Journal of Moral Theology, Volume 2, Number 2
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Journal of Moral Theology, Volume 2, Number 2

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The Church and the World, Vol. 2, no. 2 June 2013
The JMT focuses on Catholic moral theology. It is concerned with contemporary issues as well as our deeply rooted tradition of inquiry about the moral life. JMT's mission is to publish scholarly articles in the field of moral theology, as well as theological treatments of related topics in philosophy, economics, political philosophy, and psychology.
The JMT is sponsored by the Fr. James M. Forker Professorship of Catholic Social Teaching and the College of Liberal Arts at Mount St. Mary's University.

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Volume 2, Number 2June 2013 THECHURCH AND THEWORLDEdited byChristopher P. Vogt Westphalia and Back: Complexifying the Church-World Duality in Catholic Thought................ 1 William T. Cavanaugh The “Signs of the Times” and their Readers in Wartime and in Peace......... 21 Laurie Johnston Time Poverty, Women’s Labor, and Catholic Social Teaching: A Practical Theological Exploration .............................................................. 40 Claire E. Wolfteich Between Inculturation and Natural Law:Comparative Method in Catholic Moral Theology ..................................... 60David M. Lantigua and David A. Clairmont Syncretism: Why Latin American and Caribbean Theologians Want to Replace a “Fighting Word” in Theology ........................................ 89 Ramón Luzárraga The World in the Theology of Joseph Ratzinger/Benedict XVI .................. 109 Tracey Rowland Mapping a Method for Dialogue: Exploring the Tensions between Razian Autonomy and Catholic Solidarity as Applied to Euthanasia..... 133 Amelia J. Uelmen Review Essay Locating the Church in the World: Ethnography, Christian Ethics, and the Global Church ........................... 158 Christopher P. Vogt
EDITOR David M. McCarthy,Mount St. Mary’s UniversityEDITORIAL BOARD Melanie Barrett,University of St. Mary of the Lake/Mundelein Seminary Jana M. Bennett,University of Dayton Joseph Capizzi,The Catholic University of AmericaDavid Cloutier,Mount St. Mary’s UniversityKelly Johnson,University of Dayton Jason King,St. Vincent College M. Therese Lysaught,Marquette University Ramón Luzárraga,University of Dayton Rev. Bryan Massingale,Marquette University  William C. Mattison III,The Catholic University of America Jeanne Heffernan Schindler,Villanova University Msgr. Stuart W. Swetland,Mount St. Mary’s University Christopher P. Vogt,St. John’s University Brian Volck,Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center University of Cincinnati College of MedicineJournal of Moral Theologya peer-reviewed scholarly journal focusing on Catholic moral is theology. It is concerned with contemporary issues as well as our deeply rooted tradition of inquiry about the moral life. Our mission is to publish scholarly articles in the field of moral theology, as well as theological treatments of related topics in philosophy, economics, political philosophy, and psychology.Journal of Moral Theologyis published semiannually, with January and July issues. The journal’s articles are open-access, available at www.msmary.edu/jmt. Bound print issues are available by request through our website. Articles published in theJournal of Moral Theologyundergo at least two peer reviews. will Authors are asked to submit articles electronically to jmt@msmary.edu and will be informed about the review process by e-mail. Submissions should be prepared for blind review and con-form toChicago Manual of Style. Microsoft Word format preferred. Editors assume that sub-missions are not being simultaneously considered for publication in another venue. ISSN 2166-2851 (print), ISSN 2166-2118 (online).Journal of Moral Theologypublished by is Mount St. Mary’s University, 16300 Old Emmitsburg Road, Emmitsburg, MD 21727. Copyright © 2013 individual authors and Mount St. Mary’s University. All rights reserved. Except for brief quotations in critical publications or reviews, no part of this book may be reproduced in any manner without prior written permission from the publisher. Write: Permis sions. Wipf and Stock Publishers, 199 W. 8th Ave., Suite 3, Eugene, OR 97401. Pickwick Publications, An Imprint of Wipf and Stock Publishers, 199 W. 8th Ave., Suite 3, Eugene, OR 97401. www.wipfandstock.com.ISBN 13: 978162564-453-4
A N O T E F R O M T H E I S S U E E D I T O R
