Greek Is Great Gain
370 Pages
English

Greek Is Great Gain

-

370 Pages
English

Description

Greek Is Great Gain presents to students and pastors an exegetical method with a rigor worthy of Scripture and a practicality suitable for weekly use. It has additional features that enable the expositor to see holistically the role of Greek in ministry.
The introductory chapters give the rationale, basic definitions, and presuppositions for a Greek-based exegetical method. After describing ways to maintain Greek reading proficiency and ways to prepare the text in translation and, visually, in mechanical layout, Greek Is Great Gain devotes the bulk of its pages to a step-by-step exegetical method.
From surveying the text to viewing the text in its historical and literary context and genre, from engaging in analysis of grammatical and rhetorical features to addressing lexical and theological matters, the method guides expositors to unlock the meaning of the text. Then, having analyzed the text closely, the method directs expositors to view the "text whole" through exegetical outline and the relation of its message to its book, and to Scripture as a whole. Finally, after interpreting and applying the text's message in and for today's culture, the method instructs the expositor in appropriating the fruit of exegesis for the sermon or Bible lesson. A final chapter describes possibilities for periodic in-depth study.
As Greek Is Great Gain presents each part of the method, it gives a purpose or rationale for the step and any necessary background, a list of resources to use, a procedure to follow, and a sample exegesis. A "Grammar Guide" appendix gives in outline form features of form and function for intermediate grammar. And there are charts to aid in analysis.
Greek Is Great Gain clearly lives up to its subtitle in providing a method that successfully moves preachers or teachers of the Word from Exegesis to Exposition.

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Published 01 March 2008
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EAN13 9781725244207
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Exrait

GREEKȱISȱGREATȱGAIN

AȱMethodȱfor
ExegesisȱandȱExposition

GREEKȱISȱGREATȱGAIN

AȱMethodȱfor
ExegesisȱandȱExposition

By
WilliamȱJ.ȱLarkin

forewordȱbyȱAndreasȱJ.ȱKöstenberger

W I P F&S T O C K O r e g o nEu g e n e ,

GREEKȱISȱGREATȱGAIN
AȱMethodȱforȱExegesisȱandȱExposition

Copyrightȱ©ȱ2008ȱWilliamȱJ.ȱLarkin
Allȱrightsȱreserved.ȱExceptȱforȱbriefȱquotationsȱinȱcriticalȱpublicationsȱor
reviews,ȱnoȱpartȱofȱthisȱbookȱmayȱbeȱreproducedȱinȱanyȱmannerȱwithout
priorȱwrittenȱpermissionȱfromȱtheȱpublisher.ȱWrite:ȱPermissions,ȱWipfȱ&
Stock,ȱ199ȱW.ȱ8thȱAve.,ȱEugene,ȱORȱ97401.

ISBNȱ10:ȱ1Ȭ55635Ȭ345Ȭ6
ISBNȱ13:ȱ978Ȭ1Ȭ55635Ȭ345Ȭ1

Unlessȱotherwiseȱindicated,ȱtheȱScriptureȱquotationsȱareȱtheȱauthor’s
translation.

TheȱGreekȱtextȱofȱtheȱNewȱTestamentȱisȱtakenȱfromȱBibloiȱCDȬROM.
SilvermountainȱSoftwareȱVersionȱ8.0.ȱCedarȱHill,ȱTX:ȱSilvermountain
Software,ȱ2004.ȱUsedȱwithȱpermission.

Foreword
Preface
Abbreviations

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

Contents

UsingȱGreekȱinȱMinistry
DefinitionsȱandȱPresuppositions
GreekȱReadingȱandȱComputerȱResources
FinishedȱTranslationȱandȱMechanicalȱLayout
Survey
HistoricalȱandȱLiteraryȱAnalysis
GenreȱAnalysis:ȱEpistle
GenreȱAnalysis:ȱHistoricalȱNarrativeȱ
andȱPropheticȬApocalyptic
GrammarȱandȱRhetoricalȱFeatures
WordȱStudy:ȱFocusȱtheȱMeaning
WordȱStudy:ȱIllumineȱtheȱMeaning
TheologicalȱAnalysis
Synthesis
InterpretationȱandȱApplicationȱforȱContemporaryȱCulture
HomileticalȱandȱDidacticȱAppropriation
PeriodicȱPreparation

Appendix:ȱGreekȱGrammarȱGuides
Bibliography

vii
ix
xiii

1
15
27
39
57
65
75

107
137
169
183
201
215
229
247
279

303
337

FOREWORD

Dr.ȱWilliamȱLarkinȱhasȱdevelopedȱtheȱmaterialȱincludedȱinȱthisȱvolume
forȱwellȱoverȱtwoȱdecades,ȱandȱasȱoneȱwhoȱhadȱDr.ȱLarkinȱasȱaȱteacherȱinȱthe
midȬtoȱlateȱ1980sȱIȱamȱgratefulȱthatȱatȱlongȱlastȱGreekȱIsȱGreatȱGainȱis
availableȱinȱpublishedȱform.ȱThisȱisȱanȱallȬbusiness,ȱnoȬnonsenseȱmanualȱfor
theȱseriousȱexegesisȱofȱtheȱGreekȱtext.ȱAtȱtheȱsameȱtime,ȱDr.ȱLarkinȱisȱseeking
toȱbeȱpracticalȱinȱtailoringȱhisȱexegeticalȱmethodȱtoȱtheȱbusyȱpastor,ȱandȱfor
thatȱheȱisȱtoȱbeȱcommended.ȱ
Asȱoneȱwhoȱhasȱdedicatedȱhisȱlifeȱtoȱtrainingȱandȱmentoringȱserious
studentsȱofȱScriptureȱinȱtheȱconvictionȱthatȱwhatȱcountsȱforȱeternityȱis
studyingȱandȱteachingȱScriptureȱinȱtheȱoriginalȱlanguagesȱbyȱfollowing
properȱprinciplesȱofȱexegesisȱandȱhermeneutics,ȱDr.ȱLarkinȱhasȱproduced
whatȱmayȱbeȱhisȱmostȱsignificantȱcontributionȱtoȱdate.ȱTheȱchapterȱon
interpretingȱtheȱEpistlesȱ(Chapterȱ7ȱGenreȱAnalysis:ȱEpistle)ȱaloneȱisȱworth
theȱpriceȱofȱtheȱvolumeȱandȱprovidesȱanȱoutstandingȱexampleȱofȱthe
meticulousȱresearchȱandȱanalyticalȱacumenȱthatȱcharacterizesȱDr.ȱLarkin’s
work.
Inȱhisȱoverallȱplan,ȱDr.ȱLarkinȱmovesȱswiftlyȱfromȱaȱdiscussionȱofȱusing
GreekȱinȱministryȱtoȱanȱexplorationȱofȱScriptureȱwithȱregardȱtoȱhistory,
literature,ȱandȱtheology.ȱHeȱisȱalsoȱkeenlyȱinterestedȱinȱmattersȱrelatedȱto
contextualizationȱasȱwellȱasȱhomileticalȱmethod.ȱItȱisȱnotȱnecessaryȱtoȱfollow
Dr.ȱLarkin’sȱmultiȬfacetedȱstepȬbyȬstepȱapproachȱinȱeveryȱdetailȱtoȱbenefit
fromȱtheȱwealthȱofȱinformationȱpresentedȱinȱthisȱvolume.ȱManyȱwillȱfindȱthis
bookȱanȱinvaluableȱresourceȱforȱtheirȱseriousȱstudyȱofȱScripture.
IȱhaveȱpersonallyȱbenefittedȱgreatlyȱfromȱsittingȱunderȱDr.ȱWilliam
Larkin’sȱteaching,ȱandȱIȱheartilyȱcommendȱGreekȱIsȱGreatȱGainȱtoȱaȱnew
generationȱofȱstudents.ȱAttainingȱmasteryȱofȱGreekȱindeedȱisȱgreatȱgain,ȱand
thisȱbook,ȱlikeȱveryȱfew,ȱisȱableȱtoȱassistȱseriousȱstudentsȱofȱScriptureȱin
achievingȱtheirȱgoal,ȱinȱkeepingȱwithȱPaul’sȱwordsȱtoȱTimothy,

“DoȱyourȱbestȱtoȱpresentȱyourselfȱtoȱGodȱasȱoneȱapproved,ȱa
workmanȱwhoȱdoesȱnotȱneedȱtoȱbeȱashamedȱandȱwhoȱcorrectly
handlesȱtheȱwordȱofȱtruth”ȱ(2ȱTimȱ2:15ȱNIV).

AndreasȱJ.ȱKöstenberger
ProfessorȱofȱNewȱTestamentȱandȱDirectorȱofȱPh.D.ȱStudies
SoutheasternȱBaptistȱTheologicalȱSeminary

PREFACE

Introduction

WhatȱisȱtheȱbestȱwayȱtoȱinstructȱpreachersȱandȱBibleȱteachersȱinȱexegesis?
Shallȱweȱmodelȱbeforeȱthemȱgoodȱexegesis,ȱgiveȱthemȱaȱexegeticalȱterm
paperȱtoȱwrite,ȱandȱconsiderȱourȱtaskȱaccomplished?ȱOr,ȱshallȱweȱtakeȱthe
studentȱstepȱbyȱstepȱthroughȱtheȱquestionsȱtoȱask,ȱshowȱthemȱhowȱtoȱarrive
atȱsoundȱanswersȱthroughȱdirectȱinteractionȱwithȱtheȱGreekȱtext,ȱand
introduceȱthemȱtoȱsupportingȱreferenceȱresources?ȱ
GreekȱisȱGreatȱGain:ȱAȱMethodȱforȱExegesisȱandȱExpositionȱpursuesȱthis
secondȱapprenticeȱapproach.ȱItȱhasȱbeenȱwrittenȱfromȱtheȱorientationȱof
exegesisȱinȱtheȱserviceȱofȱpreachingȱandȱBibleȱteaching.ȱItȱseeksȱtoȱbe
comprehensiveȱasȱitȱembracesȱvariousȱprocessesȱinȱaȱlifetimeȱofȱministry
usingȱtheȱGreekȱNewȱTestament.ȱGreekȱisȱGreatȱGainȱprovidesȱguidance
whetherȱforȱmaintainingȱGreekȱreadingȱproficiency,ȱdoingȱweekly
immediateȱpreparationȱofȱsermonsȱorȱlessons,ȱplanningȱforȱpreachingȱand
teaching,ȱorȱpursuingȱperiodicȱprofessionalȱdevelopmentȱthroughȱinȬdepth
studyȱinȱtheȱScriptures.ȱ
ThisȱtextȱpursuesȱintegrationȱbyȱreachingȱbackȱtoȱaȱfirstȱyearȱNTȱGreek
grammarȱfoundation,ȱparticularlyȱasȱpresentedȱinȱJohnȱD.ȱHarvey’sȱGreek
isȱGoodȱGrief.ȱAndȱitȱreachesȱforwardȱlinkingȱexegeticalȱmethodȱtoȱa
homileticalȱmethodȱandȱlessonȱpreparationȱscheme.ȱInȱall,ȱGreekȱisȱGreatȱGain
seeksȱtoȱbeȱaȱpracticalȱmanual.ȱEmployingȱPhilippiansȱasȱitsȱprimaryȱȱbiblical
database,ȱitȱpresentsȱtheȱstepsȱofȱaȱcomprehensiveȱexegeticalȱmethod
supportedȱwithȱexplanation,ȱresources,ȱandȱexamples.ȱ

