The Roma: a Minority in Europe

The Roma: a Minority in Europe

-

English
206 Pages

Description

The main issues arising from the encounter between Roma people and surrounding European society since the time of their arrival in Medieval Europe until today are discussed in this work. The history of their persecution and genocide during the Nazi era, in particular, is central to the present volume. Significantly, some authors sought to emphasize the continuing history of prejudice and persecution, which reached a peak during the Nazi era and persisted after the war. Current questions of social integration in Europe, as well as that of ethnic definition and the construction of ethnic-national identity constitute another principal pillar of the book. The complexity of issues involved, such as collective memory, myth-making and social constructionism, trigger intense debate among researchers dealing with Romani studies. This volume is the result of an international conference held at Tel Aviv University in December 2002. The conference, one of the largest held among the academic community in the last decade, served as a unique forum for a multidisciplinary discussion on the past and present of the Roma in which both Roma and non-Roma scholars from various countries engaged.


Subjects

Informations

Published by
Published 23 January 2013
Reads 10
EAN13 9786155211218
License: All rights reserved
Language English
Document size 1 MB

Legal information: rental price per page €. This information is given for information only in accordance with current legislation.

Report a problem
The Roma: a Minority in Europe
Historical, Political and Social Perspectives
Roni Stauber and Raphael Vago
Publisher : Central European University Press Year of publication : 2007 Published on OpenEdition Books : 23 January 2013 Serie : Hors collection Electronic ISBN : 9786155211218
http://books.openedition.org
Electronic reference: STAUBER, Roni ; VAGO, Raphael.The Roma: a Minority in Europe: Historical, Political and Social Perspectives.New edition [online]. Budapest: Central European University Press, 2007 (generated 17 December 2013). Available on the Internet: . ISBN: 9786155211218.
Printed version: ISBN : 9789637326868 Number of pages : 206
© Central European University Press, 2007 Terms of use: http://www.openedition.org/6540
Theissues arising from the encounter between Rom m ain and surroundinga people European society since the tim e of their arrival in Medieval Europe until today are discussed in this work. The history of their persecution and g enocide during the Nazi era, in particular, is central to the present volum e. Sig ni ficantly, som e authors soug ht to em phasize the continuing history of prejudice and p ersecution, which reached a peak during the Nazi era and persisted after the war. Current questions of social integ ration in Europe, as well as that of ethnic definition and th e construction of ethnic-national identity constitute another principal pillar of the book. Th e com plexity of issues involved, such as collective m em ory, m yth-m aking and social constructionism , trig g er intense debate am ong researchers dealing with Rom ani studies. This volum e is the result of an international confe rence held at Tel Aviv University in Decem ber 2002. The conference, one of the larg est held am ong the academ ic com m unity in the last decade, served as a unique forum for a m ultidisciplinary discussion on the past and present of the Rom a in which both Rom a and non-Rom a scholars from various countries eng ag ed.
RONI STAUBER
Stephen Roth Institute, Tel Aviv University
RAPHAEL VAGO
Cum m ing s Center for Russian and East European Studies and Stephen Roth Institute, Tel Aviv University
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Acknowledgments
Foreword
Introduction Postscript
Religious minorities, vagabonds and gypsies in early modern Europe Shulamith Shahar INTRODUCTION ETHNICITY, RELIGIOUS CONFLICTS AND XENOPHOBIA THE GYPSIES—ETHNIC GROUP OR RABBLE OF VARIOUS NATIONS EPILOGUE
The campaign against the restless: criminal biology and the stigmatization of the Gypsies, 1890−1960 Peter Widmann THE GYPSIES AND THE ROOTS OF CRIMINAL BIOLOGY THE BIRTH OF AN IDEA TARGETING THE ‘TRAVELING PEOPLE’ SCIENCE AND THE FEAR OF CRIMINALITY EFFECTS PRECURSORS THE AFTERLIFE OF AN IDEA CONCLUSIONS
