Themelios, Volume 38, Issue 1
197 Pages
English

Themelios, Volume 38, Issue 1

Description

Themelios is an international, evangelical, peer-reviewed theological journal that expounds and defends the historic Christian faith. Themelios is published three times a year online at The Gospel Coalition (http://thegospelcoalition.org/themelios/) and in print by Wipf and Stock. Its primary audience is theological students and pastors, though scholars read it as well. Themelios began in 1975 and was operated by RTSF/UCCF in the UK, and it became a digital journal operated by The Gospel Coalition in 2008. The editorial team draws participants from across the globe as editors, essayists, and reviewers.
General Editor: D. A. Carson, Trinity Evangelical Divinity School
Managing Editor: Brian Tabb, Bethlehem College and Seminary
Consulting Editor: Michael J. Ovey, Oak Hill Theological College
Administrator: Andrew David Naselli, Bethlehem College and Seminary
Book Review Editors: Jerry Hwang, Singapore Bible College; Alan Thompson, Sydney Missionary & Bible College; Nathan A. Finn, Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary; Hans Madueme, Covenant College; Dane Ortlund, Crossway; Jason Sexton, Golden Gate Baptist Seminary
Editorial Board:
Gerald Bray, Beeson Divinity School
Lee Gatiss, Wales Evangelical School of Theology
Paul Helseth, University of Northwestern, St. Paul
Paul House, Beeson Divinity School
Ken Magnuson, The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary
Jonathan Pennington, The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary
James Robson, Wycliffe Hall
Mark D. Thompson, Moore Theological College
Paul Williamson, Moore Theological College
Stephen Witmer, Pepperell Christian Fellowship
Robert Yarbrough, Covenant Seminary

Subjects

Informations

Published by
Published 14 January 2015
Reads 0
EAN13 9781725249646
Language English
Document size 3 MB

Legal information: rental price per page €. This information is given for information only in accordance with current legislation.

Description hemelios IS àN INTERNàTIONàl EVàNgElICàl TEOlOgICàl jOuRNàl TàT ExPOuNdS àNd dEfENdS TE ISTORIC cRISTIàN fàIT. iTS PRImàRy àudIENCE IS TEOlOgICàl STudENTS àNd PàSTORS, TOug SCOlàRS REàd IT àS wEll. iT wàS fORmERly à PRINT jOuRNàl OPERàTEd By rtsF/UccF IN TE UK, àNd IT BECàmE à dIgITàl jOuRNàl OPERàTEd By hE GOSPEl cOàlITION IN 2008. hE EdITORIàl TEàm dRàwS PàRTICIPàNTS fROm àCROSS TE glOBE àS EdITORS, ESSàyISTS, àNd REVIEwERS. hemeliosIS PuBlISEd TREE TImES à yEàR ExCluSIVEly ONlINE àT www.TEGOSPElcOàlITION.ORg. iT IS PRESENTEd IN TwO fORmàTS: pDF (fOR CITINg PàgINàTION) àNd HtML (fOR gREàTER àCCESSIBIlITy, uSàBIlITy, àNd INfilTRàTION IN SEàRC ENgINES).hemeliosIS COPyRIgTEd By hE GOSPEl cOàlITION. rEàdERS àRE fREE TO uSE IT àNd CIRCulàTE IT IN dIgITàl fORm wITOuT fuRTER PERmISSION (àNy PRINT uSE REquIRES fuRTER wRITTEN PERmISSION), BuT TEy muST àCkNOwlEdgE TE SOuRCE àNd, Of COuRSE, NOT CàNgE TE CONTENT.
