Journal of Greco-Roman Christianity and Judaism, Volume 13
232 Pages

Journal of Greco-Roman Christianity and Judaism, Volume 13



Volume 13 2017
This is the thirteenth volume of the hard-copy edition of a journal that has been published online ( since 2000. As they appear, the hard-copy editions replace the online materials. The scope of JGRChJ is the texts, language and cultures of the Greco-Roman world of early Christianity and Judaism. The papers published in JGRChJ are designed to pay special attention to the larger picture of politics, culture, religion and language, engaging as well with modern theoretical approaches.



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Journal of GrecoRoman Christianity and Judaism 13
Jôûà ô GéçôRôà Cîŝîàî à Jûàîŝ
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Côpîg © 2018 Wîp à Sôçk Pûîŝéŝ. A îgŝ éŝéé. Exçép ô îé qûôàîôŝ î çîîçà pûîçàîôŝ ô éîéwŝ, ô pà ô îŝ ôôk à é épôûçé î à àé wîôû pîô wîé péîŝŝîô ô é pûîŝé. Wîé: Péîŝŝîôŝ, Wîp à Sôçk Pûîŝéŝ, 199 W. 8 Aé., Sûîé 3, Eûgéé, OR 97401.
Wîp & Sôçk A Ipî ô Wîp à Sôçk Pûîŝéŝ 199 W. 8 Aé., Sûîé 3 Eûgéé, OR 97401
hardcover isbn: 9781532663475
Màûàçûé î é U.S.A.
July 18, 2018
Journal of Greco-Roman Christianity and Judaism Volume 13 2017 CONTENTSEditorial Statement 7 ZACHARYK.DAWSON The Books of Acts andJubileesin Dialogue: A Literary-Intertextual Analysis of the Noahide Laws in Acts 15 and 21 9 CRAIGS.KEENER Weighing T.J. Weeden’s Critique of Kenneth Bailey’s Approach to Oral Tradition in the Gospels 41 KARLL.ARMSTRONG A New Plea for an Early Date of Acts 79 PETERCRESSWELL Another Scribe or Another Exemplar? Examining Textual Patterns in Codex Sinaiticus Matthew and Mark 111 GREGORYGOSWELL The Early Readership of the Catholic Epistles 129
6Journal of Greco-Roman Christianity and Judaism13 KARLL.ARMSTRONG The Meaning of in Ephesians 5.21-33: A ὑποτάσσω Linguistic Approach CRAIGA.EVANS ANDSTANLEYE.PORTER A Recent Discovery in Byzantine-Era Galilee and the Problem of ‘Regularized’ Spelling of Koine and Byzantine Greek ADAMBOOTH Long Live the King: The Fourth Gospel’s Responses to Greco-Roman Suspicions Concerning Monarchy Index of Ancient Sources Index of Modern Authors
213 226
EDITORIALSTATEMENTTheJournal of Greco-Roman Christianity and Judaism(JGRChJ) has now completed volume 13 and continues to advance its study of the texts, languages and cultures of the Greco-Roman world of early Christianity and Judaism. JGRChJpleased to publish only the highest quality articles that is examine the ways in which the Greco-Roman world was the world of the New Testament and early Judaism. As the articles here indicate, the broad scope of this journal includes articles on many areas of relevance to the journal’s aims and emphasizes a range of possible approaches and bodies of material. We encourage contributors to draw various areas of related knowledge together in their submissions. For the online publication of the journal, see (or for the link). The print form has the same pagination as the electronic form. The only changes are to correct mistakes and fix editorial inconsistencies. JGRChJ is housed at McMaster Divinity College. Manuscripts (electronic copy, preferably in Word, accompanied by a PDF) and editorial correspondence should be addressed to Stanley E. Porter, Senior Editor, at the address below.JGRChJaccepts books for possible review (no promises are made, as the number of books far outstrips possible reviewers). Those wishing to contribute book reviews should feel free to contact the Senior Editor. The reviews are posted exclusively online, but review articles of several volumes on the same topic may appear in the printed edition. Those who wish to continue to receiveJGRChJas it appears in print may place a standing order with Wipf & Stock, by directly contacting them at You can also contact them at this address:
Journal of Greco-Roman Christianity and Judaism13
Wipf and Stock Publishers 199 West 8th Avenue, Suite 3 Eugene, OR, USA 97401-2960 Tel: (541) 344-1528 Fax: (541) 344-1506 We encourage those interested in receiving the print copy ofJGRChJto establish their standing order as soon as possible. We continue to invite as many contributors as possible to consider JGRChJto be their primary outlet for substantial and expert work in the areas of the journal’s purview. Professor Dr Stanley E. Porter, Senior Editor Dr Matthew B. O’Donnell and Dr Wendy J. Porter, Editors Journal of Greco-Roman Christianity and Judaism McMaster Divinity College, 1280 Main St. W. Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4K1 Editorial Advisory Panel Professor Dr Chrys Caragounis (Lund University, Sweden), Dr Shaye Cohen (Harvard University, USA), Professor Dr Craig A. Evans Houston Baptist University, USA), Professor David W.J. Gill (University Campus Suffolk), Professor Dr Hermann Harrauer (Austrian National Library, Vienna), Professor Dr Pieter W. van der Horst (Utrecht University, The Netherlands), Dr Michael Knowles (McMaster Divinity College, Canada), Dr Christopher Land (McMaster Divinity College, Canada), Dr Matthew Brook O’Donnell (McMaster Divinity College, Canada), Dr Thomas Olbricht (Pepperdine University, USA), Professor Dr Petr Pokorný (Charles University, Protestant Theological Faculty, Czech Republic), Professor Dr Stanley E. Porter (McMaster Divinity College, Canada), Dr Wendy J. Porter (McMaster Divinity College, Canada), Dr Cynthia Long Westfall (McMaster Divinity College, Canada).
