Journal of Latin American Theology, Volume 10, Number 2
126 Pages
English

Journal of Latin American Theology, Volume 10, Number 2

126 Pages
English

Description

Journal of Latin American Theology: Christian Reflections from the Latino South
Vol. 10, No. 2, Fall 2015
It is our privilege to include in this issue of the Journal of Latin American Theology three of the papers presented at the FTL's 2014 conference in Costa Rica and the final document of the conference. Jocabed Solano tells her story of being an indigenous (Guna) woman and follower of Jesus in Panama today; Natanael Disla writes about the common characteristics of masculinity within Pentecostalism and Neo-Pentecostalism and the new model of "hombre" that each has produced. Historian Sidney Rooy helps us navigate the history of Latin American Protestantism to explore the impact, or lack thereof, of the Lausanne Covenant on church life in the Latin American world. The Affirmation of San Rafael de Heredia, the final document from the 2014 conference, is a challenging yet deeply encouraging document that will guide the FTL on a large and small scale in the coming years. Finally, Juan Jose Barreda, focusing on the Bible's overarching emphasis on excluded peoples and availing himself of the tools of biblical sciences, takes us on a tour of different approaches to reading the sacred texts.

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Published 08 December 2015
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EAN13 9781725249912
Language English
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ISSN 1669-8649
Journal of Latin American Theology: Christian Reflections from the Latino South
A publication of the Fraternidad Teológica Latinoamericana
2015 Vol. 10, No. 2
Fraternidad Teológica LatinoamericanaGeneral Secretary: Marcelo Vargas President: Jorge Barro Secretary of Publications: Juan José Barreda Toscano Journal of Latin American Theology: Christian Reflections from the Latino South Editor: Lindy Scott Managing Editor: Gretchen Abernathy Graphic Design: Grupo Nivel Uno, Inc. Translation of Disla’s and Solano’s articles: Martha Goring Muñoz Editorial and advertising address: Lindy Scott, Whitworth University Westminster Hall 300 W. Hawthorne Road Spokane, WA 99251 Phone: 509-777-4837 Editorial and subscription e-mail: lscott@whitworth.edu Website: www.ftl-al.org Subscription rates: One year (two issues) $35 for individuals, $70 for institutions. Single copy $20. For airmail add $5 per subscription per year. Bulk rate: $5 less per subscription per year for 5 or more copies sent to the same address. Address all subscription correspondence to Lindy Scott, Whitworth University, Westminster Hall, 300 W. Hawthorne Road, Spokane, WA 99251 or email lscott@whitworth.edu. Journal of Latin American Theology: Christian Reflections from the Latino South© (ISSN 1669-8649) is published twice a year by the Fraternidad Teológica Latinoamericana (FTL), in care of Lindy Scott, Whitworth University, Westminster Hall, 300 W. Hawthorne Road, Spokane, WA 99251. Phone: 509-777-4837. Email: lscott@ whitworth.edu. All unsolicited editorial contribu-tions must be accompanied by a letter of introduction and sent by email to lscott@whitworth. edu. Submissions in Spanish, Portuguese, and English are accepted. This periodical is indexed in the ATLA Religion Database®, published by the American Theological Library Association 300 S. Wacker Dr., Suite 2100, Chicago, IL 60606 Email: atla@atla.com Website: www.atla.com This periodical is also indexed in theChristian Periodical Index. Unless otherwise noted, the Scripture quotations contained herein are from the Holy Bible, New International Version®, NIV® Copyright © 1973, 1978, 1984, 2011 by Biblica, Inc.® Used by permission. All rights reserved worldwide.
Copyright © 2015 Fraternidad Teológica Latinoamericana All rights reserved. Except for brief quotations in critical publications or reviews, no part of this journal may be reproduced in any manner without prior written permission from the editor. Printed and distributed by Wipf and Stock Publishers, 199 W. 8th Ave., Eugene, OR 97401. www.wipfandstock.com. ISBN: 978-1-4982-7955-0
Contents
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Letter from the Editor Lindy Scott
The Meeting of Two Worlds: Searching for and Afîrming Our Christian and Indigenous Identity Jocabed Solano
Neo-Pentecostal Masculinities and Religion in the Public Sphere in Latin America Natanael Disla
The Inuence of the Lausanne Covenant in Latin American Churches Sidney Rooy
Afîrmation of San Rafael de Heredia
Bible Study in Latin America: An Exploration Juan José Barreda Toscano
The Memoria Indígena Declaration: Final Document of the Conference “Who Writes History?: Indigenous Spirituality and Mission Identity”
Book Review –Protestant Social Thought in Latin America: The Debate on Development
3
The Fraternidad Teológica Latinoamericana (FTL; now known in English as the Latin American Theological Fellowship) is a movement of follow-ers of Jesus Christ. Since its beginning in 1970, it has promoted spaces for theological reection and action contextualized within our wonderful, yet hurting, Latin America. The diversity of the Christian community and a commitment to the Kingdom of God and its implementation in the life and mission of the Latin American church characterize our gatherings of fellowship and dialogue.