eDitors General Editor:D. a. càRSONTrinity Evangelical Divinity Scool 2065 Half Day Road Deerfield, IL 60015, USATEmElIOS@TEgOSPElCOàlITION.ORg Managing Editor:càRlES aNdERSON he Crossing 615 Soutland Drive Columbia, MO 65201, USACàRlES.àNdERSON@TEgOSPElCOàlITION.ORg ContribUting Editor:MICàEl J. oVEyOak Hill heological College Case Side, Soutgate London, N14 4PS, UKmIkEO@OàkIll.àC.uk Administrator:aNdREw DàVId nàSEllIBetleem College and Seminary 720 13t Avenue Sout Minneapolis, MN 55415, USATEmElIOS@TEgOSPElCOàlITION.ORg
booK revieW eDitors Old TestamentJERRy HwàNgSingapore Bible College 9-15 Adam Road Singapore 289886 jERRy.wàNg@TEgOSPElCOàlITION.ORg New TestamentalàN hOmPSONSydney Missionary & Bible College PO Box 83 Croydon, NSW 2132, AustraliaàlàN.TOmPSON@TEgOSPElCOàlITION.ORg HistorY and Historical heologYnàTàN a. FINNSouteastern Baptist heological Seminary P. O. Box 1889 Wake Forest, NC 27588, USANàTàN.fiNN@TEgOSPElCOàlITION.ORg
SYstematic heologY and BioeticsHàNS MàduEmE Covenant College 14049 Scenic Higway Lookout Mountain, GA 30750, USAàNS.màduEmE@TEgOSPElCOàlITION.ORg Etics(BuT NOT bIOETICS)and Pastoralia DàNE oRTluNd Crossway 1300 Crescent Street Weaton, IL 60187, USA dàNE.ORTluNd@TEgOSPElCOàlITION.ORg Mission and CUltUreJàSON sExTON Ridley Hall Ridley Hall Road Cambridge, CB3 9HG England jàSON.SExTON@TEgOSPElCOàlITION.ORg
eDitoriaL boarD GERàld bRày,Beeson Divinity Scool; olIVER D. cRISP,Fuller heological Seminary; WIllIàm KyNES,Cornerstone Evangelical Free Curc; KEN MàgNuSON,he Soutern Baptist heological Seminary; JONàTàN pENNINgTON, he Soutern Baptist heological Seminary; JàmES rOBSON,Wycliffe Hall; MICàEl hàTE, Duram University; MàRk D. hOmPSON,Moore heological College; GàRRy WIllIàmS,he Jon Owen Centre, London heological Seminary; pàul WIllIàmSON,Moore heological College; sTEPEN WITmER,Pepperell Cristian Fellowsip.
articLes aRTIClES SOuld gENERàlly BE àBOuT 4,000 TO 7,000 wORdS (INCludINg fOOTNOTES) àNd SOuld BE SuBmITTEd TO TE MàNàgINg edITOR Ofhemelios, wIC IS PEER-REVIEwEd. aRTIClES SOuld uSE ClEàR, CONCISE eNglIS, fOllOwINghe SBL Handbook of Style(ESP. fOR àBBREVIàTIONS), SuPPlEmENTEd Byhe Cicago Manual of Style. hEy SOuld CONSISTENTly uSE EITER UK OR Usa SPEllINg àNd PuNCTuàTION, àNd TEy SOuld BE SuBmITTEd ElECTRONICàlly àS àN EmàIl àTTàCmENT uSINg MICROSOfT WORd (.dOC OR .dOCx ExTENSIONS) OR rIC tExT FORmàT (.RTf ExTENSION). sPECIàl CàRàCTERS SOuld uSE à UNICOdE fONT.
revieWs hE BOOk REVIEw EdITORS gENERàlly SElECT INdIVIduàlS fOR BOOk REVIEwS, BuT POTENTIàl REVIEwERS mày CONTàCT TEm àBOuT REVIEwINg SPECIfiC BOOkS. aS PàRT Of àRRàNgINg BOOk REVIEwS, TE BOOk REVIEw EdITORS wIll SuPPly BOOk REVIEw guIdElINES TO REVIEwERS. th Printed by Wipf and Stock Publishers, 199 W. 8 Ave., Eugene, OR 97401. www.wipfandstock.com. ISBN: 
