Journal of Moral Theology, Volume 8, Special Issue 2
196 Pages

Journal of Moral Theology, Volume 8, Special Issue 2



Introduction A Peek at Renewal in Contemporary Moral Theology: The Pinckaers Symposium
William C. Mattison, III and Matthew Levering
Moral Theology in Service of the Work of the Spirit: Synthesizing Pinckaers and Pope Francis Against Moralities of Obligation
David Cloutier
Irregular Unions and Moral Growth in Amoris Laetitia
David Elliot
Instinctus and the Gifts of the Holy Spirit: Explaining the Development in St. Thomas's Teaching on the Gifts of the Holy Spirit
James W. Stroud
Aquinas on the Fruits of the Holy Spirit as the Delight of the Christian Life
Fr. Anton ten Klooster
A New Look at the Last End: Noun and Verb, Determinate Yet Capable of Growth
William C. Mattison III
The Virtue of Equity and the Contemporary World
Elisabeth Rain Kincaid
Pinckaers and Haring on Conscience
Matthew Levering
Quaestiones Disputatae de Pinckaers
Tom Angier



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Edited byWilliam C. Mattison III Matthew Levering
Journal of Moral Theology is published semiannually, with regular issues in January and June. Our mission is to publish scholarly articles in the field of Catholic moral theology, as well as theological treat-ments of related topics in philosophy, economics, political philosophy, and psychology.
Articles published in theJournal of Moral Theologyundergo at least two double blind peer reviews. Authors are asked to submit articles electronically to Submissions should be prepared for blind review. Microsoft Word format preferred. The editors as-sume that submissions are not being simultaneously considered for publication in another venue. Journal of Moral Theologyis available full text in theATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials® (AtlaRDB®), a product of the Ameri-can Theological Library Association. Email:, www: ISSN 2166-2851 (print) ISSN 2166-2118 (online) Journal of Moral Theologyis published by Mount St. Mary’s Univer-sity, 16300 Old Emmitsburg Road, Emmitsburg, MD 21727. Copyright© 2019 individual authors and Mount St. Mary’s Univer-sity. All rights reserved. Except for brief quotations in critical publications or reviews, no part of this book may be reproduced in any manner without prior written permission from the publisher. Write: Permis sions. Wipf and Stock Publishers, 199 W. 8th Ave., Suite 3, Eugene, OR 97401. Pickwick Publications, An Imprint of Wipf and Stock Publishers, 199 W. 8th Ave., Suite 3, Eugene, OR 97401. 13:978-1-5326-8885-0
EDITOR EMERITUS AND UNIVERSITY LIAISON David M. McCarthy,Mount St. Mary’s University
EDITOR Jason King,Saint Vincent College
SENIOREDITOR William J. Collinge,Mount St. Mary’s University
ASSOCIATE EDITOR M. Therese Lysaught,Loyola University of Chicago
MANAGING EDITOR Kathy Criasia,Mount St. Mary’s University
BOOK REVIEW EDITORS Kent Lasnoski,Wyoming Catholic College Christopher McMahon,Saint Vincent College
EDITORIAL BOARD Jana M. Bennett,University of DaytonMara Brecht,St. Norbert College Jim Caccamo,St. Joseph’s University Meghan Clark,St. John’s University David Cloutier,The Catholic University of AmericaChristopher Denny,St. John’s University Matthew J. Gaudet,Santa Clara University Mari Rapela Heidt,Waukesha, WisconsinKelly Johnson,University of Dayton Andrew Kim,Marquette University Warren Kinghorn,Duke University Ramon Luzarraga,Benedictine University, MesaWilliam C. Mattison III,University of Notre Dame Mary M. Doyle Roche,College of the Holy Cross Joel Shuman,Kings CollegeMatthew Shadle,Marymount UniversityChristopher P. Vogt,St. John’s UniversityBrian Volck,University of Cincinnati College of MedicinePaul Wadell,St. Norbert CollegeGreg Zuschlag,Oblate School of Theology