[JGRChJ13 (2017) 9-40]
It might seem a mundane observation that the precepts for Gentile believers to abstain from idolatry, sexual immorality, blood and things strangled occur three times, and in two different contexts in the book of Acts (15.21, 29 and 21.25). This observation, however, becomes inter-esting when one considers that the recurrence of these precepts, also referred to as the Noahide laws, creates a digression in the logical flow of the text in Acts 21.25. What might have been the motivation for this recurrent formation? Could there be some significance behind these repeated precepts, especially in the way they recur in Acts 21? It is these opening questions that serve as the entry point for this study of Luke’s use of the Noahide laws in Acts. In 1986 and 1990 Robert Tannehill’s two-volumeNarrative Unity of Luke–Actswas published, which made numerous literary connections 1 within Luke’s two-volume work. In his literary analysis, Tannehill made use of a concept called ‘echo-effect’, whereby themes are 2 ‘developed, dropped, then presented again’. The significance of this
1. See Robert C. Tannehill,The Narrative Unity of Luke–Acts: A Literary Interpretation(2 vols.; Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1986–1990). This work was the extension of an initial article that made use of ‘echo-effect’ in Acts; seeidem, ‘The Composition of Acts 3–5: Narrative Development and Echo Effect’,SBLSP 23 (1984), pp. 217-40 (reprinted in Robert C. Tannehill,The Shape of Luke’s Story: Essays on Luke–Acts[Eugene, OR: Cascade, 2005], pp. 185-219). 2. Tannehill,Narrative Unity, I, p. 3. This concept should not be confused with the term ‘echo’ as used by Richard Hays and others. See Richard B. Hays,Echoes of Scripture in the Letters of Paul (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1989), pp.
Journal of Greco-Roman Christianity and Judaism13
device for Tannehill comes from the notion that ‘characters and actions may echo characters and actions in another part of the story, as well as characters and actions of the scriptural story which preceded Luke– Acts’, and ‘these connections provide internal commentary on the 3 story, clarifying meanings and suggesting additional nuances’. Echo-effectis a concept in poetics that relates to the linguistic concept of redundancy, where redundancy is understood as the recurrence of elements in a text that disambiguates meaning and eliminates (mis)-4 interpretations. These concepts, echo-effect and redundancy, are use-ful for interpreting New Testament narrative texts for at least two reasons. First, they have proven useful in linguistic models for 5 literature that focus on realistic narrative. This credential is especially promising for studying Luke–Acts due to Luke’s two-volume work’s conforming to the literary conventions of Greco-Roman historio-6 graphy. Secondly, Tannehill’s work acknowledges the necessity of
14-21. For clear definitions of ‘echo’ used in Hays’s sense, see also Stanley E. Porter, ‘The Use of the Old Testament in the New Testament: A Brief Comment on Methodology and Terminology’, in Craig A. Evans and James A. Sanders (eds.), Early Christian Interpretation of the Scriptures of Israel: Investigations and Proposals (JSNTSup, 148; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1997), pp. 79-96 (82-83);idem, ‘Further Comments on the Use of the Old Testament’, in Thomas L. Brodie, Dennis R. MacDonald and Stanley E. Porter (eds.),The Intertextuality of the Epistles: Explorations of Theory and PracticeSheffield Phoenix (Sheffield: Press, 2006), pp. 98-110 (109). 3. Tannehill,Narrative Unity,I, p. 3. 4. Susan Rubin Suleiman, ‘Redundancy and the “Readable” Text’,Poetics Today1 (1980), pp. 119-42 (120). 5. Suleiman, ‘Redundancy’, p. 122. 6. Luke’s concern with historicity has long been considered a distinguishing feature of his books, but this does not preclude his role as narrator and the literary liberties this entails. On the writing of ancient historiography, see David E. Aune, The New Testament in Its Literary Environment(LEC, 8; Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1987), pp. 77-156, who describes Luke–Acts as ‘a popular “general history” written by an amateur Hellenistic historian’ (p. 77), and who describes Greco-Roman historians as concerned with both the plausibility and persuasiveness of their writing, the latter resulting in ‘depicting particular individuals as examples of virtue or vice’ (p. 83). Additional clarification as to what kind of history Luke was writing has been offered by Andrew Pitts in his doctoral dissertation,The Genre of the Third Gospel and Authoritative Citation (PhD diss., McMaster Divinity College, 2014), where he argues against the thesis of Richard Burridge that Luke’s gospel conforms to the genre of the Greco-Roman Cf. Richard A. Burridge, βίοι.