hemelios38.1 (2013): 1–3
e D i t o r i a L
aS if nOT
 D. A. Carson 
D. A. Carson is researc professor of New Testament at Trinity Evangelical Divinity Scool in Deerfield, Illinois.
Sàll BEgIN wIT à wEll-kNOwN ExEgETICàl CONuNdRum àNd TEN BRàNC OuT TO à muC làRgER ISSuE i TàT NONE Of uS CàN àffORd TO IgNORE. iN à CONTExT wERE pàul IS TàlkINg àBOuT “VIRgINS,” BOT mEN àNd wOmEN, àNd dElIVERS IS judgmENT àS TO wETER TEy SOuld gET màRRIEd, E wRITES, “bECàuSE Of TE PRESENT CRISIS, i TINk TàT IT IS gOOd fOR à màN TO REmàIN àS E IS” (1 cOR 7:26). tO wàT dOES “TE PRESENT CRISIS” REfER? hE GREEk wORdἀνάγκηàS COmmONly BEEN uNdERSTOOd IN ONE Of TwO wàyS. First, SOmE àVE TàkEN TIS PRESENT “CRISIS” TO REfER TO à PERIOd Of màjOR SOCIàl dISlOCàTION, OwINg EITER TO PERSECuTION OR TO fàmINE INduCEd By gRàIN SORTàgES OR TO SOmE COmBINàTION Of BOT. hE lOgIC wOuld BE STRàIgTfORwàRd: UNdER NORmàl CIRCumSTàNCES IT mIgT màkE gOOd SENSE TO màRRy, BuT IN TImES Of SOCIàl uPEàVàl IT mIgT BE TE PàRT Of wISdOm TO REmàIN SINglE. if TE CuRC IS gOINg TROug à PERIOd Of PERSECuTION, OR IS àBOuT TO gO TROug SuC à PERIOd, TERE IS muC TO BE SàId fOR CElIBàCy. FOR à STàRT, If yOu àRE SINglE IT IS EàSIER TO BE mOBIlE àNd EàSIER TO IdE. MOREOVER, màlICIOuS OPPONENTS CàNNOT gET àT yOu TROug yOuR SPOuSE àNd fàmIly If yOu àVE NO SPOuSE àNd fàmIly. nEVERTElESS, TREE TINgS STàNd àgàINST TIS INTERPRETàTION. (1) hE VàRIOuS SOuRCES TO wIC SCOlàRS àPPEàl SO àS TO juSTIfy à TEORy àBOuT gRàIN SORTàgES àNd TE lIkE, SIgNàlINg fàmINE, àRE NOTORIOuSly dIffiCulT TO dàTE. (2) hERE IS PRECIOuS lITTlE EVIdENCE wITIN 1 cORINTIàNS ITSElf TàT TE CuRC fEElS ITSElf uNdER TREàT Of fàmINE, SOCIàl dISlOCàTION, OR PERSECuTION. hIS SEEmS TO BE à CuRC TàT PRIdES ITSElf IN ITS wISdOm, à CuRC TàT INCludES SIgNIfiCàNT NumBERS Of PEOPlE wO Old TO SOmE fORm OR OTER Of OVER-REàlIzEd ESCàTOlOgy (wIC SImPly dOES NOT àPPEN wEN TE CuRC IS uNdER àTTàCk: TE TENdENCy TEN IS TOwàRd fuTuRIST ESCàTOlOgy), à CuRC TàT IS Smugly PlàyINg VàRIOuS INTERNàl gàmES Of ONE-uPmàNSIP (PàRTy SPIRIT, ClàImINg TO POSSESS SuPERIORχαρίσματα, GOd’S gRàCE-gIfTS) RàTER TàN uNkERINg dOwN TO fàCE SOCIàl dISlOCàTION fROm OuTSIdE