We yearn for a Latin American church that, transformed by the Word and the Spirit into an agent of the kingdom of God and God’s justice, ministers in every area of society. The FTL, as part of the church, provides opportunities for dialogue and biblical-theological reection from Latin America. Objectives promote reection on the gospel and on its signicance for To human beings and Latin American society. Toward this end, the FTL stimulates the development of an evangelical thinking that is attentive to the questions of life within a Latin Ameri-can context. The FTL recognizes the normative character of the Bible as the written Word of God and seeks to listen, under the Holy Spirit’s direction, to the biblical message in relation to the relativities of our concrete situations.  To create a framework for dialogue among people who con-fess Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior and who are willing to reect biblically in order to communicate the gospel within Latin American cultures.  To contribute to the life and mission of the evangelical church-es in Latin America, without attempting to speak for them or assuming the position of being their spokesperson in the Latin American continent.
www.ftl-al.org
Letter from the Editor
ome thirty-four followers of Jesus Christ from the Latin Ameri-S can world converged upon Heredia, Costa Rica in September of 2014. They participated in a conference sponsored by the Fraterni-dad Teológica Latinoamericana (FTL, Latin American Theological Fellowship) to study the FTL’s history and chart a future course for its identity and mission. Iron sharpened iron through carefully crafted papers, poignant discussion, and times of shared joy and sorrow. It is our privilege to include three of the papers presented there and the înal document of the conference in this issue of the Journal of Latin American Theology: Christian Reections from the Latino South. In “The Meeting of Two Worlds: Searching for and Afîrming Our Christian and Indigenous Identity,” campus minister Jocabed Solano tells her story of being an indigenous (Guna) woman and follower of Jesus in Panama today. Most readers will be aware of the cruelties suffered by indigenous groups during the conquest and throughout îve centuries of colonization. It is common (and relatively easy) to condemn those atrocities. Yet a heart-breaking section of Solano’s article includes an elderly indigenous grand-mother’s lament about the negative impact of Protestantism: “One of the groups that has caused us the most pain are the evangelicals. They have caused us pain, great pain.” Solano responded to that cry with a renewed desire to live out her Christian faith in a way that shows the gospel taking deep root in Guna soil. She digs into the narrative of Jesus’ encounter with the Syrophoenician woman in Mark 7:24–30 and înds key insights for her life. The dream she
Lindy Scott, editor of theJournal of Latin American Theology, is Professor of Spanish and Latin American Studies at Whitworth University in Spokane, Washington. He is also the Treasurer of the Fraternidad Teológica Latinoamericana. He edited the bookEl cuidado de la creación y el calentamiento global: perspectivas del Sur y del Norte(Wipf & Stock).
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Letter from the Editor
shares moves readers to feel her struggle and deepen our under-standing of the gospel.
Natanael Disla’s “Neo-Pentecostal Masculinities and Reli-gion in the Public Sphere in Latin America” explores a relatively untouched area of Christian studies. Against the backdrop of Latin American machismo, Disla writes about the common characteris-tics of masculinity within traditional Pentecostalism and the new model of “hombre” that it has produced. He then explores Neo-Pentecostalism and the kind of masculinity that comes out of this branch of the church. Disla says, “The Neo-Pentecostal man is intrepid. He knows how to maneuver in powerful circles. No longer is he the shy...victim of anxiety and isolation. He prides himself on being a Christian; he shouts it to the four winds, but he is also the traveling salesmanwho peddles the best of the business world in church and vice versa. His job or small business is an extension of the church building.” Disla helps us see the signiîcant changes men tend to undergo in these two similar but different versions of the Christian faith. In his article “The Inuence of the Lausanne Covenant in Latin American Churches,” church historian Sidney Rooy paints a por-trait of Latin American Protestantism. In just a few pages, he helps us navigate the history of Latin American Protestantism, togeth-er with its similarities and differences with other expressions of Christianity around the globe. This background helps us under-stand the signiîcant contribution of Latin American Christians to the Lausanne Conference and Covenant in 1974, primarily through the speeches given by Samuel Escobar and René Padilla. Rooy then explores the impact of the Lausanne Covenant on church life in the Latin American world. Surprisingly, though the churches’ growing emphasis on integral mission and Christians’ social responsibili-ties helped shape the covenant and its global impact, the docu-ment itself has not been signiîcantly inuential in Latin American churches.
Latin American Theology
Letter from the Editor
To wrap up the series of articles from the 2014 FTL conference in Costa Rica, we include the înal document arising from that gathering. Weaving together the themes of the conference’s presentations and subsequent discussions, the Afîrmation of San Rafael de Heredia reafîrms the FTL’s historical identity and casts a vision for the future identity and functionality of the movement. This challenging yet deeply encouraging document will guide the FTL on a large and small scale in the coming years.