Jews, Gypsies and soviet prisoners of war: comparing nazi persecutions* Michael Zimmermann NATIONAL SOCIALIST POLICIES TOWARD JEWS NATIONAL SOCIALIST POLICIES TOWARD SOVIET POWS NATIONAL SOCIALIST POLICIES TOWARD GYPSIES SIMILARITIES IN TREATMENT DIFFERENCES IN TREATMENT DEFINING GENOCIDE
Nazi and postwar policy against Roma and Sinti in Austria Erika Thurner INTRODUCTION PERSECUTION AND CONCENTRATION ON AUSTRIAN TERRITORY FINAL DESTINATIONS: GHETTO LODZ/AUSCHWITZ-BIRKENAU AUSCHWITZ DECREE AND EXCEPTIONS COMMON ‘PERSECUTION GOALS,’ DIVERGENT POSTWAR ATTITUDES CONTINUITIES IN STIGMATIZATION VICTIM STATUS REFUSED, COMPENSATION REFUSED, BOURGEOIS STATUS REFUSED
Story, history and memory: a case study of the Roma at the Komarom camp in Hungary Katalin Katz
THEPORRAJMOSIN HUNGARY REMEMBERING AND FORGETTING FORGETTING THEPORRAJMOS NARRATIVITY AND TRAUMATIC MEMORY CROSS-CULTURAL COMMUNICATION KOMAROM THE LIBERATION FROM KOMAROM RESPONSIBILITY AND RESPONSE-ABILITY
Romanian Public Reaction to the Deportation of Gypsies to Transnistria Viorel Achim INTRODUCTION ROMANIAN REACTIONS TO THE DEPORTATIONS CONCLUSION
Gypsies in Germany—German Gypsies? Identity and Politics of Sinti and Roma in Germany Gilad Margalit and Yaron Matras ‘GYPSIES’: A CONFUSION OF TERMS GYPSY GROUPS IN GERMANY THE SEPARATENESS OF THE SINTI GERMAN GYPSIES AS A MINORITY ROMANI NATIONALISM AND ITS IMPACT ON GERMAN SINTI CONCLUSION
The Politics of Memory Jews and Roma Commemorate Their Persecution Roni Stauber and Raphael Vago INTRODUCTION PERSECUTION AND ETHNIC IDENTITY—CONFLICTING PERCEPTIONS THEPORRAJMOSAS A COMPONENT OF NATIONAL IDENTITY CONCLUSIONS
Human Rights and Roma Policy Formation in the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Poland Eva Sobotka INTRODUCTION HUMAN RIGHTS AND ROMA BETWEEN HUMAN RIGHTS POLICY AND HUMAN RIGHTS POLITICS? THE FIRST POST-COMMUNIST DECADE: A MIXED RECORD ADDING LEGITIMACY: TRANSNATIONAL AGITATION FOR ROMA RIGHTS MECHANISMS OF NORMS CHANGE ROMA POLICY CHANGE IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC, SLOVAKIA AND POLAND CONCLUSION
Central European Roma Policy: National Minority Elites, National States and the EU Pál Tamás
INTRODUCTION RESPONSES OF THE NATIONAL STATE EUROPEAN IMPACT CONCLUSION
List of contributors
Index
1
2
3
4
Acknowledgments
Throug hout e we were fortunate in having the helpthe planning and editing of this volum and counsel of our colleag ues from the Stephen Roth Institute, Tel Aviv University. Prof. Dina Porat, head of the Institute, supported the project from the outset and we are indebted to her for her advice and encourag em ent. Beryl Belsky, assisted by Yocheved Welber, did an excellent job of preparing the book and bring ing it to publication.
We wish to express our g ratitude to the Friedrich N aum ann Foundation, Jerusalem , which supported us in org anizing both the conference and publishing the book. Thanks g o especially to Dr. Burckhard Blanke, resident representative of the foundation at the tim e the conference was being prepared, his successor Dr . René Klaff, and the current project director Dr. Hans-Georg Fleck, as well as to our de ar friends Bettina Malka-Ig elbusch, head of the Israel Desk, and Anne Köhler. Many thanks to Am bassador Avi Prim or, form erly vice president of Tel Aviv University and currently head of European Studies at Herzliya’s In terdisciplinary Center, who encourag ed our efforts to org anize the conference on the Rom a and the visit of Rom a cam p survivors to Israel. Finally, we would like to express our appreciation to the staff of CEU Press, and particularly Assistant Editor Linda Kunos, who coordinated publication of the volum e, and Copy Editor Michael Blum enthal.
1
2
Foreword
Theg enocide of the Rom a (Gypsies) at the hands of Nazi Germ any and som e of its allies, known in Rom ani as thePorrajmosmuch parallel to the Hebrew ter very m  (catastrophe, Shoahearched. Indeed, som e historians), has still not been properly and exhaustively res even deny that it was a g enocide. However, if one takes seriously the definition of g enocide in the 1948 Convention on the Crim e of Genocide, there should be little doubt on that point. The definition speaks of an intent to destroy an ethnic, national or racial g roup as such, in part or com pletely. If there is anything one can le arn from the historical work done until now (2005), it can be stated as a fact that there was a Nazi intent to annihilate the Gypsies as a separate ethnicity, in part. Nazi allies, such as the Arrow Cross reg im e in Hung ary (the Nyilas), and the Antonescu dictatorship in Rom ania, as well as the Slovak puppet reg im e, joined this policy, in the m ain. Clearly, it was a g enocide.