PRESSuRES. cERTàINly 2 cOR 8–9 PRESuPPOSE TàT TE cORINTIàN CuRC, fàR fROm TEETERINg ON TE EdgE Of fàmINE, IS quITE wEll-Off, àNd jOlly wEllougtSàRE ITS wEàlT wIT BROTERS àNd SISTERS IN JudEà wO àVE muC lESS. (3) aBOVE àll, TIS INTERPRETàTION màkES lITTlE SENSE Of TE PECulIàR lIST Of “àS If NOT” PRàSES IN 1 cOR 7:29–31. FOR ExàmPlE, TOSE wO mOuRN, pàul TEllS TE cORINTIàNS, SOuld lIVE “àS If TEy dId NOT; TOSE wO wERE àPPy, àS If TEy wERE NOT; TOSE wO Buy SOmETINg, àS If IT wERE NOT TEIRS TO kEEP.” iT IS NOT EàSy TO fiT SuC judgmENTS INTO TE fiRST SCENàRIO. Second, màNy SCOlàRS àRguE TàT wàT pàul àS IN mINd By “TE PRESENT CRISIS” (1 cOR 7:26) IS TE ImmINENCE Of TE LORd’S RETuRN—NOT TE TEOlOgICàl “ImmINENCE” TàT mEàNS ONly TàT JESuS COuld RETuRN àT àNy mOmENT yET Equàlly COuld BE lONg dElàyEd, BuT TE ORdINàRy SENSE Of ImmINENCE: pàul
1
hemelios
BElIEVEd, IT IS àRguEd, TàT JESuS’ RETuRN IN glORy wàS ImPENdINg, SO ClOSE TO BEINg uPON TE CuRC, TàT IT wàS TE PàRT Of wISdOm TO SERVE TE INTERESTS Of TE gOSPEl flàT-OuT. iN TE lIgT Of TIS ImPENdINg parousia, dISTRàCTIONS SuC àS màRRIàgE àRE BETTER PuT àSIdE. afTER àll, mIgT NOT 1 hESS 4:17 BE uNdERSTOOd TO mEàN TàT E ExPECTEd TO BE àmONg TE “wE” wO wOuld BE CàugT uP TO BE wIT TE LORd JESuS àT IS RETuRN? oNCE àgàIN, SEVERàl CONSIdERàTIONS màkE TIS àN uNlIkEly INTERPRETàTION. (1) FIRST hESSàlONIàNS 4:17 CàN NO mORE BE TàkEN TO mEàN TàT pàul ExPECTEd TO BE àlIVE àT TEparousiaTàN 1 cOR 6:14 CàN BE TàkEN TO mEàN TàT pàul ExPECTEd TO BE dEàd àT TEparousia. (2) hIS INTERPRETàTION INEVITàBly mEàNS TàT pàul wàS wRONg IN IS ExPECTàTIONS. aNy INTERPRETàTION Of pàul TàT, TO BE RIgT, muST PRESuPPOSE TàT pàul IS wRONg, IS INERENTly SuSPICIOuS. (3) hE STRàNgE lIST Of “àS If NOT” PRàSES IN 1 cOR 7:29–31 dOES NOT fiT TIS RECONSTRuCTION àNy BETTER TàN IT fiTS TE PREVIOuS ONE. pàRT Of TE PROBlEm IS TàT SOmE Of OuR VERSIONS RENdERἀνάγκηBy “CRISIS.” hE eNglIS wORd “CRISIS” CONjuRES uP à SORT-TERm SuPREmE TEST OR ClImàx. by CONTRàST, TE fiRST lExICàl dEfiNITION PROVIdEd By bDaG IS “NECESSITy OR CONSTRàINT àS INERENT IN TE NàTuRE Of TINgS, NECESSITy, PRESSuRE Of àNy kINd.” nONE Of TIS EVOkES ImàgES Of CRISIS (SuC àS SOCIàl