Journal of Greco-Roman Christianity and Judaism, Volume 14
252 Pages

Journal of Greco-Roman Christianity and Judaism, Volume 14


252 Pages


Volume 14 2018
This is the fourteenth volume of the hard-copy edition of a journal that has been published online ( since 2000. As they appear, the hard-copy editions replace the online materials. The scope of JGRChJ is the texts, language and cultures of the Greco-Roman world of early Christianity and Judaism. The papers published in JGRChJ are designed to pay special attention to the larger picture of politics, culture, religion and language, engaging as well with modern theoretical approaches.



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Journal of GrecoRoman Christianity and Judaism 14
Jôûà ô GéçôRôà Cîŝîàî à Jûàîŝ
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Wîp & Sôçk A Ipî ô Wîp à Sôçk Pûîŝéŝ 199 W. 8 Aé., Sûîé 3 Eûgéé, OR 97401
hardcover isbn: 9781532638213
Màûàçûé î é U.S.A.
May 22, 2019
Journal of Greco-Roman Christianity and Judaism Volume 14 2018 CONTENTSEditorial Statement 7 JOSHUAEZRABURNSWhy Did Romans Believe Jews Fast on the Sabbath? 9 MATTHEWOSEKAChristian Patristic and Mediaeval Interpretation of the Plural Forms in Genesis 1.26, 3.5 and 3.22 Situated against the Classic Jewish Exposition 28 BENJAMINMARX‘Wifely Submission’ and ‘Husbandly Authority’ in Plutarch’s Moraliaand theCorpus Paulinum56: A Comparison FRANKSHAWThree Developments in New Testament Textual Criticism: Wettlaufer, Houghton and Jongkind (-Williams) 89 ILARIAL.E.RAMELLIThe Role of Allegory, Allegoresis and Metaphor in Paul and Origen 130 SANGHWANLEEReexamining the Greek-Speaking Ability of Peter in Light of a Sociolinguistic Perspective 158
Journal of Greco-Roman Christianity and Judaism14
TAMIKOISAKAJerome’s Interpretation of the Bread in the Lord’s Prayer: andSupersubstantialisἐπιούσιος STANLEYE.PORTERTwo Translated Articles on Josephus RAIMONDOBACCHISIOMOTZOThe Two Editions of Josephus’sLifeRAIMONDOBACCHISIOMOTZOThe Authenticity of the Roman Documents Contained in Josephus’sAntiquitiesIndex of Ancient Sources Index of Modern Authors
224 243
EDITORIALSTATEMENTTheJournal of Greco-Roman Christianity and Judaism(JGRChJ) has now completed volume 14 and continues to advance its study of the texts, languages and cultures of the Greco-Roman world of early Christianity and Judaism. JGRChJis pleased to publish only the highest quality articles that examine the ways in which the Greco-Roman world was the world of the New Testament and early Judaism. As the articles here indicate, the broad scope of this journal includes articles on many areas of relevance to the journal’s aims and emphasizes a range of possible approaches and bodies of material. We encourage contributors to draw various areas of related knowledge together in their submissions. For the online publication of the journal, see (or for the link). The print form has the same pagination as the electronic form. The only changes are to correct mistakes and fix editorial inconsistencies.JGRChJis housed at McMaster Divinity College. Manuscripts (electronic copy, preferably in Word, accompanied by a PDF) and editorial correspondence should be addressed to Stanley E. Porter, Senior Editor, at the address below.JGRChJaccepts books for possible review (no promises are made, as the number of books far outstrips possible reviewers). Those wishing to contribute book reviews should feel free to contact the Senior Editor. The reviews are posted exclusively online, but review articles of several volumes on the same topic may appear in the printed edition. Those who wish to continue to receiveJGRChJas it appears in print may place a standing order with Wipf & Stock, by directly contacting them at You can also contact them at this address:
Wipf and Stock Publishers 199 West 8th Avenue, Suite 3 Eugene, OR, USA 97401-2960 Tel: (541) 344-1528; Fax: (541) 344-1506
Journal of Greco-Roman Christianity and Judaism14
We encourage those interested in receiving the print copy ofJGRChJ to establish their standing order as soon as possible. We continue to invite as many contributors as possible to consider JGRChJto be their primary outlet for substantial and expert work in the areas of the journal’s purview. Professor Dr Stanley E. Porter, Senior Editor Dr Matthew B. O’Donnell and Dr Wendy J. Porter, Editors Journal of Greco-Roman Christianity and Judaism McMaster Divinity College, 1280 Main St. W. Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4K1 Editorial Advisory Panel Dr Malcolm Choat (Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia), Dr Shaye Cohen (Harvard University, USA), Professor Dr Craig A. Evans (Houston Baptist University, USA), Dr Hans Förster (University of Vienna, Austria), Professor David W.J. Gill (University Campus Suffolk), Professor Dr Michael Knowles (McMaster Divinity College, Canada), Dr Christopher Land (McMaster Divinity College, Canada), Dr David Mathewson (Denver Seminary, USA), Dr Matthew Brook O’Donnell (McMaster Divinity College, Canada), Dr Thomas Olbricht (Pepperdine University, USA), Professor Dr Bernhard Palme (University of Vienna, Austria), Professor Dr Petr Pokorný (Charles University, Protestant Theological Faculty, Czech Republic), Professor Dr Stanley E. Porter (McMaster Divinity College, Canada), Dr Wendy J. Porter (McMaster Divinity College, Canada), Dr Cynthia Long Westfall (McMaster Divinity College, Canada).