I am verygrateful to all of the contributors to this issue who re-sponded sogenerouslym to yto share their invitation particular ex-pertise and theologicalperspective on the church and the world. Theirgood work has made this a rich collection of essays that ad-dress this fundamental theologicalquestion from a wide variety of interestingangles. This issue begins with an essay byCavanau William gh who asks us to reconsider the conventional wisdom that the Second Vatican Council led the Roman Catholic Church in the United States togrow from a world-fearing,ghettoized sect into a church very much at home in American society. Usingtown of West the phalia, Iowa (a utopian Catholic communityestablished before Vatican II) as a focal point for examiningchurch/world relationshi the pthe concrete, in he argues for a more complex understandingthe conventional than narrative of historicalprogress or Ernst Troeltsch’s categories of sect and church will allow. Laurie Johnston’s essayu takes p thepressingquestion of how contemporaryshould Christians go about readingsi the gns of the times. She observes that since the Second Vatican Council, what the signs of the times are has been a matter of constant dispute as have thequestions of how, bywhom, and accordingto what criteria theyshould be discerned. Johnston illuminates both the difficultyand the necessityreadin of g the signs of the times, expanding upon Yves Congar’s wisdom that Christians must strive to live aspilgrims not tourists in the world. Drawing from historical and contemporaryexamples, shepoints to solidarity, experience in humanity, and hu-milityas keys to discernment. Moral theology andpractical theologymuch in common. share Each of these specialties seeks (among other things) to explain how spirituality and the demands of discipleshipsha should pe the waythat Christians live in the world. Claire Wolfteich employs apractical theological method toprovide a rich description of the reality of time-povertythat manywomen (and men) face today. Shegoes on to developa compellingtheologyof time, teasingout the critical, coun-tercultural, andjustice implications of Catholic teachingon labor, the Sabbath, and the domestic church. Two essays in this issue address the challenges of inculturation. First, David Clairmont and David Lantigua bringmoral Catholic theologyinto dialogue with the comparative studyof religion as theyconsider two specific contexts in which Catholics havegrappled with questions about the status of indigenouspeople and their religious beliefs: Colonial Latin America and Post-colonial Africa. Their studyilluminates new ways of thinkingabout the relationshipbetween the gospel, natural law, and culture. Second, Ramon Luzárraga explores
ii how the Christian faith inculturates itself withpopular religious practices in Latin America and the Caribbean. He describes the com-plexprocess of discernment behind efforts to name and support ap-propriate forms of inculturated worshipandpractice. Traceydebunks su Rowland perficial characterizations of Joseph Ratzinger/Benedict XVI’s theology of the church and the world. Byoffering a careful examination of the influences that shaped Ratzinger's thought, and byproviding an attentive analysis of his work as a theologian, Rowland sketches a nuanced church/world theologythat is neither neo-Manichean nor hostile toward the world. Rowland illustrates the consistencyBenedict XVI’s recent between writings about the church and the world and Ratzinger’s earlier theo-logical work. Dialogue is an important dimension of theological work on the church and the world. Amelia Uelmen explores thepossibilities and limits of dialogue between Catholics andpeople ofgood will who haveprofoundlydifferent cultural assumptions. Uelmen’s essaycen-ters on a careful analysis of Cathleen Kaveny’s efforts to engage the thought ofphilosopher and legal scholar Joseph Raz. Uelmen sketch-es some of the methodological implications that emerge from her analysis of Kaveny’s work, focusinginparticular on the limits of ab-stract concepts as a basis for building bridges across difference and thepromise ofpersonal narrative for dialogue. Finally, my own essay offers a review of two significant develop-ments in the field. First, I surveysome recent work byecclesiologists and moral theologians who integrate ethnographic research into their writing, and I assess their claims about the indispensability of field research. Second, I survey the work of theologians associated with the “Catholic Theological Ethics in the World Church” organi-zation, and I analyze some of the methodological claims beingput forward bythis movement. When I agreed to serve as editor for this issue of theJournal ofMoral Theology, I must confess that I did not fullyrealize the magni-tude of the task. I would like to offer myto ever thanks yone who contributed time and talent to this issue. I amparticularlygrateful to Samantha Deliso, who served as mygraduate assistant at St. John’s University thisyear. Sheprovided considerable help with the initial review of the first draft of each article and assisted me again later with the difficult task ofproof-reading. I amgrateful to the members of the editorial board of theJournal ofMoral Theologyfor their work in reviewingof articles in this issue. I would like to offer s all pecial thanks to Jana Bennett whoprovided extremely helpful comments and feedback. Very special thanksgo to David Matzko McCarthy for the sup-port and assistance heprovided to me at all stages of the develop-ment and production of this issue. He consistently gave very helpful
 iiieditorial advice while always allowingthe freedom to sha me pe the issue. He was verypatient in all of his dealings with me as I struggled through some of the difficulties that went along with being a first-time editor. David and his colleagues at Mount Saint Mary’s Univer-sitythe work of formattin handled gissue, the providingproof-readingand dealin assistance, gother details of with production. I would like to extend mygratitude to Ericka Dixon, Mackenzie Sulli-van, Hannah Clinton, Gloria Balsley, and the members of the theolo-gy faculty of Mount Saint Mary’s University for all of their work. — Christopher P. Vogt