uNREST SPàwNEd By wàR OR fàmINE), STIll lESS Of TE ImPENdINgparousia. iT mIgT BE lESS mISlEàdINg TO RENdER 1 cOR 7:26, “bECàuSE Of TE PRESENT CONSTRàINT, i TINk TàT IT IS gOOd fOR à màN TO REmàIN àS E IS.” hE “CONSTRàINT” TàT IS “INERENT IN TE NàTuRE Of TINgS” IS TEN TE Sum Of dIffiCulT CàllENgES COugEd uP By à wORld TàT IS SImulTàNEOuSly, ON TE ONE àNd, lOST àNd SuBjECT TO CàTàSTROPIC judgmENT, àNd, ON TE OTER, TE lOCuS Of TE gOSPEl, mySTERIOuSly RulEd By cRIST uNTIl dEàT ITSElf IS dESTROyEd (1 cOR 15:25–26). iT COVERS TE ENTIRE PERIOd BETwEEN TE fiRST àdVENT Of cRIST àNd IS SECONd. iT IS àkIN TO SOmE uSES Of “TRIBulàTION” IN TE nt. hE TImE IS “SORT” (1 cOR 15:29) IN ExàCTly TE SàmE SENSE TàT JESuS IS COmINg “SOON” (rEV 22:20): TE làST àCT Of TE Old ORdER IS wINdINg dOwN, àNd TE NEw ORdER àS àlREàdy BEguN, TOug IT àS NOT yET BROkEN OuT IN CONSummàTION SPlENdOR. if TIS IS RIgT, TEN àll Of TE “àS If NOT” PRàSES màkE SENSE. “FROm NOw ON TOSE wO àVE wIVES SOuld lIVE àS If TEy dO NOT” (1 cOR 7:29): TIS CàNNOT mEàN TàT TEy SOuld BECOmE mONkS OR OTERwISE wITdRàw fROm TEIR SPOuSES, fOR IN TIS SàmE CàPTER pàul àS àlREàdy màdE IT ClEàR TàT TIS wOuld dEfRàud TE SPOuSE (7:1–7). MàRRIàgE ITSElf, lIkE CElIBàCy, IS à gRàCIOuS gIfT fROm GOd, àχάρισμα(7:7). eàC SPOuSE OwNS TE BOdy Of TE OTER, àNd SExuàl INTImàCy muST NOT BE wITEld ExCEPT uNdER TE STRINgENT CONdITIONS TàT 7:5 STIPulàTES. pàul CàNNOT BE dISmISSINg màRRIàgE; RàTER, E mEàNS SOmETINg SuBTlER: màRRIàgE IS NOT TEsummum bonum, BuT STàNdS uNdER GOd’Sas if not. bECàuSE TE NEw àgE àS dàwNEd àNd màRRIàgE ITSElf dOES NOT CONTINuE INTO TE RESuRRECTION ExISTENCE Of TE NEw EàVEN àNd TE NEw EàRT, TEN, àS ImPORTàNT àNd àS wONdERful àS màRRIàgE IS, TE TOugTful cRISTIàN wIll NOT INVEST IT wIT ETERNàl SIgNIfiCàNCE. sImIlàRly: “FROm NOw ON . . . TOSE wO mOuRN, àS If TEy dId NOT”: OuR TEàRS, OwEVER fREE-flOwINg, BElONg TO TIS dyINg àgE Of dEàT. hEy, TOO, STàNd uNdER GOd’Sas if not: wE SORROw, BuT NOT àS TOSE wO àVE NO OPE. buT ExàCTly TE SàmE TINg muST BE SàId Of TE INVERSE Of mOuRNINg: “TOSE wO àRE àPPy, àS If TEy wERE NOT” (7:30). HàPPINESS IS NOT BàNNEd, àNy mORE TàN màRRIàgE IS BàNNEd OR mOuRNINg IS