[JGRChJ14 (2018) 9-27] WHYDIDROMANSBELIEVEJEWSFAST ON THESABBATH? Joshua Ezra Burns Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI, USA To be a Jew in ancient Rome meant many things. To Jews, broadly speaking, it meant maintaining the religious and ethnic traditions they inherited from generations past. To their Gentile neighbors, to be a Jew meant above all to be different. Roman ethnographers were endlessly fascinated by what they knew as the superstition of the Jews and their unusual beliefs and behaviors. Caustic pundits in poetry and in prose heaped ridicule on the Jews, casting their breed as one of the most alien in a city teeming with foreigners of all 1 kinds. To admirers and critics alike, among the most distinctive characteristics of the Jews was their day of rest. So familiar was their habit of removing themselves from mundane concerns every seventh day that Romans common-2 ly called it by its Hebrew name,šabbat, or, in Latin,sabbatumthe. Among surviving Roman authors who commented on the Sabbath, several allude to the notion that Jews customarily fasted on their sacred day, that is, that they abstained from food and drink. That notion has puzzled generations of schol-ars. For as long as Jews have had the Sabbath, its observance has involved not fasting but feasting, wining and dining with uncommon gusto. Efforts to 1. On the satirical designs of Roman observations of ethnic difference, see Mary Beard,Laughter in Ancient Rome: On Joking, Tickling, and Cracking Up (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2014), pp. 51-52, with comments on Roman views about Jews, pp. 140-42. Compare, however, Benjamin Isaac,The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity(Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2004), pp. 231-35, who sees Roman descriptions of ethnic difference, however humorously intended, as anxiety-ridden expressions of intolerance. 2. Brenda Bell, ‘The Language of Classical Latin Poets as an Indication of Familiarity with Jewish Institutions’,Acta Classica35 (1992), pp. 61-71 (62-63).
Journal of Greco-Roman Christianity and Judaism14
explain the stark disagreement between the joyful Jewish rite and the somber occasion attested in the Latin literary sources have yielded unsatisfactory re-sults. My purpose in this paper is to propose a new theory as to why certain Romans believed that Jews fasted on the Sabbath. Although I consider that belief misbegotten, I shall argue nevertheless that it was informed by authen-tic knowledge of how the Jews of Rome observed their sacred day of rest.
To Fast or to Feast?
Let us begin by considering the primary evidence. Possibly the earliest known expression of the idea that Jews fasted on the Sabbath appears in the work of the Greek geographer Strabo of Amaseia. Amid his survey of Judea, Strabo recalls the seizure of Jerusalem by the Roman general Pompey in 63BCE. He repeats an anonymous rumor to the effect that Pompey, upon reaching the city’s walls, suspended his attack ‘until the next day of fasting, when the Jews 3 abstained from all work’. Strabo’s use of the term ‘work’ ( ) for the ἔργον manner of the Jews’ non-defense of their stronghold evokes the scriptural or-4 dinances enjoining Israel to refrain from laboring on the Sabbath. As Strabo does not mention the Sabbath by name, one might infer that he alludes to one of the Jews’ established fast days. To wit, when the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus read Strabo’s account of the siege, he surmised the date of the attack was ‘the day of fasting’, that is, Yom Kippur or the Day of Atonement, an an-5 nual penitential rite involving both fasting and refraining from work. But Strabo himself implies that Pompey knew he had to withhold his forces only
3. Strabo,Geogr. 16.2.40: τὴν τῆς νηστείας ἡέραν ἡνίκα ἀπείχοντο οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι . For comments, see Menahem Stern,Greek and Latin Authors on Jews παντὸς ἔργου and Judaism(3 vols.; Jerusalem: Israel Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1976–84), I, p. 307. 4. SeeLXXExod. 20.9-10;LXXDeut. 5.13-14et al. 5. Josephus,Ant. On the likelihood that Josephus. 14.66: τῆς νηστείας ἡέρᾳ consulted and attempted to correct Strabo’s account of the siege, see Emil Schürer, The History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ (175 B.C.–A.D. 135)(eds. Geza Vermes, Fergus Millar and Matthew Black; 3 vols.; Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1973–87), I, pp. 239-40 n. 23. Of possible relevance to Strabo’s apparent confusion is the superlative account of Yom Kippur as the ‘Sabbath of Sabbaths’ ( σάββατα ) inLXXLev. 16.31 and 23.32, the name by which Greeks perhaps knew σαββάτων the holiday.