The present volum e, the result of a conference held at Tel Aviv University, is yet another im portant attem pt to explore this issue. There is, of course, a continuous effort by som e historians, as well as representatives of the Rom a them selves, to include their suffering with that of the Jews by using the term Holocaust ( tog ether withPorrajmos) in relation to the g enocide of the Rom a. In m y view, this is a bas ic error: every g enocidal act is specific and directed toward a certain g roup, and throwing t hem tog ether is a disservice to the m em ory of the victim s. In this case, the Rom a were not Jews, and they were not destined to be treated like the Jews. There was a distinction b etween nom adic and settled Rom a, as clearly stated in Germ an docum ents, althoug h in pra ctice this was not always followed. Nom adic Rom a were to be treated like Jews, that is, m urdered, while settled Rom a were to be dealt with like the local population. One can see this not only in Poland and the occupied Soviet Union, but, as shown in this volum e, in the Rom anian case. The fact that the m urderers of the Rom a and the Jews were usually the sam e individuals, and that in m any cases the Germ ans placed Polish and Austrian Rom a t og ether with the Jews, should not m islead us. Soviet POWs were also som etim es m urdered tog ether with Rom a and Jews. They were am ong the total num ber of Soviet POW victim s ( som e 3.2 m illion, according to som e historians). In fact, one can say that Nazi Germ any was responsible for three g enocides: of the Poles, the Rom a, and the Jews—for different rea sons, often but not always by different m eans, and with different results, and by the sam e people, at the sam e tim e. What unites these three g enocides is not only National Socialist policy but also, and m ost im portantly, the suffering of the victim s—and one m ust em phasize, that the suffering was the sam e. Jews did not suffer m ore, or less, than Rom a, Russians, Poles, or anyone else who was subject to torture and m urder. Nor is it a m atter of statistic s. Historians differ as to the num ber of Rom a killed, directly or indirectly, in Nazi-controlled Europe. Som e tend to think that about 90,000, out of an estim ated one m illion Rom a in Nazi-controlled Europe, died. I would put the num ber m uch hig her, at about 150,000, or 15 per cent of the total num ber of Rom a. However, such num bers hide, rather than illum inate, the trag edy of individuals, fam ilies and com m unities. The present volum e directs our attention not only to the overall picture
3
4
5 6 7
in the different countries, but also to individual stories, to the fate of fam ilies and com m unities, and to the destruction of traditions and ways of life. There is yet another difference between the Jews an d the Rom a: the Jews rebuilt their com m unities, established an independent state, and received partial restitution of their properties. The Rom a did not; they never had anythi ng of g reat m aterial value that could be restituted. They are still discrim inated ag ainst , persecuted, disreg arded and denied equality, not everywhere but in m any places in Euro pe. Their case should be defended, not out of pity but because they are hum an being s who should be equal to everyone else, and because they have the sam e inalienable rig hts as the rest of us. Genocide, or g enocidal m assacre, has been a part of hum anity since tim e im m em orial and it is still with us today. Only by convincing larg e num bers of people in dem ocratic countries that such acts should be prevented can we raise our heads. The g enocide of the Rom a, an ancient people with a unique cultural heritag e, is a trag edy for all m ankind. The present volum e deals with parts of that trag edy; it is hoped that other institutions and countries will follow this exam ple. The fact that the conference took place in Israel, at a m ajor academ ic venue, is a positive sig n: Jews and their state hav e an oblig ation to rem em ber, not only their own trag edy but that of others as well. Yehuda Bauer Yad Vashem Novem ber 2005