BàNNEd. ràTER, TE àPPINESS TàT TE wORld CàllS fORT STàNdS uNdER GOd’Sas if not. sOmE PEOPlE fiNd TEIR PlEàSuRE àNd IdENTITy IN TE àCquISITION Of TINgS, BuT pàul wRITES, “TOSE wO Buy SOmETINg, àS If IT wERE NOT TEIRS TO kEEP” (7:30). exàCTly SO. iT IS NOT TàT TERE IS NO PlàCE fOR PuRCàSINg TINgS, àNy mORE TàN TERE IS NOw NO PlàCE fOR màRRIàgE. buT Ow CàN wE àTTàC OVERwEENINg ImPORTàNCE TO TINgS wE CàNNOT BRINg wIT uS? hEy àll STàNd uNdER GOd’Sas if not. MORE gENERICàlly: “TOSE wO uSE TE TINgS Of TE wORld, àS If ENgROSSEd IN TEm” (7:31). iT IS NOT TàT wE dO
2
aS if nOT
NOT PROPERly INTERàCT wIT “TE TINgS Of TE wORld,” fOR TIS IS wERE wE lIVE. nEVERTElESS TEy àll STàNd uNdER GOd’Sas if not, SO wE dàRE NOT BE ENgROSSEd IN TEm. pàul PuTS TE màTTER SuCCINCTly: “FOR TIS wORld IN ITS PRESENT fORm IS PàSSINg àwày” (7:31). hIS wEll-kNOwN ExEgETICàlcrux COuld BE uSEfully dISCuSSEd àT muC gREàTER lENgT. FOR TE mOmENT, OwEVER, i Sàll àSSumE TàT TE INTERPRETàTION dEfENdEd ERE IS TE mOST PlàuSIBlE ONE àNd BRàNC OuT INTO à BROàdER ISSuE. rECENT yEàRS àVE wITNESSEd à PlETORà Of BOOkS àNd àRTIClES ON TE RElàTIONSIP BETwEEN TE gOSPEl àNd CulTuRE, BETwEEN PROClàmàTION àNd dOINg gOOd dEEdS, BETwEEN TE gOSPEl Of pàul àNd TE gOSPEl Of TE kINgdOm. sOmE Of TESE POlàRITIES àRE SINgulàRly mISjudgEd; OTERS àRE ImPORTàNT àNd dESERVE TE mOST PàTIENT àNd BIBlICàlly fàITful ExPlORàTION. buT TE lESSON TO BE lEàRNEd fROm TE PàSSàgES wE àVE BEEN SuRVEyINg IN 1 cOR 7 IS TIS: EVEN wEN wE àRE RIgTly dEVElOPINg fàITful CulTuRàl ExPRESSIONS Of àRT àNd muSIC, EVEN wEN wE àRE dIggINg wEllS IN TE sàEl àNd dEVElOPINg CENTERS TO ElP TE OmElESS, EVEN wEN wE PàTIENTly àNd lOVINgly BuIld SOlId màRRIàgES IN lINE wIT GOd’S dISClOSuRE Of wàT màRRIàgE SOuld BE, EVEN wEN wE CONNECT TE uSE Of OuR fiSCàl RESOuRCES TO kINgdOm PRIORITIES, TE ENTIRE fàBRIC Of OuR CuRRENT ExISTENCE STàNdS uNdER GOd’Sas if not. WE CàNNOT, wE muST NOT, BE ENTIREly ENgROSSEd EVEN IN gOOd TINgS TàT GOd ImSElf làBElSχαρίσματα, GOd’S gRàCIOuS gIfTS, If TOSE gRàCIOuS gIfTS àRE TIEd TO àN ORdER TàT IS PàSSINg àwày. if wE lEàRN TIS lESSON wEll, wE Sàll BETTER uNdERSTàNd wàT IT mEàNS TO lày uP TREàSuRES IN EàVEN.