IntroductionA Peek at Renewal in Contemporary Moral Theology: The Pinckaers Symposium  William C. Mattison, III and Matthew Levering .......................1 Moral Theology in Service of the Work of the Spirit: Synthesizing Pinckaers and Pope Francis Against Moralities of Obligation  David Cloutier......................................................................... 13 Irregular Unions and Moral Growth inAmoris Laetitia David Elliot............................................................................. 31 Instinctusand the Gifts of the Holy Spirit: Explaining the  Development in St. Thomas’s Teaching on the Gifts of the Holy Spirit James W. Stroud........................................................................60 Aquinas on the Fruits of the Holy Spirit as the Delight of the  Christian Life Fr. Anton ten Klooster............................................................ 80 A New Look at the Last End: Noun and Verb, Determinate Yet  Capable of Growth William C. Mattison III........................................................... 95 The Virtue of Equity and the Contemporary World Elisabeth Rain Kincaid......................................................... 114 Pinckaers and Häring on Conscience Matthew Levering................................................................. 134 Quaestiones Disputatae de Pinckaers Tom Angier............................................................................ 166 Contributors.................................................................................... 188
Journal of Moral Theology, Vol. 8, Special Issue No. 2 (2019): 1-12 A Peek at Renewal in Contemporary Moral Theology: The Pinckaers Symposium William C. Mattison III and Matthew Levering NMAY OF2018, roughly two dozen moral theologians gathered for the first “Pinckaers Symposium” at Moreau Seminary at the givIen at that symposium. In this Introduction, we editors narrate the 1 University of Notre Dame. The essays in this volume of the Journal of Moral Theologyare article versions of presentations genesis of the symposium to explain what unifies these essays and how they contribute to a project in contemporary moral theology. The symposium was the brainchild of Matthew Levering and Wil-liam Mattison. Levering had just completed a book on moral theology in 2017, and observed to Mattison how important the work of Fr. Ser-vais Pinckaers, O.P., is and how we should bring together moral theo-logians who are continuing his work. That idea might have remained only an idea had we not been contacted by Fr. Anton ten Klooster from the Netherlands. He was in the midst of completing a dissertation on Aquinas’sCommentary on Matthewoffered to come to Notre and Dame to give a talk on his way to the annual Medieval Congress in Kalamazoo, MI. Ten Klooster’s work fits squarely within what can be called a “Pinckaers approach” to moral theology, and his offer led Mattison to circle back to Levering about the initial idea to gather a group of moral theologians. Funding was secured from the DeNicola Center for Ethics and Culture at Notre Dame directed by Carter Snead, invitations were extended to a group of moral theologians doing this type of work, and the Pinckaers Symposium was born. In this intro-duction we would like to offer some reflections about what was sought in this gathering, and then use the essays in this volume to sketch a bit further the sort of “project” that is the Pinckaers Symposium. In order to invite people, we needed to describe what we were do-ing. We came up with the following invitation: Thepurpose of this symposium is to support andpromote the work of moral theologians who have been influenced by Fr. Servais Pinckaers, 1 The Pinckaers Symposium would not have been possible without the financial sup-port of the DeNicola Center for Ethics and Culture at the University of Notre Dame, under the leadership of Carter Snead. We are immensely grateful to the Center and to Carter Snead for this support.