The înal article, not presented at the Heredia conference, is insightful in our study of the biblical texts. How do we respond to troubling passages in the sacred Scriptures that seemingly offer us alternative teachings or apparent contradictions? Do we impose an awkward harmonization that distorts the clear reading of the texts? Or do we learn how to appreciate those difîcult tensions? Juan José Barreda does precisely the latter in his article “Bible Study in Latin America: An Exploration.” Although he recognizes the divine inspiration of the Scriptures, he also afîrms the truth that God used a multiplicity of human authors from a wide vari-ety of circumstances who made difîcult faith choices. This fact makes Bible study a more difîcult challenge than what is usu-ally portrayed...but also more rewarding. Focusing on the Bible’s overarching emphasis on excluded peoples and availing himself of the tools of biblical sciences, Barreda takes us on a tour of dif-ferent approaches to reading the sacred texts. He highlights the strengths and weaknesses of each method and reminds us that we “must never disconnect [exegetical] tools from the contemplation of God himself and the search for divine guidance as revealed in the Scriptures.” In certain moments the FTL has given time and emphasis (though still insufîcient) to reect theologically about the reality of indigenous people throughout Latin America. Together with the NGO Memoria Indígena, the FTL sponsored the conference “Who Writes History?: Indigenous Spirituality and Mission Identity”
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Letter from the Editor
which took place in Lima, Peru, in September of 2015. Thirty peo-ple gathered together from eleven countries, representing twelve indigenous ethnic groups, as well as non-indigenous cultures, to listen to one another, learn, and share. The înal document from that conference, included here, is powerful on so many levels. In “The Memoria Indígena Declaration,” indigenous men and women fully claim both their ancestral, cultural heritage and their Chris-tian faith and dedicate themselves to recording the stories of God’s movement among their peoples all throughout history, both before and after the missionaries came.
This issue ends with a book review of H. Fernando Bullón’sProt-estant Social Thought in Latin America: The Debate on Develop-ment, published by Regnum and Wipf & Stock. The subject echoes back to topics addressed by Rooy and Barreda in their articles. This ground-breaking volume is a îne demonstration of the social sci-ences at their best. It will be of immense value to all interested in development work and Christianity on the ground.
Your brother in Christ, Lindy Scott
Latin American Theology
The Meeting of Two Worlds: Searching for and Affirming Our Christian and Indigenous Identity
Jocabed Solano
ho are we, the Guna people? The question is complex and W cannot be answered with a precise deînition. We are the sum of many experiences, stories, relationships, cultures, languages, geographies, encounters with other people groups, and encounters with ourselves. The Guna are one of many people groups inAbya 1 Yalawhose way of life is built upon our spirituality, worldview, and story of origin; who have been transformed step by step in
1.Abya Yalais the term utilized by the Guna people and which has been adopted by many indigenous peoples to refer to the American continents. It means “fully mature land” or “the land of life’s blood.”
Jocabed Reina Solano Miselis, from the Guna Yala region in Panama, is a psychology and theology student active in the Comunidad de Estudiantes Cristianos (IFES in Panama) and the FTL. She works among indigenous young people with the intersections of identity, faith, and culture.
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Jocabed Solano
coming to know other peoples and ourselves. The bridge between internal and external dialogue allows us to create new ways of see-ing life and recognize that the answer to who we are will never be static but rather dynamic.
Among the Canoes: Passing through Strange
Lands, the Guna Experience
If the sea could speak, it would tell our story; if canoes could record memories, they would reveal the secret of the people who have lived surrounded by the sea; they would tell a story that has never been heard of a people who found their freedom through struggling and always meeting themselves and others rowing on the high seas.
The Guna way of life went through a process of transformation as time passed and we encountered other people groups. Every day we became a stronger nation, valuing our identity. Communal life intensiîed; every person sought the well-being of others and har-mony with nature, believing that others’ lives mattered and that God cared for the well-being of everything that exists.
Ibeorgun, a Guna prophet, ta
ught our grandparents many things,
including, for example, how to build a better hut:
We are going to improve our huts. We need a really big one here. A house for everyone. A house for the women, for the men, for the children. In this big hut we will speak ofBaba(God), of our illnesses, of our work, of our big things and our small things. Like all huts, this one must be built with our own hands.... Choose
Latin American Theology