Explorations 8
160 Pages
English

Explorations 8

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Explorations: Studies in Culture and Communication, principally edited by Edmund Carpenter and Marshall McLuhan, was the first postwar journal to engage directly with the new "grammars" of mid-century new media of communication. Launched in Toronto in 1953, at the very moment that television made its national debut in Canada, Explorations presented a mosaic of approaches to contemporary media culture and became the site in which McLuhan and Carpenter first formulated their most striking insights about new media in the electric age. The extraordinary breadth of contributions to Explorations from leading thinkers across the arts, humanities, social and natural sciences makes this journal a founding publication in the now burgeoning field of media studies. Originally funded by a Ford Foundation grant, the eight coedited issues of Explorations ran from 1953 to 1957 and are reprinted here for the first time in sixty years.
For a listing of all articles in this series, refer to the Summaries at the end of the series foreword.

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E X P L O R A T I O N S S T U D I E S I N C U LT U R E A N D C O M M U N I CAT I O N VOLUME 8
Edited by Edmund Carpenter and Marshall McLuhan
Wîp and Sock Pubîsers 199 W  Ave, Suîe 3 Eugene, OR 97401
Exporaîons 8 Sudîes în Cuure and Communîcaîon By Carpener, E S and Easerbrook, W T Copyrîg©1954, Edmund S. Carpener & Marsa McLuan Esaes ISBN 13: 978-1-62032-434-9 Pubîcaîon dae 9/30/2016 Prevîousy pubîsed by Unîversîy o Torono, 1955
hîs îs an annîversary new edîîon o e eîg co–edîed îssues o Exporaîons, wî annoaîons by Mîcae Darroc and Janîne Marcessau, în conjuncîon wî sudens and researcers a e Unîversîy o Wîndsor and York Unîversîy, Canada. Researc or e annoaed edîîons was made possîbe by a gran rom e Socîa Scîences and Humanîîes Researc Councî o Canada. Addîîona researc was provîded by Lorraîne Spîess în conjuncîon wî e Esae o Edmund Carpen-er. Permîssîons researc was provîded by Jonaan McKenzîe. hîs repubîcaîon projec was a joîn înîîaîve underaken by e esaes o Marsa McLuan and Edmund Carpener.
Fundîng or Issues 1–6 (1953–1956) was orîgînay provîded by a gran rom e Ford Foundaîon’s Beavîora Scîences Program. Issues 7–8 (1957) were sponsored by e Teegram o Torono.
Typograpy or Issue 1 was desîgned and prîned by Rous & Mann Press Lîmîed, Torono. he cover o Issue 7 and e cover and ypograpy o Issue 8 were desîgned by Harey Parker and prîned couresy o e Unîversîy o Torono Press. Pease see îndîvîdua îssues or urer noes on conrîbuors and acknowedgemens.
A rîgs reserved. No par o îs pubîcaîon may be reproduced în any manner wîou permîssîon.
Every efor as been made o conac copyrîg oders and o ensure a a e înormaîon presened îs correc. Some o e acs în îs voume may be subjec o debae or dîspue. I proper copyrîg acknowedgmen as no been made, or or carîicaîons and correcîons, pease conac e pubîsers and we wî correc e înormaîon în uure reprînîngs, î any.
EXPLORATIONS . . .
îs desîgned, no as a permanen reerence journa a embams ru or poserîy, bu as a pubîcaîon a expores and searces and quesîons.
We envîsage a serîes a wî cu across e umanîîes and socîa scîences by reaîng em as a conînuum. We beîeve anropoogy and commu-nîcaîon are approaces, no bodîes o daa, and a wîîn eac e our wînds o e umanîîes, e pysîca, e bîoogîca and e socîa scîences înermînge o orm a scîence o man.
Volumes 1 through 6:
Edîor: E. S. Carpener Assocîae Edîors: W. T. Easerbrook H. M. McLuan J. Tyrwî D. C. Wîîams
Address a correspondence o EXPLORATIONS Unîversîy o Torono Torono, Canada
Volumes 7 & 8:
Edîors: Edmund Carpener Marsa McLuan
Sponsor Teegram o Torono Pubîser Unîversîy o Torono
E x p l o r at i o n s,1 9 5 35 7
Foreword o e Eîg-Voume Serîes o e 2016 Edîîon, Voumes 2–8
(he main Introduction to tis series is in Volume One)
M î c  a e  D a r ro c  ( Un î v e r s î y o Wî n d s or ) a n d Ja n î n e Ma rc  e s s au  ( Yor k Un î v e r s î y )
Explorationsan experîmena înerdîscîpînary pubîcaîon ed by was acuy and graduae sudens a e Unîversîy o Torono în wîc e medîa eorîs Marsa McLuan and e radîca anropoogîs Edmund Carpener ormuaed eîr mos srîkîng însîgs abou new medîa în e eecrîc age. he journa served o dîssemînae some o e însîgs and experîmens o e Cuure and Communîcaîons graduae semînar (1953– 55), an înnovaîve medîa înk ank o e 1950s. he eîg coedîed îssues oExplorationsare repubîsed ere or e irs îme sînce eîr orîgîna prînîng în e 1950s.