Journal of Moral Theology, Vol. 2, No. 2 (2013): 1-20
Westphalia and Back: Complexifying the Church-World Duality in Catholic Thought William T. CavanaughOME YEARS AGO, I was staying with an aunt and uncle in Winona, Minnesota when I came upon an old Catholic prima-S ry school geography textbook in a spare bedroom that had previously been occupied by a now grown-up cousin. The book is entitledWorld Neighbors; it was published in 1952 by Wil-liam H. Sadlier, Inc., still today a major publisher of educational ma-terials for public and non-public schools, as well as catechetical mate-rials for Catholic schools. The book’s foreword announced “the be-ginning of an era in Catholic education,” but to contemporary eyes it looks more like a relic from the far distant past. Particularly fascinat-ing is the depiction of a small town in Iowa called Westphalia, pre-sented in a section entitled “A Study of a Community.” It is an en-tirely Catholic town, settled by German immigrants, where the social and economic life of the community is organized through the parish, whose pastor reigns like a benevolent despot. It seems to belong to a much earlier era: the Middle Ages. The fact that it is mid-twentieth century America seems to mark it as an anachronism, a last-ditch effort to keep the modern world at bay. As we know with the benefit of hindsight, the life represented by Westphalia, Iowa, was not the beginning of an era, but the end of one. The insular Catholic universe it represented was about to be swept away by the changes of Vatican II and, more generally, the 1960s. Rather than huddling together and trying to protect the church from the world, the church would throw its arms open to the world and embrace modernity. Instead of seeing the world as one big opportunity for sin from which the church must stand apart, we would recognize the essential goodness of the world and seek to locate the church in the world, always trying to transform the world from within. So goes the familiar story. As a broad characterization of changes in the Catholic orbit in the late twentieth century, it is not entirely inaccurate. And as a cautionary tale against nostalgia for a lost world, it is salutary. Those who want to return to a lost world usually end up making a mess of this one. Nevertheless, as a neatly progressive tale,
2William T. Cavanaugh the familiar story is incomplete and oversimplified. It fails to appre-ciate the efforts, sometimes successful, to bring the gospel to bear on material life in quite sophisticated ways. In dismissing these efforts, it fails to recognize what the past has to teach us today as we negotiate our way through the postmodern world. I will begin with the story of Westphalia, circa 1952, then turn to the way that social milieu is narrated by the standard understanding of the church-world duality after Vatican II. I will argue that “world” has multiple meanings, and that the standard narrative does not do justice to the way that Westphalia engaged with the world. I will, fi-nally, suggest some things that can be learned from complexifying the church-world dualism. I intend this paper as a bridge-building exercise; rather than siding with factions who would either dismiss or romanticize the pre-Vatican II Church in America, I will argue that we can attain a more nuanced view of that Church by attending to a more nuanced view of the church/world relationship. JOURNEY TOWESTPHALIAWorld Neighborsclear on page 1 that Catholics do not makes study geography out of idle curiosity. We need to know the land where God has put us and know about our fellow children of God in order that we may love them, and thus “do our part in helping God’s 1 Kingdom come.” The first section of the book deals with the land of the United States—rivers, lakes, climate, etc.—and the second deals with the people of the United States, “a Nation of Many Peoples.” Within this second section is a subsection on community life in the U.S., in which Westphalia is featured as a kind of ideal. “In this community there are no poor people, no very rich, but all are com-fortable, prosperous, hard-working, most of them farmers. There is no crime, no jail, no police force. The Ten Commandments are the Law here, says the Pastor, Father Hubert Duren. The Community 2 and the Parish are here one and the same.” Although there are only a hundred families, Westphalia boasts “15 of its sons in the priest-hood, 96 girls are nuns, 17 boys monks or Brothers, and 18 boys are 3 in the armed forces.” The town’s year is organized around the litur-gical calendar and special occasions such as the blessing of fields by the Pastor each spring. Westphalia was not always such a happy place, the textbook re-ports. “When Father Duren came to Westphalia years ago, he found the people poor, all their earnings draining out to the big towns where they bought supplies. There was no good school, no way of marketing produce for fair returns, no amusement for young people. 1 Sister M. Juliana Bedier,World Neighbors(New York: W. H. Sadlier, Inc., 1952), 1. 2 Bedier,World Neighbors, 64. 3 Bedier,World Neighbors, 64.