Students

HowȱtoȱUseȱthisȱBook

Studentsȱasȱapprenticesȱcanȱbestȱbenefitȱfromȱthisȱtextȱasȱfollows.ȱThey
shouldȱseekȱtoȱunderstandȱtheȱpurposeȱandȱcontentȱofȱeachȱstepȱofȱexegesis.
Theyȱneedȱtoȱpracticeȱtheȱstepsȱrepeatedlyȱuntilȱtheyȱhaveȱgainedȱsuch

x

GREEKȱISȱGREATȱGAIN

proficiencyȱthatȱtheyȱareȱableȱtoȱuseȱthemȱefficientlyȱinȱweeklyȱsermonȱor
lessonȱpreparation.ȱ
Studentsȱshouldȱaimȱnotȱonlyȱatȱcomprehensivenessȱofȱapproach,ȱbut
alsoȱatȱdevelopingȱdiscrimination,ȱanȱabilityȱtoȱjudgeȱwhichȱaspectsȱofȱeach
stepȱwillȱbeȱmostȱproductiveȱinȱstudyingȱaȱparticularȱpassage.ȱThusȱthe
methodȱcanȱbecomeȱtheirȱtoolboxȱfromȱwhichȱtheyȱselectȱtheȱrightȱitemsȱto
useȱonȱanyȱgivenȱpassage.ȱ
Finally,ȱstudentsȱwillȱwantȱtoȱcustomizeȱtheȱmethodȱasȱtheyȱmakeȱitȱtheir
own.ȱThisȱmayȱmeanȱrearrangingȱsomeȱofȱtheȱsteps,ȱevenȱusingȱaȱnumber
ofȱanalyticalȱstepsȱsimultaneously,ȱasȱtheyȱmoveȱinȱcommentaryȱfashion
verseȱbyȱverse.ȱInȱthisȱwayȱtheyȱwillȱprogressȱfromȱapprenticeȱtoȱmaster
craftsmanȱinȱtheirȱhandlingȱofȱtheȱWordȱofȱGodȱduringȱaȱlifetimeȱofȱministry.

PastorsȱandȱChristianȱWorkers

TheȱpastorȱorȱChristianȱworkerȱwhoȱhasȱalreadyȱreceivedȱtrainingȱin
exegesisȱandȱexpositionȱcanȱuseȱGreekȱisȱGreatȱGainȱasȱaȱrefresherȱand
strengthener.ȱItȱcanȱbecomeȱaȱmanualȱforȱgivingȱhisȱexegeticalȱpracticeȱa
diagnosticȱtuneȬup.ȱAfterȱsurveyingȱtheȱbookȱheȱcanȱselectȱthoseȱsteps,ȱlike
grammaticalȱanalysisȱorȱwordȱstudy,ȱinȱwhichȱheȱwouldȱlikeȱtoȱrefresh
himself.ȱHeȱmayȱwellȱfindȱareasȱlikeȱgenreȱanalysis–historicalȱnarrativeȱor
parableȱwithȱwhichȱheȱcanȱstrengthenȱhisȱexegeticalȱgripȱonȱaȱpassage.ȱHe
mayȱwantȱtoȱuseȱGreekȱisȱGreatȱGainȱtoȱstrategizeȱaboutȱareasȱforȱinȬdepth
studyȱofȱtheȱtextȱheȱcanȱpursueȱduringȱhisȱprofessionalȱdevelopmentȱstudy
time.ȱGreekȱisȱGreatȱGainȱisȱintendedȱasȱaȱguideȱtoȱminingȱtheȱinexhaustible
richesȱofȱGod’sȱtruthȱpresentȱinȱtheȱGreekȱNewȱTestament.

Instructors

Instructorsȱknowȱthatȱtrainingȱinȱexegesis,ȱparticularlyȱwhenȱapproached
fromȱanȱapprenticeȱmodel,ȱisȱaȱveryȱpersonalȱenterprise.ȱTherefore,ȱthereȱare
almostȱasȱmanyȱdistinctȱapproachesȱtoȱhowȱtoȱteachȱexegesis,ȱletȱaloneȱhow
toȱdoȱexegesis,ȱasȱthereȱareȱinstructors.ȱHowȱcanȱanȱinstructorȱprofitablyȱuse
thisȱworkȱwithoutȱfeelingȱheȱisȱsimplyȱ“puttingȱonȱSaul’sȱarmor”?ȱ
Theȱinstructorȱshouldȱfeelȱfreeȱtoȱuseȱasȱmuchȱorȱasȱlittleȱofȱtheȱworkȱas
heȱseesȱwillȱbeȱhelpfulȱtoȱhimȱandȱhisȱstudents,ȱwhileȱstillȱvaluingȱtheȱneed
forȱcomprehensivenessȱinȱmethod.ȱCertainȱsteps,ȱe.g.,ȱrhetoricalȱfeatures
analysisȱorȱinterpretationȱandȱapplication,ȱmayȱcaptureȱwellȱforȱthe

PREFACE

xi

instructorȱaȱparticularȱareaȱofȱexegesis.ȱForȱothers,ȱheȱmayȱsubstituteȱfruitful
proceduresȱwhichȱheȱhasȱalreadyȱdeveloped.ȱInȱotherȱwords,ȱheȱshould
customizeȱtheȱbook’sȱcontentȱtoȱmeetȱhisȱinstructionalȱneeds.ȱAnd,ȱbyȱall
means,ȱheȱshouldȱintegrateȱhisȱinstructionȱinȱexegesisȱwithȱwhatȱhisȱown
colleaguesȱareȱdoingȱinȱhomileticalȱandȱlessonȱdevelopmentȱinstruction.
Whetherȱasȱaȱfoundationalȱframeworkȱorȱaȱsupplementaryȱresource,ȱGreek
isȱGreatȱGainȱcanȱprovideȱhelpfulȱsupportȱtoȱinstructionȱinȱexegesisȱofȱthe
GreekȱNewȱTestament.ȱ

FurtherȱResources

Theȱreaderȱhasȱtwoȱfurtherȱresourcesȱforȱexegesisȱrelatedȱtoȱthisȱbook.
Throughoutȱtheȱtextȱthereȱareȱreferencesȱtoȱfilesȱpostedȱatȱtheȱauthor’s
facultyȱwebpageȱatȱwww.ciu.edu.ȱTheseȱareȱadditionalȱchartsȱandȱappendiȬ
cesȱinȱgrammar,ȱrhetoricalȱfeatures,ȱtextualȱcriticism,ȱwordȱstudy,ȱandȱgenre
studies,ȱincludingȱhistoricalȱcriticismȱandȱGospelsȱanalysis,ȱinȱsupportȱof
exegesis.ȱThereȱisȱalsoȱaȱfileȱofȱtemplatesȱforȱworksheetsȱtoȱuseȱwithȱthe
exegeticalȱsteps.ȱ
Thisȱmethodȱisȱtaughtȱandȱusedȱinȱtwoȱcoursesȱavailableȱinȱdistance
educationȱandȱonlineȱformatȱfromȱCIUȱSeminaryȱandȱSchoolȱofȱMissions.
LookȱforȱGREȱ6210ȱ“GreekȱThree:ȱFromȱExegesisȱtoȱExposition”ȱandȱGRE
6307ȱ“GreekȱFour:ȱExegesisȱandȱExpositionȱofȱLuke”ȱunderȱ“Distance
Learning”ȱatȱwww.ciu.edu.

ȱ

Acknowledgments

GreekȱisȱGreatȱGainȱisȱtheȱproductȱofȱthreeȱdecadesȱofȱteachingȱexegesis
atȱCIUȱSeminaryȱandȱSchoolȱofȱMissions.ȱThanksȱgoesȱtoȱmyȱcolleaguesȱin
NewȱTestamentȱstudies,ȱJohnȱD.ȱHarvey,ȱDonȱN.ȱHowell,ȱandȱJoelȱF.
Williams,ȱandȱinȱhomiletics,ȱDonaldȱL.ȱHamilton,ȱwhoȱhaveȱbeenȱconstant
andȱbeneficialȱconversationȱpartnersȱaboutȱexegesisȱandȱexposition.ȱTheir
particularȱcontributionsȱhaveȱbeenȱnotedȱinȱendnotesȱthroughoutȱtheȱwork.
IȱamȱgratefulȱtoȱShirlȱSchiffman,ȱeducationalȱministries,ȱforȱherȱstylistic
improvementsȱofȱthisȱworkȱinȱanȱearlierȱform.ȱ
ParticularȱthanksȱgoesȱtoȱJuniasȱVenugopal,ȱdean,ȱandȱthe
administrationȱofȱCIUȱSeminaryȱandȱSchoolȱofȱMissionsȱforȱtheȱprovision
ofȱstudyȱleaveȱtimeȱinȱtheȱ2007Ȭ08ȱacademicȱyearȱduringȱwhichȱthe
manuscriptȱwasȱrevisedȱandȱedited.ȱIȱamȱgratefulȱtoȱJohnȱHarveyȱforȱblazing

xii

GREEKȱISȱGREATȱGAIN

theȱtrailȱwithȱGreekȱisȱGoodȱGriefȱandȱhisȱencouragementȱtoȱsubmitȱthis
presentȱworkȱasȱaȱcompanionȱvolume.ȱIȱhaveȱgreatlyȱbenefittedȱfromȱthe
expertȱguidanceȱofȱJimȱTedrickȱandȱhisȱstaffȱatȱWipfȱandȱStock.
Iȱamȱgratefulȱtoȱmyȱstudentsȱoverȱtheȱyearsȱforȱtheirȱenthusiasm,
encouragement,ȱandȱinsightsȱasȱweȱhaveȱlearnedȱtogetherȱtheȱpracticeȱof
exegesisȱandȱexposition.ȱLukeȱRoberts,ȱAnthonyȱRodriguezȱandȱLashaundra
Smithȱhaveȱbeenȱparticularlyȱhelpfulȱinȱtheȱfinalȱstagesȱofȱpreparation.ȱ
IȱthankȱCIUȱstaffȱmembersȱJoyceȱHack,ȱDanielȱJanosik,ȱandȱJamesȱWilson
forȱtheirȱinvaluableȱtechnicalȱassistanceȱinȱpreparingȱtheȱmanuscriptȱin
“cameraȱready”ȱformat.ȱ
Finally,ȱspecialȱthanksȱgoesȱtoȱmyȱwife,ȱEdna,ȱandȱmyȱchildren,ȱThomas
andȱPriscilla,ȱforȱtheirȱcontinualȱencouragementȱduringȱvariousȱphasesȱin
thisȱdecadesȱlongȱproject.ȱ
MayȱGodȱbeȱpleasedȱtoȱraiseȱupȱinȱeveryȱspiritualȱgenerationȱthose
whoȱpreachȱandȱteachȱhisȱWordȱwithȱanȱaccuracyȱandȱeffectivenessȱborn
ofȱSpiritȱfilledȱexegeticalȱinteractionȱwithȱtheȱNewȱTestamentȱinȱthe
originalȱGreek.ȱȱ