2William C. Mattison III and Matthew Levering O.P.,and who are committed to carryingon his legacy. We hasten to note that although the symposium is convened to honor and continue the style and the fundamental substance of Fr. Pinckaers’s Biblical-Thomistic-ecclesial-spiritual way of understandingChristian the moral life,his own work need not be thepoint of conferencepresen-tations,and indeed scholars mayexpand upon or critique that work,or simplytreat topics that relate to it. Our expectation is that confer-encepresentations will, like Fr. Pinckaers, doressourcementmoral theology in a manner firmlyin our Scri rooted ptural/ecclesial faith-commitments and joyfully engaged with the world.One immediate observation about this project is that the work of Fr. Pinckaers would not itself be the primary focus of the gathering. Though we expected he would feature prominently given his influence on the theologians gathered, Fr. Pinckaers would serve mainly as a marker for the type of moral theology supported and furthered by the gathering. How to describe that sort of theology? The invitation contains some description of that sort of theology, and we expand upon that description here. First, this project is primar-ily about moral theology. Yet, in accord with one of Fr. Pinckaers’s most consistent themes, it is moral theology integrated with spiritual and Biblical theology. Pinckaers frequently lamented the division of moral theology from spiritual, Biblical, systematic, and mystical the-2 ology. Hence, this project endeavors to do moral theology in a man-ner integrated with other aspects of theology. Second, and deeply re-lated to the first, it is ecclesial moral theology. As is necessary for a scripturally and sacramentally informed morality, moral theology in the spirit of Pinckaers is done by and at the service of the lived faith community that is the Church. Third, while firmly rooted in ecclesial faith, such moral theology is also “joyfully engaged with the world.” A Pinckaers-inspired moral theology is neither wary nor dismissive of “the world”; yet it does not uncritically embrace all the world offers or stands for, since the distortive presence of sin (in the world and, sadly, in the Church as well) is all too evident. Rather, the moral the-ology we seek to foster exhibits a joyful and hopeful engagement with people and resources outside the Church. That engagement stems par-tially from the theological commitment to grace perfecting nature, meaning there will always be continuities, rooted in creation and par-ticularly in human nature, between the graced life of discipleship and the (purposely here left vague) “world.” Fourth, a Pinckaers-inspired moral theology isressourcementdrawing amply on the Thomism,
2 For a couple examples of this frequent claim by Fr. Pinckaers, seeSources of Chris-tian Ethics, trans. Mary Thomas Noble, O.P. (Washington, DC: The Catholic Univer-sity of America Press, 1995), xix. See also hisMorality: The CatholicView, trans. Michael Sherwin, O.P. (South Bend: St. Augustine’s Press, 2001), 40-41.
A Peek at Renewal in Contemporary Moral Theology 3 thought of the Angelic Doctor with heavy reliance on his sources (es-pecially Scripture and Patristic thought), not in a nostalgic manner but as a way to sustain continuity with the Catholic intellectual tradition and employ pre-modern resources to help check contemporary blind spots. These features of the current project can be gleaned from the invitation to the first Pinckaers Symposium. This introductory essay provides us the occasion to state clearly that we think Fr. Servais Pinckaers, O.P., is the most important Cath-olic moral theologian after the Second Vatican Council and is the key figure in setting the trajectory for the ongoing task of renewal that leapt forward withVeritatis Splendor(1993) a quarter century after the Council and that continues today. There is recent scholarship on Pinckaers that makes this case on the basis of his work in moral theol-3 ogy. Given the context of an introduction to this set of essays, we would like to corroborate that case on the basis of the essays included in this volume. We do this mainly through a review of the essays them-selves, but we first offer some overall observations that help group the essays. The first section of this volume contains two essays that assess the current state of renewal in moral theology through a look at Pope Fran-cis, deploying the resources of Fr. Pinckaers’s thought to do so. Today is an important moment in Catholic moral theology, roughly a half century after Vatican II andHumanae Vitaeand a quarter century after Veritatis Splendor. What is authentic renewal in Catholic moral theol-ogy, and how is it narrated and enacted in light of these and other re-sources? These questions are particularly important at this time, given that there exist multiple candidates for the authentic renewal of moral theology – and of the Christian moral life – called for at Vatican II. The two authors of essays in this first section make particular cases with regard to Pope Francis but do so in a manner that demonstrates the relevance, indeed need, for the work of Fr. Pinckaers in Catholic moral theology today. They see harmony between Pinckaers and Pope Francis, mainly through Pinckaers’s concept of a morality of happi-ness, according to which moral norms are crucial for moral theology and activity according to such norms is even constitutive of the goal of morality. Nonetheless in a morality of happiness such norms are not ends in themselves. One of Pinckaers’s signature moves, namely de-fending the role of moral norms (including the existence of absolute
3  For an excellent treatment of the importance of Pinckaers’s work in the renewal called for by Vatican II, see Craig Steven Titus, “Servais Pinckaers and the Renewal of Catholic Moral Theology,”Journal of Moral Theology1, no. 1 (2012): 43-68. See also the explanation of how Pinckaers’sSources of Christian Ethicsis trajectory-set-ting for Catholic moral theologians, in David Cloutier and William C. Mattison III, “The Resurgence of Virtue in Recent Moral Theology,”Journal of Moral Theology 3, no. 1 (2014): 228-59, at 238-41.