* * * * * * *
hE ExTENSIVE BOOk REVIEw SECTION IN EàC fàSCIClE Ofhemelios IS OVERSEEN By SIx BOOk REVIEw EdITORS. WE àVE TRIEd TO dRàw TESE CàPàBlE PEOPlE fROm VàRIOuS quàRTERS Of TE glOBE. UNTIl TIS ISSuE, DàNIEl sàNTOS àS CàPàBly SERVEd àS OuR old tESTàmENT bOOk rEVIEw edITOR. HE IS NOw STEPPINg dOwN OwINg TO INCREàSEd RESPONSIBIlITIES IN sàO pàulO. WE TàNk GOd fOR IS SERVICE. aT TE SàmE TImE wE wàRmly wElCOmE IS SuCCESSOR, JERRy HwàNg, Of sINgàPORE bIBlE cOllEgE, wO EàRNEd IS dOCTORàTE àT WEàTON cOllEgE. sOmE REàdERS wIll RECOgNIzE IS NàmE fROm TE REVIEwS E àS àlREàdy wRITTEN fOR hemelios. WE lOOk fORwàRd TO fRuITful COllàBORàTION. DR HwàNg mày BE CONTàCTEd àT jERRy.wàNg@ TEgOSPElCOàlITION.ORg.Soli Deo gloria.
3
o F F t H e r e c o r D
hemelios38.1 (2013): 4–5
cOlONIàl aTEISm: a vERy bRITIS vICE
 Micael J. OveY 
Mike Ovey is Principal of Oak Hill College in London.
S i wRITE TIS TE UK pàRlIàmENT IS CONSIdERINg clàuSE 1(1) Of TE MàRRIàgE (sàmE sEx cOuPlES) a bIll.iTREàdSMàRRIàgEOfSàmESExCOuPlESISlàwful.aSIdEfROmàllCONSIdERàTIONSàBOuTOwcRISTIàNS SOuld RESPONd TO SàmE-SEx àTTRàCTION àNd SEE BIBlICàl TEàCINg REflECTEd IN TE làw Of TE làNd, wàT INTRIguES mE ERE IS ONE Of TE BàCkgROuNd àSSumPTIONS, NàmEly, TàT SàmE-SEx màR-RIàgE ISpossible. nOw, IN TE UK SàmE-SEx màRRIàgE àS NOT BEEN à SOCIàl NORm, TO PuT IT mIldly. aNd TE àSSumPTION Of TE UK gOVERNmENT àCTuàlly BOIlS dOwN TO àN àSSumPTION TàT, fOR TE gEOgRàPICàl ENTITy Of TE UK, màRRIàgE ‘BElONgS’ TO TE UK gOVERNmENT. iT ‘BElONgS’ TO IT IN TE SENSE TàT IT àS TE RIgT TO dEfiNE àNd SàPE IT. iT àS TE RIgT TO ‘NàmE’ wàT IS àNd IS NOT màRRIàgE. nOw, yOu dO NOT àVE TO àVE TE TEOlOgICàl àCumEN Of JON càlVIN TO SPOT TàT TIS IS IN PRàCTICàl TERmS àTEISTIC. WàT i wàNT TO PROPOSE ERE IS TàT TIS kINd Of àTEISm àS à STRIkINg quàlITy TO IT. iT IS COlONIàlIST. iT IScolonial ateism. hERE àRE NO dOuBT OTER dImENSIONS TO IT, BuT TE COlONIàl quàlITy IS ImPORTàNT. aNd wIlE i TINk IT IS VERy bRITIS, i dO NOT TINk wE bRITS àVE àNy mONOPOly ON TIS kINd Of COlONIàlISm. Wy SOuld wE dESCRIBE SOmE àSPECTS Of CONTEmPORàRy àTEISm àS COlONIàlIST? hE TERmS OBVIOuSly SuggEST TàT COlONIàl ISTORy àNd CONTEmPORàRy àTEISm àVE SOmETINg IN COmmON. buT wàT? hE COmmON dENOmINàTOR INgES ON TE IdEà Of wàT IS NOw CàllEdterra nullius, làNd TàT BElONgS TO NO ONE. aNd wàT i àIm TO dO ERE IS dEVElOP à lINE Of TOugT TàT CàmE uP RECENTly IN dISCuSSION wIT TE