ATLA
BAGD

BDAGȱ

BDFȱ

BECNTȱ
BGUȱ

BSacȱ
BTȱ
BTDBȱ

CBQȱ
CCȱ
CIUȱ
CIUȬSSMȱ

CȬSȬVȬOȱ
CTMȱ
CTJȱ
DBIȱ

ABBREVIATIONS

AmericanȱTheologicalȱLibraryȱAssociation
WalterȱBauer,ȱWilliamȱF.ȱArndt,ȱF.ȱW.ȱGingrich,ȱrevisedȱand
augmentedȱbyȱF.ȱW.ȱGingrichȱandȱFrederickȱW.ȱDanker.ȱA
GreekȬEnglishȱLexiconȱofȱtheȱNewȱTestamentȱandȱOtherȱEarly
nd
ChristianȱLiterature.ȱ2ȱed.ȱChicago:ȱUniv.ȱofȱChicagoȱPress,
1979.
WalterȱBauer,ȱWilliamȱF.ȱArndt,ȱF.ȱW.ȱGingrich,ȱrevisedȱand
editedȱbyȱFrederickȱW.ȱDanker.ȱAȱGreekȬEnglishȱLexiconȱofȱthe
rd
NewȱTestamentȱandȱOtherȱEarlyȱChristianȱLiterature.ȱ3ȱed.
Chicago:ȱUniv.ȱofȱChicagoȱPress,ȱ2000.
F.ȱBlass,ȱA.ȱDebrunner,ȱandȱR.ȱW.ȱFunk.ȱAȱGreekȱGrammarȱof
theȱNewȱTestamentȱandȱOtherȱEarlyȱChristianȱLiterature.ȱChiȬ
cago:ȱUniv.ȱofȱChicagoȱPress,ȱ1961.
BakerȱExegeticalȱCommentaryȱonȱtheȱNewȱTestament
KöniglicheȱMuseenȱzuȱBerlin.ȱAegyptischeȱUrkundenȱausȱden
KöniglichenȱStaatlichenȱMuseenȱzuȱBerlin:ȱGriechischeȱUrkunden.
9ȱvols.ȱBerlin:ȱWeidmann,ȱ1895–1937.
BibliothecaȱSacra
TheȱBibleȱTranslator
WalterȱA.ȱElwell,ȱed.ȱBakerȱTheologicalȱDictionaryȱofȱtheȱBible.
GrandȱRapids:ȱBakerȱAcademic,ȱ2001.
CatholicȱBiblicalȱQuarterly
CoordinatingȱConjunction
ColumbiaȱInternationalȱUniversity
ColumbiaȱInternationalȱUniversityȱSeminaryȱandȱSchoolȱof
Missions
ConjunctionȬSubjectȬVerbȬObject
ConcordiaȱTheologicalȱMonthly
CalvinȱTheologicalȱJournal
LelandȱRyken,ȱJamesȱC.ȱWilhoit,ȱandȱTremperȱLongmanȱIII,
eds.ȱDictionaryȱofȱBiblicalȱImagery.ȱDownersȱGrove,ȱIL:
InterVarsityȱPress,ȱ1998.

xiv

DBWȱ

DJGȱ

DLNTȱ

DNTBȱ

DPLȱ

DTIB

EBCȱ
EDNTȱ

EDTȱ

ESVȱ
ExpTimȱ
GNTȱ
HRCSȱ

IDBȱ

ICCȱ
Intȱ
ISBEȱ

IVPȱ
IVPNTCȱ
JBLȱ
JETSȱ

GREEKȱISȱGREATȱGAIN

DanielȱB.ȱWallace.ȱGreekȱGrammarȱBeyondȱtheȱBasics:ȱAn
ExegeticalȱSyntaxȱofȱtheȱNewȱTestament.ȱGrandȱRapids:
Zondervan,ȱ1996.
JoelȱB.ȱGreenȱandȱScotȱMcKnight,ȱeds.ȱDictionaryȱofȱJesusȱand
theȱGospels.ȱDownersȱGrove,ȱIL:ȱInterVarsityȱPress,ȱ1992.
RalphȱP.ȱMartinȱandȱPeterȱH.ȱDavids,ȱeds.ȱDictionaryȱofȱthe
LaterȱNewȱTestamentȱandȱItsȱDevelopments.ȱDownersȱGrove,ȱIL:
InterVarsityȱPress,ȱ1997.
CraigȱA.ȱEvansȱandȱStanleyȱE.ȱPorter,ȱeds.ȱDictionaryȱofȱNew
TestamentȱBackground.ȱDownersȱGrove,ȱIL:ȱInterVarsityȱPress,
2000.
GeraldȱF.ȱHawthorneȱandȱRalphȱP.ȱMartin,ȱeds.ȱDictionaryȱof
PaulȱandȱHisȱLetters.ȱDownersȱGrove,ȱIL:ȱInterVarsityȱPress,
1993.
KevinȱJ.ȱVanhoozer,ȱed.ȱDictionaryȱforȱTheologicalȱInterpretaȬ
tionȱofȱtheȱBible.ȱGrandȱRapids:ȱBakerȱAcademic,ȱ2005.
Expositor’sȱBibleȱCommentary
HorstȱBalzȱandȱGerhardȱSchneider,ȱeds.ȱExegeticalȱDictionary
ofȱtheȱNewȱTestament.ȱ3ȱvols.ȱGrandȱRapids:ȱEerdmans,ȱ1990Ȭ
93.
WalterȱA.ȱElwell,ȱed.ȱEvangelicalȱDictionaryȱofȱTheology.ȱGrand
Rapids:ȱBaker,ȱ1984.ȱ
EnglishȱStandardȱVersion
ExpositoryȱTimes
GreekȱNewȱTestament
EdwinȱP.ȱHatchȱandȱHenryȱAȱRedpath.ȱAȱConcordanceȱtoȱthe
nd
Septuagint.ȱ2ȱed.ȱGrandȱRapids:ȱBaker,ȱ1998.
GeorgeȱA.ȱButtrick,ȱed.ȱInterpreter’sȱDictionaryȱofȱtheȱBible:ȱAn
IllustratedȱEncyclopedia.ȱ4ȱvols.ȱNashville:ȱAbingdon,ȱ1962.
InternationalȱCriticalȱCommentary
Interpretation
GeoffreyȱW.ȱBromiley,ȱed.ȱTheȱInternationalȱStandardȱBible
Encyclopedia.ȱ4ȱvols.ȱrev.ȱed.ȱGrandȱRapids:ȱEerdmans,ȱ1979Ȭ
88.
InterVarsityȱPress
TheȱIVPȱNewȱTestamentȱCommentary
JournalȱofȱBiblicalȱLiterature
JournalȱofȱtheȱEvangelicalȱTheologicalȱSociety

K&Dȱ

KJVȱ
LCLȱ

LNȱ

LSJȱ

LXXȱ
M&Gȱ

MLOȱ
MMȱ

MSJȱ
MTȱ
NACȱ
NASBȱ
NAS95ȱ
NDTȱ

NDBTȱ

NICNTȱ
NIDBȱ

NIDNTT

ABBREVIATIONS

xv

CarlȱF.ȱKeilȱandȱFranzȱDelitzsch.ȱBiblicalȱCommentaryȱonȱthe
OldȱTestament.ȱ10ȱvols.ȱrepr.ȱPeabody,ȱMA:ȱHendrickson,
1996.
KingȱJamesȱVersion
LoebȱClassicalȱLibrary.ȱCambridge,ȱMA:ȱHarvardȱUniv.
Press.ȱ
JohannesȱP.ȱLouwȱandȱEugeneȱA.ȱNida,ȱeds.ȱGreekȬEnglish
LexiconȱofȱtheȱNewȱTestamentȱBasedȱonȱSemanticȱDomains.ȱ2
vols.ȱNewȱYork:ȱUnitedȱBibleȱSocieties,ȱ1988.
Liddell,ȱHenry,ȱRobertȱScott,ȱHenryȱS.ȱJones,ȱRoderick
th
McKenzie,ȱP.ȱG.ȱW.ȱGlare.ȱAȱGreekȬEnglishȱLexicon,ȱ9ȱed.
withȱRevisedȱSupplement.ȱOxford:ȱClarendonȱPress,ȱ1996.
Septuagint
I.ȱHowardȱMarshall,ȱed.ȱMoultonȱandȱGedenȱConcordanceȱofȱthe
th
GreekȱNewȱTestament.ȱ6ȱed.ȱLondon:ȱTȱ&ȱTȱClark,ȱ2002.
MechanicalȱLayout
Moulton,ȱJamesȱH.ȱandȱGeorgeȱMilligan.ȱTheȱVocabularyȱofȱthe
GreekȱTestament:ȱIllustratedȱfromȱtheȱPapyriȱandȱOtherȱNonȬ
literaryȱSources.ȱrepr.ȱGrandȱRapids:ȱEerdmans,ȱ1974.
MastersȱSeminaryȱJournal
MasoreticȱText
NewȱAmericanȱCommentary
NewȱAmericanȱStandardȱBible
NewȱAmericanȱStandardȱBible,ȱrevisedȱeditionȱ(1995)
SinclairȱB.ȱFerguson,ȱDavidȱF.Wright,ȱandȱJ.ȱI.ȱPacker,ȱeds.
NewȱDictionaryȱofȱTheology.ȱDownersȱGrove,ȱIL:ȱInterVarsity
Press,ȱ1988.
T.ȱDesmondȱAlexanderȱandȱBrianȱS.ȱRosner,ȱeds.ȱNewȱDictioȬ
naryȱofȱBiblicalȱTheology:ȱExploringȱtheȱUnityȱandȱDiversityȱof
Scripture.ȱDownersȱGrove,ȱIL:ȱInterVarsityȱPress,ȱ2000.
NewȱInternationalȱCommentaryȱonȱtheȱNewȱTestament
J.ȱD.ȱDouglasȱandȱMerrillȱC.ȱTenney,ȱeds.ȱNewȱInternational
DictionaryȱofȱtheȱBible,ȱPictorialȱEdition.ȱGrandȱRapids:
Zondervan,ȱ1987.
ColinȱBrown,ȱed.ȱTheȱNewȱInternationalȱDictionaryȱofȱNew
TestamentȱTheology.ȱ3ȱvols.ȱGrandȱRapids:ȱZondervan,ȱ1975Ȭ
78.

xvi

NIDOTTE

NIGTCȱ
NIVȱ
NIVACȱ
NKJVȱ
NovTȱ
NRSVȱ
NTȱ
NTAȱ
NTSȱ
OCDȱ

OTȱ
OTPȱ

Perseusȱ

P.Flor.ȱ

PGLȱ

P.Mich.