4William C. Mattison III and Matthew Levering norms) in a manner that serves the further goal of (natural and super-natural) human flourishing, is used by these authors to help us better understand Pope Francis and indeed authentic renewal in Catholic moral theology. Another crucial contribution of Fr. Pinckaers is his emphasis on the “supernatural organism,” including traditional features of the Chris-tian spiritual life that had been neglected in the modern period of moral 4 manuals. Facets of this organism include the infused virtues, gifts of the Holy Spirit, beatitudes, and fruits of the Holy Spirit. Given how much scholarship on these facets of Christian discipleship has been produced in the past couple decades, it is important to recall why Pinckaers’s redirection was so important. We offer two reasons; there may be more. First, this is a classic example ofressourcementTho-mism. All of these features of the Christian life are prominent in Thomas’s work and have very significant precedents in the tradition. Whatever its strengths, the manualist approach to moral theology had deviated from the importance of these realities in the Christian moral life. Second, Pinckaers wrote at a time immediately after the Second Vatican Council where there was great openness to (moral as well as other) resources outside the Church. Thisaggiornamentounderstand-ably recognized important commonality between Christian ethics and ethics more broadly understood. Beyond simple recognition of com-monality, the debate in the two decades after Vatican II was indeed 5 whether or not there is any distinctively Christian ethic. After all, the Catholic tradition has always affirmed the reality of natural law, and thus, for many Catholic moral theologians after the Council, Christian ethics was in reality simply “human ethics,” with (admittedly distinc-tively Christian) religious observances in support. Fr. Pinckaers’s own 6 Sources of Christian Ethicshas an early chapter on exactly this issue. The claim that Christian ethics is basically equivalent to a “human ethic” may strike people today as odd. However, that was the state of debate at the time, and, in that context, we can see how important, even radical, was Pinckaers’sressourcementof topics in the life of discipleship such as the graced virtues, gifts, beatitudes, and fruits, all of which are clearly “distinctively Christian.” For Pinckaers, grace
4 Students of Pinckaers likely call to mind that blessedly simple yet nonetheless pen-etrating diagram of the grace of the Holy Spirit animating human activity toward the beatific vision, through the virtues and gifts of the Holy Spirit. SeeSources of Chris-tian Ethics, 179. 5 As evidence of this, see the second volume of Charles Curran and Richard McCor-mick’sReadings in Moral Theology, Vol. 2: The Distinctiveness of Christian Ethics(1980). Interestingly enough, given the previous point about norms made in this in-troduction, volume one of that series is subtitledMoral Norms and the Catholic Tra-dition(1979). 6 See Pinckaers,Sources of Christian Ethics, 95-103.