he Exporaîons researc group aîmed o deveop a “ied approac” o e sudy o new medîa and communîcaîon. Wîe înspîred by a poswar, mod-ernîs dîscourse o unîversaîy, no sînge mode o researc was domînan. By eîr own accoun, e eam soug “an area o muuay supporîng însîgs în a crîîque o e meods o sudy în Economîcs, Psycoogy, Engîs, An-ropoogy, and Town Pannîng.”Explorationspubîsed wrîîngs by group
1. Herber Marsa McLuan Fonds, ed în Lîbrary and Arcîves Canada (LAC) în Oawa. Furer reerences o e McLuan Fonds wî be îdenîied as LAC oowed by e ca number MG 31, D 156, e voume number, and e oder number (ere: LAC MG 31, D 156, 145, 35).
members aong wî conrîbuîons on opîcs rangîng rom enoînguîsîcs o economîc eory, rom ar and desîgn o deveopmena psycoogy, rom psycoanaysîs o nursery rymes and bawdy baads, rom urban eory o eecronîc medîa. he journa reaed cuure, and cuura sudîes, as a andscape o experîences and knowedge. An experîmena space în îs own rîg,Explorations couned among îs more an eîgy conrîbuors bo esabîsed and emergîng scoars, scîenîss, and arîss.
he înk ank and e journa were suppored by a gran rom e Ford Foundaîon’s newy esabîsed înerdîscîpînary researc and sudy program în beavîora scîences (mos îkey cowrîen by McLuan and Carpener and assîsed by e en docora suden Donad hea). he group obaîned $44,250 or a wo-year researc projec devoed o sudyîng e “cangîng paerns o anguage and beavîor and e new medîa o communîcaîon.” Wîîn Nor Amerîca, e Torono group’s proposa can be couned among e very irs aemps o combîne expîcîy e sudy o cuureandcom-munîcaîon. he îmîng o îs gran îs sîgnîican gîven e scope o con-emporaneous sudîes o medîa underway în e Unîed Saes and Europe: uncîonaîs and crîîca cuura sudîes o mass communîcaîons, eorîes o cyberneîcs, sudîes o socîa îneracîon, as we as psycoogîca sudîes o e efecs o medîa on uman percepîon. Carpener, înîîay e drîvîng orce beîndExplorations, aced as edîor o e irs sîx îssues beore becom-îng coedîor wî McLuan or îssues 7 and 8, wîc were sponsored by e Toronto Telegram. A nîn and ina îssue, enîedEskimo(1959), combîned Carpener’s wrîîngs on îndîgenous ar and cuure o e Aîvîîk juxaposed wî îmages rom immaker Rober Faery and drawîngs by Frederîck Var-ey. Ater Beacon Press pubîsed a seecîon oExplorationsconrîbuîons în 1960, coedîed by Carpener and McLuan asExplorations in Communi-cation, McLuan aer resuscîaed e spîrî oExplorationsas a “magazîne wîîn a magazîne,” a pubîcaîon însîde e Unîversîy o Torono’s aumnî magazîne, eVarsity Graduate(1964–72).
2.Ford Foundation, 1953,Foundation Annual Report 1953 Ford ,New York: Ford Foundaîon: 67. he Ford Foundaîon’s Beavîora Scîences Program ad e saed goa o “împrovîng e conen o e beavîora scîences” by specîicay supporîng “înerdîscîpînary researc and sudy.” Launced în 1952, e program aîmed o ep e “îneecua deveopmen o e beavîora scîences” by “împrovîng eîr reaîonsîp wî suc dîscîpînes as îsory, socîa and poîîca pîosopy, umanîsîc sudîes and ceraîn pases o economîcs” (67).