Presbȱ
StrȬBȱ

TDNTȱ

TDOTȱ

TJȱ

GREEKȱISȱGREATȱGAIN

WillemȱVanȱGemeren,ȱed.ȱTheȱNewȱInternationalȱDictionaryȱof
OldȱTestamentȱTheologyȱ&ȱExegesis.ȱ5ȱvols.ȱGrandȱRapids:
Zondervan,ȱ1997.
NewȱInternationalȱGreekȱTestamentȱCommentary
NewȱInternationalȱVersion
NIVȱApplicationȱCommentary
NewȱKingȱJamesȱVersion
NovumȱTestamentum
NewȱRevisedȱStandardȱVersion
NewȱTestament
NewȱTestamentȱAbstracts
NewȱTestamentȱStudies
SimonȱHornblowerȱandȱAntonyȱSpaworth,ȱeds.ȱTheȱOxford
rd
ClassicalȱDictionary.ȱ3ȱed.ȱOxford:ȱOxfordȱUniv.ȱPress,ȱ1996.
OldȱTestament
JamesȱH.ȱCharlesworth,ȱed.ȱTheȱOldȱTestamentȱPseudepigrapha.
2ȱvols.ȱGardenȱCity,ȱNY:ȱDoubleday,ȱ1983Ȭ85.
PerseusȱDigitalȱLibrary.ȱSomerville,ȱMA:ȱTuftsȱUniversity.
AccessedȱSeptemberȱ12,ȱ2007.ȱOnline:
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/.
DomenicoȱComparettiȱandȱGirolamoȱVitelli.ȱPapiriȱGrecoȬ
Egizii.ȱ3ȱvols.ȱMilano:ȱU.ȱHoepli,ȱ1905Ȭ15.
G.ȱW.ȱH.ȱLampe.ȱAȱPatristicȱGreekȱLexicon.ȱOxford:ȱClarendon
Press,ȱ1961.
C.ȱC.ȱEdgar,ȱed.ȱZenonȱPapyriȱinȱtheȱUniversityȱofȱMichigan
Collection.ȱAnnȱArbor,ȱMI:ȱUniv.ȱofȱMichiganȱPress,ȱ1931.
Presbyterion
HermannȱL.ȱStrackȱandȱPaulȱBillerbeck.ȱKommentarȱzum
NeuenȱTestamentȱausȱTalmudȱundȱMidrasch.ȱ6ȱvols.ȱ7thȱed.
Münich:ȱC.ȱH.ȱBeck’sche,ȱ1978.
GerhardȱKittelȱandȱGerhardȱFriedrich,ȱeds.ȱTheologicalȱDictioȬ
naryȱofȱtheȱNewȱTestament.ȱ10ȱvols.ȱGrandȱRapids:ȱEerdmans,
1964Ȭ76.
G.ȱJohannesȱBotterweck,ȱHelmerȱRinggren,ȱandȱHeinzȬJosef
Fabry,ȱeds.ȱTheologicalȱDictionaryȱofȱtheȱOldTestament.ȱ15ȱvols.
GrandȱRapids:ȱEerdmans,ȱ1974–2006.
TrinityȱJournal

TLGȱ

4
UBSȱ

WBCȱ
WJLȱ
WJLFPȱ
WTJȱ
ZPEBȱ

ABBREVIATIONS

xvii

ThesaurusȱLinguaeȱGraecaeȱ(TLG®)ȱCDȬROM.ȱVersionȱE.
Irvine,ȱCA:ȱUniv.ofȱCalifornia,ȱIrvine,ȱ2000.ȱAccessedȱSepȬ
temberȱ12,ȱ2007.ȱOnlineȱ(availableȱbyȱsubscription):
http://ptolemy.tlg.uci.edu.
BarbaraȱAland,ȱKurtȱAland,ȱJohannesȱKaravidopoulos,ȱCarlo
M.ȱMartini,ȱBruceȱM.ȱMetzger,ȱandȱAllenȱWikgren,ȱeds.ȱThe
th
GreekȱNewȱTestament.ȱ4ȱrev.ȱed.ȱStuttgart:ȱUnitedȱBible
Societies,ȱ1993.
WordȱBiblicalȱCommentary
WilliamȱJ.ȱLarkin
WilliamȱJ.ȱLarkinȱfacultyȱpage;ȱaccessȱatȱwww.ciu.edu
WestminsterȱTheologicalȱJournal
MerrillȱC.ȱTenney,ȱed.ȱZondervanȱPictorialȱEncyclopediaȱofȱthe
Bible.ȱ5ȱvols.ȱGrandȱRapids:ȱZondervan,ȱ1975Ȭ76.

Chapterȱ1
USINGȱGREEKȱINȱMINISTRYȱ

Inȱhisȱmercifulȱprovidence,ȱtheȱinfiniteȱGodȱchoseȱtoȱcommunicateȱwith
usȱinȱhumanȱlanguage.ȱTheȱHolyȱSpiritȱnotȱonlyȱinspiredȱhumanȱauthorsȱto
writeȱdownȱGod’sȱmessageȱinȱHebrew,ȱAramaic,ȱandȱGreek,ȱbutȱmadeȱsure
copiesȱinȱtheȱoriginalȱlanguagesȱsurviveȱtoȱthisȱday.ȱOfȱcourse,ȱonlyȱthe
personȱwhoȱknowsȱtheseȱhistoricalȱlanguagesȱcanȱreadȱtheȱtextȱinȱthe
languageȱinȱwhichȱitȱwasȱgiven.ȱEveryoneȱelseȱworksȱfromȱaȱtranslationȱthat
anotherȱindividualȱorȱaȱcommitteeȱmadeȱfromȱoriginalȱlanguageȱmanuȬ
scripts.ȱIsȱitȱpossibleȱtoȱunderstandȱandȱcommunicateȱtruthȱworkingȱfrom
aȱtranslation?ȱOfȱcourse,ȱbutȱifȱoneȱhasȱaȱpassionȱtoȱcommunicateȱtheȱWord,
thereȱisȱgreatȱgainȱinȱlearningȱtoȱstudyȱitȱinȱtheȱoriginalȱlanguages.ȱThisȱisȱtrue
forȱpastorsȱwhoȱwillȱpreachȱweekȱinȱandȱweekȱout,ȱmissionariesȱgathering
peopleȱforȱaȱsmallȱgroupȱBibleȱstudyȱthatȱwillȱbecomeȱtheȱnucleusȱofȱa
churchȱplant,ȱBibleȱteachersȱinȱchurches,ȱschoolsȱandȱuniversities,ȱchaplains,
andȱanyȱChristianȱworkerȱforȱwhomȱpreachingȱorȱBibleȱteachingȱisȱa
central—andȱjoyous—responsibility.ȱTheȱpurposeȱofȱthisȱbookȱisȱtoȱequip
preachersȱandȱteachersȱtoȱexegeteȱtheȱGreekȱNewȱTestamentȱwithȱmaximum
precisionȱandȱeffectivenessȱsoȱthatȱtheyȱcanȱconfidentlyȱinterpretȱandȱapply
itȱtoȱthoseȱtoȱwhomȱtheyȱminister.

AȱQuestionȱthatȱNeedsȱtoȱbeȱAsked

It’sȱgoodȱtoȱconfrontȱheadȬonȱtheȱfactȱthatȱmanyȱpeopleȱquestion
whetherȱusingȱGreekȱ(orȱanyȱbiblicalȱlanguage)ȱinȱsermonȱandȱlesson
preparationȱisȱreallyȱworthȱtheȱeffort.ȱWithȱsoȱmanyȱexcellentȱtranslations
andȱcomputerȱaidsȱavailable,ȱmanyȱfailȱtoȱseeȱanȱadequateȱpayoffȱforȱyears
ofȱdifficultȱlanguageȱstudy.ȱJohnȱStottȱhasȱmadeȱclearȱhisȱownȱopinionȱon
thisȱmatter.ȱ“TheȱhigherȱourȱviewȱofȱtheȱBible,ȱtheȱmoreȱpainstakingȱand

conscientiousȱourȱstudyȱofȱitȱshouldȱbe.”ȱ
Dr.ȱStott’sȱopinionȱnotwithstanding,ȱtheȱperson,ȱwhoȱpurposesȱtoȱmake
preachingȱorȱBibleȱteachingȱprimaryȱandȱviewsȱpreparationȱinȱtheȱoriginal
languagesȱasȱessential,ȱwillȱstandȱagainstȱtheȱtideȱofȱcurrentȱopinionȱboth
2
withinȱandȱwithoutȱtheȱchurch.ȱTheȱcultureȱatȱlargeȱnoȱlongerȱrespectsȱthe

2

GREEKȱISȱGREATȱGAIN

3
intellectualȱleadershipȱofȱtheȱpreacher.ȱTheȱprevailingȱantiȬauthoritarian
relativisticȱmindsetȱviewsȱasȱabsurdȱaȱmessageȱwhichȱclaimsȱtoȱcontainȱGodȇs
4
absoluteȱtruth.ȱTheȱrevolutionȱinȱelectronicȱcommunicationsȱmediaȱhas
5
challengedȱtheȱeffectivenessȱofȱpreachingȱasȱaȱmeansȱofȱcommunication.
Indeed,ȱourȱlateȱtwentiethȱandȱearlyȱtwentyȬfirstȱcenturyȱelectronic
environmentȱhasȱgeneratedȱaȱpostmodernȱdispositionȱwhichȱfavorsȱ“image”
overȱ“word.”ȱForȱLeonardȱSweetȱthisȱisȱoneȱofȱtheȱfourȱmainȱcharacteristics
6
ofȱtheȱpostmodernȱwhichȱheȱhasȱcapturedȱinȱtheȱacronym,ȱEPIC.ȱThe
postmodernȱhasȱmovedȱfromȱaȱmodernȱdispositionȱinȱfourȱways:ȱfrom
rationalȱtoȱExperiential;ȱfromȱrepresentativeȱtoȱParticipatory;ȱfromȱwordȱto
Image;ȱandȱfromȱindividualȱtoȱCommunal.ȱAndȱpreachersȱinȱtheirȱpursuit
ofȱeffectiveȱcommunicationȱareȱincreasinglyȱapproachingȱpreachingȱfrom
withinȱtheȱ“image”ȱparadigmȱofȱPowerpointsȱandȱvideoȱclips.ȱInȱtheȱ“zeroȬ
sumȱgain”ȱofȱministryȱpreparationȱtime,ȱanȱunintendedȱconsequenceȱofȱthis
approachȱcouldȱwellȱbeȱtheȱtemptationȱtoȱforeshortenȱthoroughȱpreparation
inȱtheȱWordȱincludingȱsettingȱasideȱtheȱstudyȱofȱtheȱtextȱinȱtheȱoriginal
languages.ȱ
Withȱpreachers,ȱtheirȱmessage,ȱandȱtheirȱmedium,ȱallȱunderȱfire,
studentsȱofȱtheȱWordȱneedȱtoȱmakeȱaȱdecisionȱaboutȱtheȱvalueȱofȱdisciplined
7
studyȱinȱtheȱNewȱTestamentȱinȱGreek.ȱEachȱpersonȱneedsȱtoȱknowȱthatȱit
isȱworthȱit.ȱTheȱfollowingȱrationaleȱwillȱhelpȱtheȱreaderȱdecide.