Westphalia and Back3Families were breaking up, drifting away. He taught the people the principles of co-operation and organized a credit union, thus keeping money in the community and providing a fund to improve farms 4 and livestock. He set up a co-op store where farmers buy supplies.” The co-operative store gave the farmers control over processing and marketing their own meat and dairy products, and returned the prof-its to them, since they were its owners. In turn, the community built a co-operative beauty parlor and a co-operative garage. They used the profits from these ventures to build a school “where children are taught to co-operate, to esteem rural life, to live as happy, productive members of the Community, following the Church’s social teaching 5 and the liturgy through the year.” The community also built a recre-ation hall for dances, shows, and parties, a clubhouse with a soda fountain and billiard tables, and a baseball field. The people of West-phalia are shown enjoying these amenities in a gallery of pictures that accompanies the text. The pictures concentrate on the Zimmerman family, various of whose 14 children are shown shoveling alfalfa, re-pairing a hog feeder, receiving communion at daily Mass, visiting the soda fountain and the credit union, and relaxing at home, where Don and Jerry pop corn, Joey and Celia wash dishes, and Michael makes rosaries. Residents of Westphalia who remember it from that time speak of constant social activity surrounding the parish. Movies followed Sunday night devotions. There were plays, band concerts, baseball games, monthly meetings of the Rosary Society for women and the Holy Name Society for men, parish picnics, bingo nights, and special processions on feast days with townspeople carrying a large rosary, each bead as large as a softball. As one longtime resident says, “Reli-6 gion was woven into our everyday life at that time.” There were no sharp distinctions between religious, social, and economic life. Sup-port for the local businesses—”People knew that if the community was to prosper one had to support the businesses”—was a religious duty as much as it was a social pleasure; “Saturday nights people would come to the Co-op Grocery store to buy groceries for the week. This gave everyone a chance to visit with friends.” The center of the community was, without question, Father Du-ren, shown in the textbook chomping a cigar and playing billiards at the clubhouse. Longtime residents remember Fr. Duren as a tall man, 4 Bedier,World Neighbors, 65. 5 Bedier,World Neighbors, 66. 6  A dozen residents of Westphalia who remember the time to which the textbook refers were kind enough to complete questionnaires that I sent them. I am extremely grateful to Lorene Kaufmann, parish secretary of St. Boniface Church in Westphalia, for all her kindnesses and help in soliciting responses from people in Westphalia. All subsequent quotes from residents of Westphalia are taken from these completed questionnaires.
4William T. Cavanaugh “demanding, but gentle,” who composed music, painted, hand carved furniture, and built his own home with an energy-saving cool-ing system of his own design. In addition to the feats mentioned in the textbook, Fr. Duren also built and stocked an artificial lake for the community to fish and built two shrines, one to Our Lady and the other to St. Isidore, patron saint of farmers. The success of the community did not happen by accident, the textbook reports. Father Duren “follows a 5-point program in which religion, education, rec-reation, commerce, and credit are organized with the Church as the center of life in community and family. He calls it the Complete Life, Christian, American, and democratic. He believes Americans should rebuild their small communities. We should all unite under God and move in the direction of security on earth and in eternity. Westphalia 7 shows it can be done.” The textbook reports that young people no longer wish to leave the small town, but it does not mention what some old timers in the community have told me: the young people had to ask Fr. Duren’s permission to go to a dance in another town. As one resident reports, “Mostly everything that went on went through him.” Not everyone was pleased. Though most reminisce fondly about Fr. Duren, one says, “He had his favorites, people who were brainwashed to his program. If not, he didn’t care much for you.” NARRATINGWESTPHALIAIt is easy for a contemporary reader to laugh and shake one’s head at such a neat and tidy Catholic enclave. The account in the textbook is doubtlessly somewhat romanticized; people surely chafed at Fr. Duren’s authority. Recent revelations of priestly abuse of authority cannot help but make contemporary readers wary of such 40-year reigns in which the pastor’s leadership is unquestioned. Even if the textbook’s account of life in Westphalia circa 1952 is essentially accu-rate, however, few Catholics today would wish to return to such a time and place. Attempts like that of Ave Maria, Florida, to recreate a kind of cohesive Catholic culture in Catholic enclaves have been marginal efforts and marred with controversy. The standard way to narrate communities like Westphalia centers on the church-world dualism and pivots around the Second Vatican 8 Council. In brief, the story goes like this: once Catholics huddled in all-Catholic ghettos, at odds with the world. After Vatican II, Catho-
7 Bedier,World Neighbors, 67. 8  For example see Jay P. Dolan,The American Catholic Experience: A History from Colonial Times to the Present(Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame, 1992); Rich-ard Gula,Reason Informed by Faith: Foundations of Catholic Morality (Mahwah: Paulist, 1989); and James McEvoy, “Church and World at the Second Vatican Coun-cil: The Significance ofGaudium et Spes,”Pacifica19 (Feb. 2006): 37-57.