he group’s proposa o Ford’s Beavîora Scîences Program îs reveaîng o e cenra assumpîons a woud underpîn e graduae semînar andEx-plorations. he proposa’s poîn o deparure îs no ye an assumpîon abou e power o medîa orms o sape conen, bu raer e undersandîng a meods or sudyîng new medîa requîred recognîîon o new paerns emergîng across ecnoogîca, cuura, and urban îe. Underpînnîng e proposa îs a conversaîon a McLuan în parîcuar ad sared wî ad-vocaes o cyberneîc eorîes. Carpener was aso o course conversan wî e wrîîngs o anropoogîss wo were deepy învoved wî deveopîng cyberneîc modes and meapors wîîn e socîa scîences, among oers Gregory Baeson and Margare Mead. Cyberneîc eorîes aso came o e group roug Donad hea, wo woud compee îs PD dîsseraîon în 1954 on “Communîcaîon heorîes în Modern Poery: Yeas, Pound, Joyce and Eîo” under e supervîsîon o bo McLuan and Carpener.
“We aware o e brîîan new deveopmens în communîcaîon sudy a Massacuses Insîue o Tecnoogy,” e Ford gran expaîns, gesurîng bo o Norber Wîener’s cyberneîc conerences and o Caude San-non and Warren Weaver’s maemaîca eory o communîcaîon, “e undersîgned propose o uîîze ese însîgs bu o empoy aso e ec-nîque o sudyîng e orms o communîcaîon, od and new, as ar orms,” an approac aready “împîcî în e very îe o Harod Innîs’Bias of CommunicationTorono group proposed o sudy e efecs o new.” he medîa orms on paerns o anguage, economîc vaues, socîa organîzaîon, îndîvîdua and coecîve beavîour, aways keepîng în mînd accompanyîng canges o e cassroom and e neworks o cîy îe. In eîr eyes e cen-ra probem consîsed o wo aspecs. Fîrs, “e creaîon o a new anguage o vîsîon” a “arîses rom a our new vîsua medîa and wîc îs par o e oa anguage o modern cuure.” Second, e Torono group proposed o sudy “e împac o îs oa socîa anguage on e radîîona spoken and wrîen orms o expressîon.” hese wo core objecîves ey woud pursue în e pages oExplorations roug numerous conrîbuîons. As ceary îndîcaed în an eary drat o eîr Ford proposa, e core researc group
3. Edmund S. Carpener, Jaqueîne Tyrwî, H. M. McLuan, W. T. Easerbrook, and D. C. Wîîams, 1953, “Unîversîy o Torono: Cangîng Paerns o Language and Beavîor and e New Medîa o Communîcaîon.” Ford Foundaîon Arcîves. Gran Fîe PA 53–70, Secîon 1, 1–11. Rockeeer Arcîve Cener, New York: 4. vîî
represened e ive key dîscîpînes a woud suppemen eac oer: an-ropoogy, psycoogy, economîcs, own pannîng, and Engîs.
Wîe no one dîscîpîne was prîvîeged above e oers, anropoogy payed a specîa roe în creaîng a srong comparaîve ramework rom e sar. In addîîon o anropoogîca dîscussîons o cyberneîcs, e Sapîr-Wor eory was an împoran îneecua oundaîon. As wî Innîs, Edward Sapîr (a German-born Amerîcan wo spen iteen years în Oawa workîng or e Geograpîca Survey o Canada) ofered a muîoca abî o vîsîon, workîng beween înguîsîcs, anropoogy, and psycoogy. For e gran appîcans, Sapîr “broug ogeer European aîudes owards psycoanaysîs (empasîs on socîay-sîuaed personaîy) and Nor Amerîcan aîudes owards socîa srucure (cuure).” Moreover, Sapîr “used e European concern wî pîoogy wî [e] Nor Amerîcan concern wî dynamîc paerns în anguage.” he anropoogîs and e-noînguîs Doroy Lee was arguaby one o e group’s “mos înluenîa orce[s],” conrîbuîng sîx arîces on anguage, vaue, and percepîon. Her însîg a peopes suc as e Trobrîanders perceîved înea order dîfer-eny rom Wesern cuures ad aready been cîed by Baeson and Ruesc (1951), and was cenra o e deîneaîon o acousîc and vîsua cuures underaken by e Exporaîons group, and în aer sudîes by bo McLu-an and Carpener.