TheȱNatureȱofȱScripture

AȱResponse

TheȱfactȱthatȱtheȱveryȱwordsȱofȱScriptureȱareȱinspiredȱ(2ȱTimȱ3:16Ȭ17)
meansȱthatȱbeingȱableȱtoȱreadȱandȱstudyȱScriptureȱinȱtheȱoriginalȱlanguages
willȱhelpȱusȱknowȱitsȱpreciseȱandȱfullȱmeaningȱwordȱforȱword.ȱKeepȱinȱmind
thatȱrevelationȱandȱinspirationȱencompassȱbothȱformȱandȱcontentȱ(1ȱCorȱ2:6Ȭ
8
16).ȱNewȱTestamentȱGreekȱisȱtheȱformȱwherebyȱdivineȱrevelationȱinȱthe
NewȱTestamentȱcommunicatesȱitsȱcontentȱorȱmeaning.ȱUnderstandingȱthe
formȱisȱtheȱpathȱtowardȱtheȱclearestȱunderstandingȱofȱtheȱcontent.ȱ

TheȱNatureȱofȱCommunicatingȱGod’sȱWord

TheȱessenceȱofȱpreachingȱandȱBibleȱteachingȱisȱtheȱproclamationȱofȱthe
9
lifeȬchangingȱtruthȱofȱGodȱwithȱauthorityȱandȱpower.ȱHowȱdoȱweȱprepare
inȱsuchȱaȱwayȱthatȱweȱspeakȱwithȱauthorityȱandȱpower?ȱ
Communicatingȱwithȱauthority.ȱHowȱdoesȱaȱknowledgeȱofȱtheȱoriginal
languagesȱpromoteȱcommunicatingȱwithȱauthority?ȱByȱenablingȱusȱtoȱknow
theȱsource—theȱHolyȱScriptures,ȱGodȇsȱinerrantȱWord—asȱintimatelyȱas

USINGȱGREEKȱINȱMINISTRY

3

possible.ȱIndeed,ȱtheȱsourceȱisȱourȱauthorityȱforȱwhatȱweȱareȱgoingȱtoȱsayȱ(1
Corȱ4:1Ȭ2;ȱ1ȱPetȱ1:23Ȭ25;ȱ1ȱThessȱ2:13).ȱToȱpreachȱorȱteachȱwithȱauthority
requiresȱhavingȱfullȱconfidenceȱthatȱweȱknowȱasȱpreciselyȱasȱpossibleȱwhat
theȱBibleȱsays.ȱWeȱmustȱbeȱconvincedȱthatȱourȱsermonsȱandȱBibleȱlessonsȱare
aȱfaithfulȱexpositionȱandȱapplicationȱofȱthatȱmessage.ȱStudyingȱtheȱNew
TestamentȱtextȱinȱtheȱGreekȱcreatesȱtheȱconfidenceȱforȱsuchȱpreachingȱand
teaching.ȱJayȱAdamsȱassertsȱthatȱpreachingȱthatȱflowsȱfromȱstudyȱofȱthe
passageȱinȱtheȱoriginalȱmovesȱforwardȱwithȈaȱmoreȱsureȬfootedȱstride.”ȱ“A
10
certainȱconfidenceȱderivesȱfromȱhavingȱexaminedȱtheȱtextȱforȱoneȇsȱself.Ȉ
Forȱtheȱoneȱwhoȱdoesȱnotȱknowȱtheȱoriginalȱlanguages,ȱJamesȱBarrȱwisely
counselsȱthatȱheȱrecognizeȱ“thatȱnotȱknowingȱthemȱplacesȱaȱlimitȱonȱwhat
11
youȱcanȱclaimȱyouȱknowȱaboutȱaȱtext.Ȉ
KnowledgeȱofȱtheȱGreekȱalsoȱintroducesȱcommunicatorsȱofȱtheȱWord
toȱtheȱinterpretationalȱlimitsȱofȱtheȱtext.ȱAsȱAdamsȱobserves,Ȉ.ȱ.ȱ.ȱknowing
theȱexegeticalȱdifficultiesȱinȱaȱpreachingȱportionȱmayȱdeterȱoneȱfromȱrushing
12
aheadȱwhenȱheȱoughtȱtoȱtreadȱmoreȱcautiously.Ȉ
Thisȱdoesȱnotȱmeanȱthatȱdevoutȱpreachersȱcannotȱeffectivelyȱpreach
knowingȱtheȱBibleȇsȱcontentȱonlyȱinȱtranslation.ȱButȱwhenȱtheȱopportunity
arisesȱtoȱknowȱtheȱtruthȱofȱGodȱforȱourselvesȱinȱtheȱlanguageȱinȱwhichȱitȱwas
given,ȱisȱthisȱnotȱthe ȈmoreȱexcellentȱwayȈ?ȱAtȱtheȱveryȱleastȱsuchȱan
approachȱwillȱliberateȱusȱfromȱcompleteȱdependenceȱonȱsecondaryȱsources.
Weȱwillȱnoȱlongerȱbeȱconfinedȱtoȱtheȱconclusionsȱofȱtranslatorsȱ(remember
thatȱallȱtranslationsȱinvolveȱinterpretation)ȱandȱcommentators.ȱGrowing
knowledgeȱofȱtheȱoriginalȱlanguagesȱgivesȱusȱanȱindependentȱvantageȱpoint
fromȱwhichȱtoȱanalyzeȱandȱevaluateȱourȱhandlingȱofȱtheȱtext.
Communicatingȱwithȱpower.ȱHowȱdoesȱknowledgeȱofȱtheȱoriginal
languagesȱpromoteȱpower,ȱi.e.,ȱeffectiveness,ȱinȱpreaching?ȱBeingȱableȱto
readȱtheȱoriginalȱwordingȱgivesȱoneȱimmediateȱaccessȱtoȈtheȱlivelinessȱand
13
vigor,ȱtheȱdelicateȱturnsȱofȱthought,ȱandȱtheȱsubtleȱvariationsȈwhichȱare
ȈtroweledȱoffȈinȱanyȱtranslation.ȱWritersȱuseȱvariousȱcontrastsȱtoȱdescribe
theȱqualitativeȱdifferenceȱbetweenȱreadingȱScriptureȱinȱtranslationȱandȱinȱthe
originalȱlanguage.ȱItȇsȱtheȱdifferenceȱbetweenȱeatingȱfrozenȱorȱcanned
14
peachesȱandȱeatingȱonesȱjustȱpickedȱfromȱtheȱtree.ȱItȇsȱtheȱdifference
15
betweenȱwatchingȱaȱfilmȱonȱDVDȱcomparedȱtoȱordinaryȱtelevision.ȱButȱall
analogiesȱseemȱinadequate.ȱHowȱdoesȱoneȱdescribeȱtheȱjoyȱofȱdiscovering
RGHCPGTYVCK
thatȱtheȱperfectȱtenseȱofȱtheȱverbȈtoȱmanifestȈ( )ȱinȱRomans
3:21ȱindicatesȱthatȱinȱChristȇsȱdeath,ȱGodȱgraciouslyȱrevealedȱhisȱrighteousȬ
nessȱinȱsuchȱaȱwayȱthatȱitȱcontinuesȱtoȱbeȱrevealedȱdownȱtoȱtoday?ȱHowȱcan
oneȱportrayȱtheȱimpactȱexperiencedȱinȱtheȱdiscoveryȱthatȱtheȱphraseȈspirit
FGKNKCL
ofȱfearȈinȱ2ȱTimȱ1:7ȱ( )ȱreallyȱpointsȱtoȱcowardiceȱwhich,ȱifȱitȱisȱaȱlifeȬ
style,ȱcharacterizesȱthoseȱwhoȱareȱexcludedȱfromȱeternalȱlifeȱ(Revȱ21:8,
FGKNQK L
)?ȱHowȱcanȱoneȱadequatelyȱconveyȱtheȱexcitementȱthatȱoccursȱ

4

GREEKȱISȱGREATȱGAIN

whenȱyouȱdiscoverȱthatȱthereȱareȱthreeȱdifferentȱwordsȱforȱamazementȱin
Actsȱ2:1Ȭ13,ȱinȱtensesȱconveyingȱbothȱcontinuousȱandȱsummaryȱaction
GSCWOC\QPGEKUVCPVQFKJRQTQWP
( ,ȱActsȱ2:7,ȱ12)?ȱWithȱgreat
vividness,ȱtheseȱwordsȱdescribeȱtheȱreactionȱofȱtheȱcrowdȱtoȱtheȱPentecost
signsȱandȱwonders.ȱTheȱcrowdȱisȱnotȱonlyȱ“amazed,”ȱitȱ“isȱbesideȱitself”ȱand