A Peek at Renewal in Contemporary Moral Theology 5 transforms the entirety of the Christian life of discipleship. Thus, in our second group of essays, the authors all address features of the Christian moral life that no one would label simply “human ethics.” In particular, James Stroud and Fr. Anton ten Klooster survey recent scholarship on the gifts and fruits of the Holy Spirit, respectively. Pinckaers’s emphasis on the distinctiveness of Christian morality may be attractive to many of us today. Yet, it also raises questions about that previously mentioned commonality with non-Christian mo-rality. What can we say about how certain “natural” features of the moral life operate both outside and within the context of Christian dis-cipleship? Pinckaers was quite aware of this issue, notwithstanding his resounding affirmation of the distinctiveness of Christian ethics. Sig-nificant portions of hisSources of Christian Ethicsaddress just such topics, including human freedom and natural inclinations. Our third group of essays in this volume addresses a variety of top-ics, each of which concerns some facet of the moral life that is appli-cable both within and outside Christian parameters. William Mattison, Elisabeth Kincaid, and Matthew Levering address the last end,epikeia and justice, and conscience, respectively. Each essay stands on in its own, engaging scholarship on the topic it addresses. Yet, in the context of the important contributions of Fr. Pinckaers to the renewal of moral theology, the three essays share a common theme. They each treat a feature of the moral life that can (and presumably does in cases) stand alone without reference to the graced life of discipleship. These fea-tures also persist in the Christian life. In a manner evocative of Fr. Pinckaers, each author here makes a case for how the feature they ad-dress is genuinely distinct, transformed, in the life of Christian disci-pleship, even while remaining continuous with its non-Christian in-stantiation so as to continue to be called by the same names (e.g., last end,epikeia, conscience). The following essays therefore serve as significant testimonies to the importance of Fr. Pinckaers’s work in the ongoing authentic re-7 newal of Catholic moral theology. They each carry on – and indeed advance – features of his work that remain important today. The first two essays deploy Fr. Pinckaers’s work to help identify authentic re-newal of moral theology in the Church. The next two essays each ex-emplifyressourcementThomism to examine some distinctively Chris-tian feature of the moral life. The next three essays each examine some “natural” facet of the moral life, albeit with attention to how it is trans-formed in the life of discipleship, without denying that the graced life
7 In support of the claim that Pinckaers’s work is trajectory-setting in ways evidenced by the essays in this volume, for each essay in this collection we cite an important source text on that topic from Pinckaers. Each essay also cites influential texts on the subject at hand from Pinckaers.
6William C. Mattison III and Matthew Levering perfects nature. There is one final essay from the Pinckaers Sympo-sium that does not play a testimonial role to Fr. Pinckaers’s importance in the ongoing renewal of moral theology. Tom Angier offers a sharp critique of Pinckaers, and his essay concludes the group published here that grew out of the conference. Angier’s essay demonstrates that although our project finds its orientation in Fr. Pinckaers’s work, our project does not involve silencing concerns about potential weak-nesses or limitations of Fr. Pinckaers’s approach. Although we con-sider that ample response can be given to Angier’s concerns, they are important and valuable as indications of areas that, today, need con-structive attention from moral theologians taking up Fr. Pinckaers’s mantle. Let us now turn to each of the essays in more detail. David Clout-ier’s essay is an excellent opening to our set of articles on the influence of Fr. Pinckaers on the ongoing renewal of moral theology, since he places the work of Fr. Pinckaers in conversation with Pope Francis. Cloutier identifies clear commonality in their work in that both men transcend what Pinckaers describes as a “morality of obligation” fixa-8 tion on law as the centerpiece of morality. Rather than such a focus on law, Cloutier argues that “the driving concern of both men involves convictions about God’s action in people’s lives as the core of the Christian moral life. This ‘spirituality’ or spiritual relationship is the vital center.” In both thinkers, there are found critiques of the legalism or distortion of law whereby it is severed from this spiritual relation-ship. Thus, Cloutier sees in both men not a dismissal of law, but rather a re-centering of moral theology on God’s action in people’s lives, with law serving that central vitality. Cloutier also explores differ-ences between Pope Francis and Pinckaers. He remarks that Pinckaers’ work rests on a kind ofressourcement, which relies espe-cially on developing a very Christocentric spirituality out of the bibli-cal and patristic sources, whereas Francis’ work tends toward a more Ignatian approach, in which spirituality involves a careful ongoing discernment of one’s own experience and of possible missions beck-oning from the world. These different approaches prompt Cloutier to “harmonize” their thought (a metaphor that relies on commonality yet also difference), and also to allow both thinkers to supplement each other. Cloutier claims to “offer an understanding of [Pope Francis’] sense of God’s
8 For perhaps the most helpful, brief, and accessible text on key themes in Pinckaers’s thought – including morality of happiness, freedom for excellence, and joy – seeMo-rality: The Catholic View, 65-81. Both Cloutier’s essay and the next essay by Elliot rely heavily on Pinckaers’s foundational claim about the relationship between moral-ity and happiness.