In deveopîng eîr meodoogîes, semînar acuy and graduae sudens underook a number o crîîca medîa experîmens on cangîng paerns o percepîon resuîng rom new medîa. he CBC and e en Ryerson Insî-ue paced sudîo space and medîa equîpmen a eîr dîsposa. he experî-men esed eîr cenra ypoesîs a dîferen medîa (speec, prîn, radîo, eevîsîon) end emseves o dîferen kînds o pedagogîca experîences. I îs surprîsîng a suc indîngs ave never been uy aken up by educaîona medîa researcers. Hopeuy, e repubîcaîon o ese eary sudîes wî
4. “Cangîng Paerns o Man and Socîey Assocîaed wî e New Medîa o Com-munîcaîon.” Drat o Ford Foundaîon Proposa, îkey 1953. LAC MG 31, D 156, 204, 26. 5. Carpener e a, 1953: 2. 6. Edmund Carpener, 2001, “ha No-So-Sîen Sea,” în Donad F. hea (Ed.),he Virtual Marsall McLuan(p. 240), Monrea: McGî-Queen’s Unîversîy Press. 7. Edmund Carpener, 1954, “Ceraîn Medîa Bîases,”Explorations3:65–74; Edmund Carpener and Marsa McLuan, 1956, “he New Languages,”Cicago Review10(1): 46–52; Edmund Carpener, 1957, “he New Languages,”Explorations7:4–21. vîîî
renew îneres în e cognîîve sudîes o medîa wîc ave ocussed oo nar-rowy, accordîng o Carpener and McLuan, on aenîon and înpus and no enoug on e creaîve and crîîca aspecs o percepîon.
Wa îs cear în readîng roug eExplorations îssues îs a Carpen-er and McLuan were mos îneresed în e new kînds o earnîng made possîbe roug e medîa. McLuan, în parîcuar, was înluenced by researc îno uman percepîon as par o îs approac o medîa sudîes sînce e beîeved a ese medîa were aerîng our senses, our orms o a-enîon and knowedge producîon. Carpener and McLuan woud asser a e medîa are ransormîng e uman sensorîum, an îdea capured peraps mos payuy în eina coedîed îssue,Explorations8, an ode o James Joyce devoed o e ora, o e new “acousîc space” o e eecrîc age: “Verbî-Voco-Vîsua.” he îssue eaures seven essays, încudîng one by McLuan, a expore dîferen aspecs o ora cuure—mosy concerned wî a ransîîon o a new oraîy. Tweny-our non-auored “Iems,” wîc încude some prevîousy pubîsed essays by McLuan and Carpener, ap-pear as umorous îneecua skeces exporîng opîcs îke “Eecronîcs as ESP,” car commercîas, baroom acousîcs, dîcapones, and o course wîne. he ina “Iem,” number 24, enîed “No Upsîde Down în Eskîmo Ar,” reîeraed McLuan and Carpener’s core asserîon a “ater ou-sands o years o wrîen processîng o uman experîence, e însana-neous omnîpresence o eecronîcay processed înormaîon as oîcked us ou o ese age-od paerns îno an audîory word.” In e îsory o medîa sudîes în Canada and înernaîonay, eExplorations journa îs an împoran sarîng poîn or deinîng e rîc new însîgs around new medîa cuures a e Torono Scoo eped înaugurae.
References
Carpener, Edmund S., Jaqueîne Tyrwî, H. M. McLuan, W. T. Easerbrook, andD. C. Wîîams. 1953. “Unîversîy o Torono: Cangîng Paerns o Language and Beavîor and e New Medîa o Communîcaîon.” Ford Foundaîon Arcîves. Gran Fîe PA 53–70, Secîon 1, 1–11. Rockeeer Arcîve Cener, New York. Carpener, Edmund. 1954. “Ceraîn Medîa Bîases.”Explorations3:65–74. Carpener, Edmund. 1957. “he New Languages.”Explorations7:4–21. Carpener, Edmund. 2001. “ha No-So-Sîen Sea.” In Donad F. hea (Ed.),he Virtual Marsall McLuan(pp. 236–61). Monrea: McGî-Queen’s Unîversîy Press. Carpener, Edmund, and Marsa McLuan. 1956.“he New Languages.”Cicago Review 10(1): 46–52.
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Ford Foundaîon.1953.Ford Foundation Annual Report 1953.New York: Ford Foundaîon. Ruesc, Jurgen, and Gregory Baeson. 1951.Communication, te Social Matrix of Psyciatry. New York: Noron. hea, Donad. 1954.Communication heories in Modern Poetry: Yeats, Pound, Eliot and Joyce.Docora dîsseraîon. Torono: Unîversîy o Torono.
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