“atȱaȱlossȱtoȱexplain”ȱwhatȱisȱhappening
Powerȱandȱeffectivenessȱinȱpreachingȱisȱpromotedȱbyȱaȱfreshnessȱborn
ofȱtheȱdirectȱaccessȱtoȱtheȱtextȱinȱtheȱoriginalȱlanguage.ȱR.ȱE.ȱO.ȱWhite
contends,ȈNoȱmereȱtranslationȱcanȱquickenȱtheȱmindȱtoȱallȱtheȱovertones
andȱundertones,ȱtheȱbeautyȱandȱtheȱsharpness,ȱtheȱnuancesȱandȱtheȱechoes,
thatȱkindleȱsympathyȱbetweenȱtheȱmindȱofȱtheȱwriterȱandȱtheȱmindȱofȱthe
16
reader.ȈJohnȱBroadusȱconcurs,Ȉ.ȱ.ȱ.ȱevenȱtheȱslightestȱknowledgeȱofȱthe
originalsȱisȱofȱserviceȱinȱhelpingȱusȱtoȱenterȱintoȱintellectualȱsympathyȱwith
theȱsacredȱwritersȱandȱtoȱcatchȱtheȱvividnessȱandȱflavorȱsoȱoftenȱlostȱin
17
translation.Ȉ
Whatȱcanȱmatchȱtheȱfreshnessȱofȱinsightȱwhenȱweȱuncoverȱtheȱvibrancy
ofȱPaulȇsȱargumentȱinȱtriumphantȱdefenseȱofȱtheȱelectȱinȱRomȱ8:31Ȭ39?ȱAfter
layingȱdownȱtheȱchallengeȱthroughȱaȱrhetoricalȱquestion,ȈWhat,ȱthen,ȱshall
weȱsayȱtoȱtheseȱthings?ȈPaulȱlaysȱoutȱhisȱconclusionȱandȱprovidesȱaȱproof
fromȱpastȱhistory.ȱThroughȱtheȱrepetitionȱofȱtheȱprepositionȈonȱbehalfȱofȈ
WRGT
( )ȱheȱassuresȱusȱthatȱbecauseȱGodȱdeliveredȱhisȱsonȈonȱbehalfȱofȱusȱallȈ
heȱisȱindeedȈforȱus,ȱi.e.,ȱwillȱalwaysȱactȱonȱbehalfȱofȱusȈ(vv.ȱ31Ȭ32).ȱThen
followsȱaȱseriesȱofȱrhetoricalȱquestionsȱ(vv.ȱ33Ȭ37)ȱplacedȱinȱtheȱfutureȱtense
VKLGIMCNGUGKVKLQMCVCMTKPY PVKLZYTKUGK
( ).ȱThese
potentialȱobstaclesȱtoȱGodȇsȱcontinuedȱgraciousȱcareȱareȱansweredȱbyȱthe
SGQ?L QYKP KFCM
presentȱprogressiveȱactionȱofȱaȱGodȱwhoȱjustifiesȱ(v.ȱ33,ȱ)
GUVKPFEGGPQV WK
andȱaȱChristȱwhoȱisȱpresentlyȱintercedingȱforȱusȱ(v.ȱ34,ȱ
SGQW Q?LMCK?ZIWVPGKGPC
).ȱWeȱareȱrightȱnowȈsuperȱconquerorsȈ(v.ȱ37,
WRGTPKMY OGP
)ȱthroughȱtheȱoneȱwhoȱlovedȱus.ȱPaulȇsȱstrengthȱofȱconviction
comesȱthroughȱinȱeveryȱprepositionȱandȱtenseȱuse,ȱeveryȱcutȱandȱthrustȱof
hisȱquestionȱandȱresponseȱpattern.ȱAllȱbuildsȱtoȱtheȱperfectȱtenseȱofȱaȱverb
RGRGKUOCK
ȈtoȱbeȱconvincedȈ(v.ȱ38,ȱ)ȱbyȱwhichȱheȱconfessesȱhisȱsettled
conviction,ȱsomethingȱheȱhasȱdecidedȱandȱcontinuesȱtoȱbeȱconvincedȱof,ȱthat
noȱcreatedȱthingȱhasȱtheȱpotentialȱtoȱseparateȱusȱfromȱtheȱloveȱofȱGod
centeredȱinȱChristȱJesusȱourȱLordȱ(vv.ȱ38Ȭ39).
Whatȱcanȱmatchȱreadingȱtheȱaccountȱinȱtheȱoriginalȱforȱunderstanding
theȱtendernessȱandȱtoughness,ȱtheȱfullȱrangeȱofȱemotionȱpresentȱinȱMarkȇs
recountingȱofȱJesusȇsȱencounterȱwithȱtheȱfatherȱofȱtheȱboyȱwithȱanȱunclean
spiritȱ(Markȱ9:21Ȭ24)?ȱTheȱfather,ȱdiscouragedȱbyȱJesusȇdisciplesȇlackȱof
successȱbutȱstillȱdesperate,ȱbegsȱJesusȱforȱhelp.ȱAȱconditionalȱclauseȱshows
GKVKFWPX
hisȱdoubt,ȈButȱifȱyouȱshouldȱbeȱableȱtoȱdoȱanythingȈ(v.ȱ22,ȱ).
Thenȱfollowsȱaȱcommandȱinȱtheȱaoristȱtense,ȱmeaningȈgiveȱusȱaid;ȱdoȱitȱat

USINGȱGREEKȱINȱMINISTRY

5

DQJSJUQP
onceȈ(v.ȱ22,ȱ).ȱJesusȇresponseȱseemsȱsharp,ȱbutȱitȱisȱtrulyȱmerciful.
Heȱpicksȱupȱtheȱmanȇsȱdoubtȱbyȱrepeatingȱhisȱwords,ȈIfȱyouȱareȱable.ȈThen
heȱpicksȱupȱtheȱthemeȱofȱtheȱrelationȱofȱpowerȱandȱfaith.ȱJesusȱsays,ȈAll
thingsȱareȱpossible,ȱcanȱbeȱdone,ȱtoȱtheȱoneȱwhoȱkeepsȱonȱbelievingȱorȱis
V RKUVGWQPVK
characterizedȱbyȱfaithȈ–presentȱparticipleȱ(v.ȱ23, ).ȱMark
MTCECL
thenȱgraphicallyȱportraysȱtheȱfather’sȱresponse.ȱHeȱletsȱoutȱaȱcryȱ( ,
aȱstrongȱword,ȱtheȱsameȱwordȱusedȱtoȱdescribeȱtheȱevilȱspiritȇsȱresponseȱto
Jesusȇrebuke,ȱv.ȱ26).ȱThenȱMarkȱputsȱtheȱmainȱverbȱofȱspeakingȱinȱthe
GNGIGP
imperfectȱtenseȱ(v.ȱ24,ȱ)ȱwhichȱcouldȱindicateȱthatȱheȱsaidȱthe
followingȱrepeatedly:ȈIȱamȱbelieving;ȱbeȱhelpingȱmyȱunbelief.ȈThisȱfast
pacedȱencounterȱisȱtoldȱinȱMark’sȱsimpleȱbutȱgraphicȱstyle.ȱItȱgrabsȱoneȇs
attention,ȱespeciallyȱwhenȱreadȱinȱtheȱGreek.
PhillipsȱBrooksȱsaysȱthatȱpreachingȱisȱbasically Ȉtruthȱthrough
personality.ȈPowerfulȱcommunicationȱresultsȱwhenȱGod’sȱtruthȱisȱspoken
throughȱaȱlifeȱwhichȱhasȱencounteredȱitȱdirectly.ȱItȱisȱalsoȱtrueȱthatȱexegetical
studyȱisȱtheȱkeyȱtoȱweddingȱtheȱtwoȱ(truthȱandȱpersonality)ȱsoȱthatȱtheȱresult
18
hasȱaȱfreshnessȱandȱaȱvitality.ȱStudyȱmustȱinvolveȱanȱimmersionȱinȱthe
Scripturesȱinȱwhichȱtheȱtextȱandȱtheȱtextȱaloneȱactsȱonȱtheȱpreacherȇsȱmind
19
andȱheart.ȱWhatȱbetterȱwayȱforȱaȱdeep,ȱdirectȱimpressionȱtoȱbeȱregistered
thanȱwhenȱtheȱweȱenterȱdirectlyȱintoȱtheȱtruthȱofȱtheȱtextȱbyȱstudyingȱitȱin
theȱoriginal?ȱWhenȱweȱapplyȱourselvesȱtoȱtheȱtextȱinȱextended,ȱconcentrated
20
andȱintenseȱstudy,ȱtheȱtextȱopensȱupȱtoȱrevealȱallȱtheȱrichesȱconveyedȱby
itsȱoriginalȱexpression.ȱSuchȱfreshnessȱandȱvitalityȱmakesȱforȱinteresting
preachingȱandȱteachingȱthat,ȱbyȱGodȇsȱSpirit,ȱwillȱholdȱpeopleȇsȱattentionȱand
changeȱtheirȱlives.ȱ

TheȱNatureȱofȱtheȱMinistry
MinisteringȱtheȱWord.ȱPastorsȱandȱothers,ȱwhoseȱprimaryȱcallingȱisȱto
ministerȱtheȱWordȱ(1ȱTimȱ4:13;ȱ2ȱTimȱ4:2;ȱEphȱ4:11,ȱpastorȬteacher),ȱneedȱto
21
seeȱtheȱstudyȱofȱScriptureȱasȈoneȱofȱ[their]ȱforemostȱresponsibilities.ȈThey
shouldȱwillinglyȱtackleȱtheȱhardȱworkȱofȱpreparationȱforȱpreachingȱand
teaching,ȱagreeingȱwithȱEugeneȱPeterson:

IȱneedȱaȱdrenchingȱinȱScripture;ȱIȱrequireȱanȱimmersionȱin
biblicalȱstudies.ȱIȱneedȱreflectiveȱhoursȱoverȱtheȱpagesȱof
Scriptureȱasȱwellȱasȱpersonalȱstrugglesȱwithȱtheȱmeaningȱof
22
Scripture.

PastorsȱsometimesȱmayȱneedȱtoȱrejectȱevenȱtheirȱchurchȇsȱroleȱexpectaȬ
tions,ȱtheȱdesireȱthatȱtheyȱbeȱprimarilyȱcounselorsȱorȱadministrators.ȱThey
mustȱinsteadȱchooseȱtoȱbeȱtheȱoneȱthingȱnoȱoneȱelseȱinȱsocietyȇsȱhelping

6

GREEKȱISȱGREATȱGAIN

professionsȱorȱmanagementȱranksȱcanȱbe,Ȉanȱexpertȱonȱbiblicalȱrevelation.Ȉ
AsȱLeithȱAndersonȱcontends,

Modernȱchurchesȱincludeȱmanyȱeducatedȱpersonsȱwhoȱhaveȱnot
comeȱtoȱhearȱtheȱpastorȇsȱlayȱviewsȱonȱcurrentȱevents;ȱtheyȱhave
comeȱtoȱhearȱanȱexpertȱonȱbiblicalȱrevelation.ȱTheȱinteresting
sermonȱwillȱmaximizeȱbiblicalȱexpositionȱandȱminimizeȱextraneous
23
material.

