go to heaven and continue doing there what they did here, surely a facile assumption. Part of the problem in modern society is that few think they will be held responsible for anything. The truth is that we know very little about the details of judgment, but lack of knowledge about specifics does not mean the subject is unimportant. If there is no judgment, there is no need for salvation. If there is no judgment, God is not a righteous God, for this world is filled with evil. If there is no judgment on what people do, then it does not matter what people do, and there is little basis for ethics. If there is no judgment, this life is meaningless. People rightly speak of God’s present judgment (as in Rom 1 or John 3:18–19), but any present judgment is uneven and often visited on innocent victims rather than on the perpetrators. Talk about present judgment is irrelevant—and surely brings forth a Job-like protest—if it is not followed by future judgment. Wrath and judgment are not inherent aspects of God’s character but reactions to something outside God, unnecessary without the evil reacted against. Judgment is not essentially what God is about; rather, salvation and loving relations are eternally demonstrative of the character of God. While we may not know details about judgment, we can take comfort in Abraham’s question: “Will not the Judge of the earth do what is right?” (Gen 18:25; cf. Rom 3:4). If we cannot trust that God will be just and true, the rest of the discussion is useless. The expectation that the punishment fits the crime is significant as well, partly because it exposes evil for what it is. One recurring theme in the articles that follow is that judgment is not merely for the other people. Much of the biblical discussion of judgment is directed atChristians. Both the articles on the book of Revelation urge thatweread the book as “Laodiceans.” The church does not escape judgment, a shocking idea to many Christians. People—Christian or otherwise—have little sense that they may face a crisis. What may we legitimately say? No one should want a return to a focus on fire and brimstone, but is judgment even on the radar screen? A gospel of escapism is juvenile, but do we even need good news about God’s deliverance? The triumphalism of the “left behind” theology must be countered with the real
triumph of the Lamb. Judgment sayings are not merely about negative judgment; they focus on God’s twofold coming to bring both salvation and retribution. And, while this throws humans on the mercy of God, these sayings have the purpose of leading people to repentance. Thelex talionisis mentioned in several articles as one of the bases for judgment. The origin of thelex talioniswas not revenge but the assurance that evil would be dealt with and that justice would prevail. But, in relation to judgment the lex talionisraises a question, one implied in Clark Pinnock’s article: if the punishment must fit the crime, what implication results for understanding eternal judgment? Does any crime merit eternal suffering? Thanks is expressed once again to the presenters and respondents who made a significant investment in the life of North Park. The friendship of these people is a privilege. The authors were given a chance to edit their papers after the symposium, but the responses are as presented there. As is obvious, the views expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the journal or North Park. We also thank all those in attendance for their interest and contribution to the discussions. With this issue we begin a new relation. Pickwick Publications, the former publishers of the journal, has been purchased by Wipf and Stock. Thanks and recognition must be expressed to Dikran and Jean Hadidian, the owners of Pickwick, for their years of friendship and collaboration with North Park and for what they established with the journal. They will be missed. We look forward to working with the new publishers, John Wipf and Jon Stock, who have already demonstrated their depth of commitment to the task. We also are in the process of reframing our editorial board and our editorial consultants. We express our gratitude to those who have served before, to those who are continuing, and to those who join us for this new phase of the journal. As has been the case in recent years, this journal was typeset using the word processorNotaBene, and gratitude is expressed to the good people at NotaBenefor their continued, generous help. Special thanks is expressed to Rebekah Eklund, who proofread the journal, and to Guylla Brown from North Park’s staff, without whom the symposium would not be possible.
Klyne Snodgrass The Editor