WithȱtheȱcomplexitiesȱofȱministryȱinȱtheȱtwentyȬfirstȱcentury,ȱweȱmay
needȱtoȱreevaluateȱourȱownȱpriorities,ȱasȱtheȱapostlesȱdidȱinȱActsȱ6:2Ȭ4.ȱThey
concluded,ȈButȱweȱwillȱdevoteȱourselvesȱtoȱprayer,ȱandȱtoȱtheȱministryȱof
theȱwordȈ(6:4).ȱDiscipliningȱourselvesȱtoȱstudyȱtheȱNewȱTestamentȱinȱthe
Greekȱcanȱhelpȱusȱbeȱsureȱourȱtimeȱandȱenergyȱisȱspentȱwell.ȱItȱforcesȱusȱto
slowȱdown,ȱtoȱpauseȱlongȱenoughȱoverȱaȱpassageȱtoȱgetȱtheȱfullȱbenefitȱof
itsȱtruth.ȱInȱthatȱwayȱitȱinsuresȱinȬdepthȱstudyȱwhichȱpenetratesȱbeyondȱthe
obviousȱquestionsȱandȱinsightsȱaboutȱtheȱtext.ȱByȱdiggingȱdeeper,ȱweȱcan
proveȱourselves,ȱbyȱtheȱSpiritȇsȱgraciousȱilluminationȱandȱourȱperspiration,
expertsȱonȱbiblicalȱrevelation,ȱtrueȱministersȱofȱtheȱWord.
Guardingȱagainstȱerror.ȱTheȱmultiplicityȱofȱtranslationsȱandȱstudyȱaids
todayȱisȱsometimesȱcitedȱasȱaȱreasonȱforȱdispensingȱwithȱGreek.ȱOnȱtheȱother
hand,ȱtheȱpresenceȱofȱdifferingȱtranslationsȱ(whichȱinvolvedȱdiffering
interpretations)ȱandȱinterpretationalȱstudyȱaidsȱactuallyȱmakesȱitȱimperative
thatȱBibleȱcommunicatorsȱhaveȱaȱplatformȱfromȱwhichȱtoȱmakeȱanȱinformed
andȱindependentȱjudgment.ȱPastorsȱinȱparticular,ȱasȱshepherdsȱofȱlocal
flocks,ȱmustȱbeȱableȱtoȱguardȱtheirȱcongregationȱfromȱerrorȱandȱmisunderȬ
standingȱandȱguideȱthemȱintoȱtruth.ȱWithȱanȱunderstandingȱofȱtheȱGreek
theyȱcanȱexplainȱhowȱtheȱdifferencesȱinȱtranslationȱandȱinterpretationȱhave
FKMCKQW USG
arisen.ȱTakeȱtheȱexampleȱofȱȱinȱGalȱ5:4:

KJV

NASB

NIV

Christȱisȱbecomeȱofȱnoȱeffectȱuntoȱyou,ȱwhosoeverȱofȱyou
areȱjustifiedȱbyȱtheȱlaw;ȱyeȱareȱfallenȱfromȱgrace.ȱ(NKJVȱadds
inȱitalics,ȱ“attemptȱtoȱbe”ȱbeforeȱ“justified”)

YouȱhaveȱbeenȱseveredȱfromȱChrist,ȱyouȱwhoȱareȱseeking
(marg.ȱOrȱwouldȱbe)ȱtoȱbeȱjustifiedȱbyȱlaw;ȱyouȱareȱfallen
fromȱgrace.

Youȱwhoȱareȱtryingȱtoȱbeȱjustifiedȱbyȱlawȱhaveȱbeen
alienatedȱfromȱChrist;ȱyouȱhaveȱfallenȱfromȱgrace.

USINGȱGREEKȱINȱMINISTRY

7

TheȱsimpleȱpresentȱtenseȱtranslationȱofȱtheȱKJVȱcouldȱbeȱtakenȱtoȱmean
thatȱPaulȱbelievedȱthatȱitȱwasȱpossibleȱtoȱbeȱjustifiedȱbyȱworks.ȱThis,ȱwe
knowȱfromȱtheȱrestȱofȱPaulȇsȱwritings,ȱespeciallyȱGalatiansȱ(cf.ȱGalȱ2:15Ȭ16),
isȱnotȱhisȱunderstanding.ȱTheȱNASBȱandȱNIVȱtryȱtoȱavoidȱthisȱmisunderȬ
standingȱbyȱindicatingȱthatȱtheseȱpeopleȱwere Ȉseeking,Ȉ Ȉwanting,Ȉor
ȈtryingȈtoȱbeȱjustified.ȱButȱinȱdoingȱsoȱtheyȱhaveȱseeminglyȱintroducedȱthe
ideaȱofȱaȱdesireȱorȱattempt.ȱWhoȱisȱcorrect?ȱHaveȱtheȱNASB,ȱNIV,ȱandȱNKJV
simplyȱaddedȱsomeȱwordingȱtoȱavoidȱaȱdoctrinalȱdifficulty?ȱIfȱtheir
renderingȱisȱallowableȱwhyȱdidnȇtȱtheȱKJVȱtranslatorsȱwordȱitȱthisȱway?
WithȱknowledgeȱofȱtheȱGreek,ȱweȱcanȱrecognizeȱthatȱEnglishȱtranslations
FKMCKQW USG
haveȱrepresentedȱoneȱwordȱinȱGreekȱ( )ȱbyȱaȱseriesȱofȱwordsȱin
English: Ȉareȱjustified,Ȉ Ȉareȱseekingȱtoȱbeȱjustified,Ȉ Ȉareȱtryingȱtoȱbe
justified.ȈWeȱcanȱknowȱthisȱisȱnecessaryȱsinceȱEnglishȱdoesȱnotȱhaveȱthe
capabilityȱtoȱrepresentȱnuancesȱofȱmeaningȱinȱverbsȱthroughȱprefixesȱand
suffixesȱtoȱtheȱsameȱextentȱasȱGreekȱdoes.ȱTheȱGreekȱverbȱisȱinȱtheȱpresent
tenseȱindicatingȱprogressiveȱaction.ȱOneȱofȱtheȱpossibleȱnuancesȱof
progressiveȱactionȱisȱthatȱtheȱactionȱisȱprogressiveȱbecauseȱtheȱsubjectȱis
desiringȱorȱattemptingȱtoȱdoȱit.ȱThisȱisȱwhatȱtheȱNASBȱandȱNIVȱtranslators
andȱtheȱNKJVȱrevisersȱconcludedȱaboutȱPaulȇsȱuseȱofȱtheȱpresentȱtenseȱat
24
Galatiansȱ5:4.ȱTheȱKJVȱdidȱnotȱreflectȱthatȱnuanceȱofȱtheȱpresentȱtenseȱand
concentratedȱonȱplacingȱtheȱactionȱinȱpresentȱtime.
Thisȱexampleȱshowsȱthatȱtranslatorsȱhaveȱmadeȱchoices.ȱTheyȱhave
soughtȱtoȱconveyȱtheȱbasicȱsenseȱinȱasȱnaturalȱaȱwayȱasȱpossible.ȱInȱdoing
so,ȱtheyȱwillȱignoreȱsomeȱaspectsȱofȱmeaningȱinȱtheȱpassage.ȱNotȱall
translatorsȱhaveȱignoredȱtheȱsameȱthings.ȱNotȱallȱhaveȱoptedȱforȱtheȱsame
interpretationȱofȱgivenȱwords.ȱSomeȱhaveȱdecidedȱtoȱmakeȱclearȱwhatȱthe
originalȱwriterȱintendedȱtoȱleaveȱambiguousȱorȱviceȱversa.ȱToȱhelpȱtheir
congregationsȱcopeȱwithȱtheȱresultingȱconfusion,ȱmisunderstandingȱand
potentialȱerror,ȱpastorȬteachersȱhaveȱanȱindispensableȱresource—theȱstudy
ofȱtheȱNewȱTestamentȱtextȱinȱtheȱoriginalȱGreek.ȱByȱitȱandȱitȱalone,ȱwe
shouldȱdecideȱallȱmattersȱofȱdoctrineȱandȱlife.ȱAsȱArchibaldȱHunterȱcorrectly
assesses,

YetȱdespiteȱourȱwealthȱofȱgoodȱmodernȱtranslationsȱofȱtheȱNew
Testament,ȱaȱknowledgeȱofȱGreekȱwillȱundoubtedlyȱmakeȱaȱmanȱa
betterȱinterpreterȱofȱgospelȱandȱepistle,ȱasȱitȱwillȱhelpȱhimȱtoȱdecide
whichȱmodernȱrenderingȱbestȱreproducesȱtheȱoriginalȱmeaningȱof
evangelistȱandȱapostleȱ.ȱ.ȱ.ȱbutȱtheȱmanȱwhoȱcanȱreadȱ‘theȱwords
whichȱtheȱHolyȱSpiritȱteaches’ȱ(1ȱCorȱ2:13)ȱinȱtheȱoriginalȱtongue
will,ȱotherȱthingsȱbeingȱequal,ȱbeȱaȱbetterȱheraldȱofȱtheȱgospelȱthan
25
hisȱGreeklessȱbrother.

8

GREEKȱISȱGREATȱGAIN

AȱRealisticȱStudyȱPatternȱWhichȱIncorporatesȱGreek

UnderstandingȱtheȱStudyȱPattern

Comprehensiveȱpattern.ȱConvincedȱbyȱnowȱthatȱitȱisȱwellȱworthȱtheȱtime
toȱlearnȱNewȱTestamentȱGreekȱandȱincorporateȱtheȱlanguageȱinto
preparationȱforȱpreachingȱandȱteaching,ȱoneȱmayȱstillȱhaveȱaȱfewȱquestions:
CanȱIȱactuallyȱcarveȱoutȱtimeȱtoȱmaintainȱGreekȱproficiency,ȱwhileȱpreparing
weeklyȱsermonsȱandȱlessons?ȱThereȱareȱonlyȱsoȱmanyȱhoursȱinȱtheȱday!ȱAlso,
isn’tȱitȱcommonȱforȱpeopleȱtoȱforgetȱtheirȱGreekȱafterȱtheyȱleaveȱseminary?
True,ȱyetȱwhileȱmanyȱpeopleȱloseȱmuchȱofȱtheirȱGreekȱproficiencyȱafter
leavingȱschool,ȱtheyȱneverȱcompletelyȱloseȱtheȱconcepts,ȱprinciples,ȱand
methodsȱusefulȱforȱstudyingȱtheȱtextȱinȱtheȱoriginalȱlanguage.ȱProficiency
inȱaȱlanguageȱisȱaȱskillȱandȱisȱneverȱcompletelyȱlost.ȱThereȱareȱwaysȱtoȱregain
andȱgrowȱinȱyourȱproficiencyȱinȱusingȱtheȱGreek.ȱ
Youȱcanȱdevoteȱenoughȱtimeȱtoȱsermon/lessonȱdevelopmentȱandȱstill
haveȱtimeȱinȱtheȱweekȱtoȱkeepȱyourȱGreekȱfreshȱandȱalive.ȱHow?ȱBy
followingȱtheȱthreeȱstageȱexegeticalȱmethodȱpresentedȱinȱthisȱbook:

LifeȬlongȱpreparation:ȱmaintainingȱGreekȱproficiencyȱasȱaȱwayȱof
lifeȱ(seeȱchapterȱthree)
Immediateȱpreparation:ȱpreparingȱduringȱtheȱweekȱpriorȱto
deliveringȱaȱsermonȱorȱlessonȱ(seeȱchaptersȱfourȱthroughȱfifteen)
Periodicȱpreparation:ȱplanningȱaȱyearȱinȱadvanceȱforȱpreachȬ
ing/teachingȱandȱdoingȱperiodicȱinȬdepthȱstudyȱ(seeȱchapter
sixteen).

Doableȱpattern.ȱThatȱGreekȱproficiencyȱcanȱbeȱmaintainedȱwithȱasȱlittle
asȱfifteenȱminutesȱaȱdayȱmightȱcomeȱasȱaȱsurprise,ȱbutȱfifteenȱminutesȱaȱday
ofȱpracticeȱforȱanyȱlanguageȱthatȱisȱproperlyȱlearnedȱcanȱmakeȱaȱhuge
differenceȱinȱonȬgoingȱfluency.ȱAsȱforȱ“ImmediateȱPreparation,”ȱtheȱtime
estimatesȱinȱthisȱbookȱareȱanȱaverageȱforȱaȱSundayȱmorningȱsermonȱbased
onȱtheȱteachingȱandȱministryȱexperienceȱofȱCIUȱSeminaryȱandȱSchoolȱof
MissionsȱNewȱTestament,ȱHomiletics,ȱandȱEducationalȱMinistriesȱfaculty,
26
asȱwellȱas,ȱonȱaȱSpringȱ2001ȱsurveyȱofȱpracticingȱpreachersȱ(seeȱfig.ȱ1.1).ȱYou
canȱbudgetȱlessȱtimeȱforȱpreparingȱSundayȱorȱWednesdayȱeveningȱsermons
andȱBibleȱlessons.ȱ
Theȱmethodȱdescribedȱinȱthisȱbookȱisȱdetailedȱandȱthorough,ȱbut
repeatedȱusageȱwillȱmakeȱitȱsecondȱnature.ȱTheȱfirstȱtimeȱyouȱuseȱitȱonȱa
passage,ȱitȱwillȱprobablyȱtakeȱyouȱtwiceȱasȱlongȱasȱtheȱsuggestedȱtimeȱvalues

USINGȱGREEKȱINȱMINISTRY

Figureȱ1.1.ȱSurveyȱofȱTimeȱDistributionȱinȱSermonȱPreparation

Range

Average

SurveyȱofȱPreachersȱ(Springȱ2001)

TotalȱTime
(24ȱreporting)

2Ȭ6ȱhrs.ȱ=ȱ4
(16.7%)

7Ȭ9ȱhrs.ȱ=ȱ5
(21%)

10Ȭ16ȱhrs.ȱ=ȱ11
(46%)
17Ȭ25ȱhrs.ȱ=ȱ4
(16.7%)
9.73ȱhrs.

Studyȱofȱ
BiblicalȱTextȱ
(23ȱreporting)

20ȱmin.Ȭ4ȱhrs.ȱ=ȱ11
(48%)

5Ȭ9ȱhrs.ȱ=ȱ7ȱ
(30%)

10Ȭ15+ȱhrs.ȱ=ȱ5
(22%)

6.21ȱhrs.

Sermonȱ
Developmentȱ
(23ȱreporting)

0Ȭ3ȱhrs.ȱ=ȱ9ȱ
(39%)

4Ȭ8ȱhrs.ȱ=ȱ10ȱ
(43%)

9Ȭ12ȱhrs.ȱ=ȱ4ȱ
(17%)

5.22ȱhrs.

9

Source:ȱNewȱTestamentȱStudyȱGroup,ȱCIUȱSeminaryȱandȱSchoolȱofȱMissions,
Columbia,ȱSC,ȱSpringȱ2001.

inȱfigureȱ1.2.ȱAȱsecondȱtimeȱthrough,ȱpreparationȱȱnormallyȱtakesȱoneȱand
oneȱhalfȱtimesȱasȱlong.ȱByȱtheȱthirdȱtimeȱthrough,ȱyouȱshouldȱbeȱcloserȱtoȱthe
timeȱestimatesȱprovided.ȱ

MakingȱtheȱStudyȱPatternȱYourȱOwn

Customizedȱuse.ȱSomeȱareasȱinȱtheȱmethodȱshouldȱbeȱusedȱselectively,ȱi.e.,
expandedȱorȱcontractedȱdependingȱonȱtheȱdemandsȱofȱtheȱpassage.ȱFor
example,ȱmoreȱsustainedȱattentionȱtoȱgrammaticalȱfeaturesȱisȱcalledȱforȱin
epistolaryȱdoctrinalȱpassagesȱlikeȱRomansȱ6.ȱEthicalȱsections,ȱespeciallyȱlists
ofȱvicesȱorȱvirtues,ȱneedȱmoreȱtimeȱdevotedȱtoȱwordȱstudyȱ(e.g.,ȱGalȱ5:22Ȭ23).
Inȱgospelȱnarrative,ȱculturalȱdetailsȱandȱplotȱdynamicsȱmustȱbeȱpursued.ȱPart
ofȱmasteringȱtheȱmethodȱisȱtoȱlearnȱtoȱbeȱjudiciousȱinȱdeterminingȱwhichȱpart
willȱexpandȱandȱwhichȱwillȱcontractȱwhenȱdealingȱwithȱaȱparticularȱpassage
withinȱtheȱestimatedȱtimeȱconstraintsȱ(theȱminimumȱandȱmaximumȱtime
suggestedȱforȱaȱresponsibleȱhandlingȱofȱtheȱpassage).
Personalizedȱuse.ȱAsȱyouȱgainȱexperienceȱwithȱtheȱmethod,ȱoneȱofȱyour
goalsȱshouldȱbeȱtoȱunderstandȱandȱmasterȱeachȱstep.ȱButȱdon’tȱstopȱthere.

10

GREEKȱISȱGREATȱGAIN

Figureȱ1.2.ȱOverviewȱofȱExegeticalȱMethod

2ȱhrs.

30ȱmin.

4ȱhrs.

Overview:ȱExegeticalȱMethod

LifelongȱPreparation:ȱMaintainingȱGreekȱProficiencyȱ
15ȱminȱperȱday,ȱ5ȱdaysȱperȱweek,ȱ5ȱlinesȱofȱtheȱGNTȱperȱday

1.
2.ȱ

I.ȱ

II.ȱ

ImmediateȱPreparationȱofȱSermonȱorȱLesson
Total:ȱ14Ȭ16ȱhours

PhaseȱOne:ȱPreparingȱtheȱPreacher/Teacherȱ&ȱtheȱText
SpiritualȱPreparation:ȱPrayerȱ&ȱConsecration
TextȱPreparation:ȱTranslationȱ&ȱMechanicalȱLayoutȱ

PhaseȱTwo:ȱStudyingȱtheȱTextȱExegetically
Survey
A.ȱDealȱwithȱTextualȱCriticalȱMatters:ȱValidateȱthe
wordingȱforȱtheȱpreaching/teachingȱpassage.
B.ȱRaiseȱQuestionsȱ&ȱMakeȱObservations:ȱBrainstorm
forȱquestions,ȱillustrations,ȱideas,ȱ&ȱissuesȱrelatedȱto
theȱpassageȱthatȱwarrantȱfurtherȱexploration.
Analysisȱ
A.ȱHistoricalȱAnalysis
1.ȱIntroductoryȱMattersȱ:ȱDetermineȱhowȱtheȱpasȬ
sageȱrelatesȱtoȱtheȱparticularȱhistoricalȱsituation
inȱwhichȱandȱtoȱwhichȱtheȱbookȱwasȱwritten.
2..ȱHistoricalȬCulturalȬReligiousȱDetails:ȱGatherȱdeȬ
tailsȱfromȱtheȱgeneralȱhistoricalȱsituation.
B.ȱLiteraryȱAnalysis
1.ȱContext
a.ȱGeneralȱContext:ȱDetermineȱhowȱtheȱpasȬ
sageȱfitsȱwithinȱtheȱtotalȱbookȱoutline.
b.ȱImmediateȱContext:ȱDetermineȱhowȱthe
passageȱrelatesȱtoȱtheȱimmediatelyȱprecedȬ
ingȱandȱfollowingȱparagraphs.
2.ȱGenre:ȱAnalyzeȱaccordingȱtoȱliteraryȱtype.
3.ȱSyntax
a.ȱGrammar:ȱStructure,ȱVerbs,ȱCases,ȱtheȱRest
b.ȱRhetoricalȱFeatures:ȱWordȱAbsence,ȱWord
Order,ȱWordȱArrangement,ȱWordȱFigures

chap.ȱ3

chap.ȱ4

chap.ȱ5

chap.ȱ6

chap.ȱ
6Ȭ11

USINGȱGREEKȱINȱMINISTRY

Figureȱ1.2.ȱ(continued)
4.ȱȱWordȱStudy
a.ȱFocusȱtheȱMeaning:ȱDefineȱkeyȱtermsȱin
context.
b.ȱIllumineȱtheȱMeaning:ȱIllustrateȱkeyȱterms
throughȱbackgroundȱsourceȱorȱcontempoȬ
raryȱbackgroundȱstudy.
C.ȱTheologicalȱAnalysis
1.ȱBiblicalȱTheology:ȱIdentifyȱbackground,ȱparallel,
orȱcontrastingȱbiblicalȱpassages.
2.ȱSystematicȱTheology:ȱIdentifyȱtheȱpassage’sȱconȬ
tributionȱtoȱChristianȱdoctrine.
3.ȱRemainingȱTheologicalȱandȱInterpretationalȱDiffiȬ
culties:ȱIdentifyȱandȱresolveȱpotentialȱconflicts
withȱotherȱbiblicalȱteaching;ȱstateȱandȱsolveȱany
remainingȱdifficulties.
45ȱmin.III.ȱSynthesis
A.ȱExegeticalȱOutline
B.ȱBiblicalȱCoherence
1.ȱBasicȱMessage:ȱStateȱtheȱpassage’sȱmessageȱin
oneȱsentence.
2.ȱPromotionȱofȱBook’sȱPurpose:ȱStateȱhowȱtheȱpasȬ
sageȱpromotesȱtheȱbook’sȱpurpose.
3.ȱPlaceȱinȱSalvationȱHistoryȱandȱBiblicalȱThought:
DescribeȱwhereȱtheȱpassageȱfitsȱinȱtheȱProgress
ofȱRedemptionȱandȱProgressȱofȱRevelation.
45ȱmin.IV.ȱInterpretationȱforȱandȱApplicationȱtoȱPersonsȱinȱContemȬ
poraryȱCulture
A.ȱCommunication:ȱInterpretȱtheȱpassage’sȱmessageȱin
equivalentȱcontemporaryȱterms.
B.ȱCorrection:ȱApplyȱtheȱpassage’sȱ“badȱnews”ȱfor
personsȱinȱtheȱculture.
C.ȱCapturingȱtheȱSignificance:ȱApplyȱtheȱpassage’s
“goodȱnews”ȱtoȱtheȱdeepȱneedsȱofȱtheȱculture.

2ȱhrs.
2Ȭ3ȱhrs.
2Ȭ3ȱhrs.

1.ȱ
2.ȱ
3.ȱ

PhaseȱThree:ȱHomiletical/DidacticȱAppropriation
FramingȱtheȱSermon/Lesson
DevelopingȱSermon/LessonȱOutline
Sermon/LessonȱPracticeȱ

PeriodicȱPreparation:ȱAdvancedȱPlanningȱ&ȱInȬdepthȱStudy
13ȱmonthsȱprior,ȱsetȱupȱoneȱyearȱpreaching/teachingȱprogram

chap.ȱ12

chap.ȱ13

chap.ȱ14

chap.ȱ15

chap.ȱ16

11