bISOP Of sT alBàNS IN TE UK, alàN smIT (‘COlONIàl àTEISm’ IS IS PRàSE). iT IS ugEly IllumINàTINg. hE IdEà BEINdterra nulliusquITE SImPlE. YOu dEClàRE TàT SOmE làNd BElONgS TO NO-ONE, SO IS IT TEN BECOmES àVàIlàBlE fOR OCCuPàTION. sOmETINg lIkE TIS CROPS uP IN àNCIENT rOmàN làw, wERE IT gàVE àN àCCOuNT Of Ow, fOR ExàmPlE, à NEwly àPPEàREd ISlàNd IN TE SEà COuld BE REduCEd INTO OwNERSIP (JuSTINIàN’SInstitutesii.1.22). hIS IS NOT uNREàSONàBlE: IT IS NEw làNd àNd ClEàRly NO ONE àS làId àNy ClàIm TO IT, EITER ExPlICITly OR ImPlICITly. buT ImàgINE Ow VERy dIffERENT TE àPPlICàTION IS wEN yOu COmE àCROSS làNd wERE OTER PEOPlE àRE lIVINg OuT TEIR lIVES àNd yOu TEN dEClàRE IT BElONgS TO NO ONE, TEREBy lEàVINg IT OPEN TO yOu TO OCCuPy fOR yOuRSElf. nOw, TE PROVENàNCE Of TE TERmterra nulliusIS CERTàINly à POINT Of CONTENTION IN àCàdEmIC CIRClES juST NOw, BuT TE IdEà IS fOuNd IN judgmENTS bRITIS àuTORITIES màkE IN NINETEENT-CENTuRy auSTRàlIà wIC RElàTE TO TE ClàImS TO làNdS lIVEd ON By aBORIgINàl auSTRàlIàNS. UNmISTàkàBly, IT wORkS TO TE dISàdVàNTàgE Of TOSE aBORIgINàl auSTRàlIàNS. HOwEVER, wàTEVER TE ORIgINàl INTENTION, TERE IS à ‘HEàdS-i-wIN-TàIlS-yOu-lOSE’ SENSE TOterra nulliusTE fOllOwINg wày. iN ORdER TO quàlIfy fOR RECOgNITION àS OwNER, yOu àVEERE. hIS àPPENS IN TO àVE CulTuRàl fORmS wIC màP ONTO TE CulTuRE àNd PRàCTICE Of TE COlONIàl POwER. if yOu dO àVE CulTuRàl fORmS wIC màP ONTO TE CulTuRE àNd PRàCTICE Of TE COlONIàl POwER, TEy àRE TREàTEdas part
4
cOlONIàl aTEISm
ofTE CulTuRE àNd PRàCTICE Of TE COlONIàl POwER. hEy àRE NOT TREàTEd àS àVINg àNindependentVàlIdITy. hE RISk TEN IS TàT yOuR OwN CulTuRE àS SImPly BEEN àSSImIlàTEd INTO TE COlONIàl POwER àNywày. alTERNàTIVEly, BECàuSE yOu RETàIN CulTuRE àNd PRàCTICE wIC dOES NOT fiT TE COlONIàl POwER, yOu àRE uN-PERSONEd IN ONE Of TE mOST SIgNIfiCàNT wàyS à PROPERTy-OwNINg CulTuRE kNOwS: yOu àRE à NON-OwNER. aT TIS POINT, TEterra nulliusgOES BEyONd BEINg SImPly à ‘lEgàl’ àNd ‘RESPECTàBlE’ wày Of IdEà gETTINg Old Of làNd OTER PEOPlE àVE BEEN lIVINg ON fOR gENERàTIONS. iT VERy REàdIly BECOmES à STRàTEgy fOR uN-PERSONINg SOmEONE ElSE: TEy EITER CONfORm TO yOuR NORmS OR TEy àRE NON-OwNERS. buT EITER wày, TEy àRE NOT àllOwEd TO ExIST àS SOmEONE dIffERENT àNd OTER fROm yOu. eITER wày, TEy àVE TO fiT INTO yOuR SCEmE Of TINgS. hEy àRE àSSImIlàTEd OR àNNIIlàTEd, BuT NOT àllOwEd à REàl COExISTENCE. aSSImIlàTION OR àNNIIlàTION àS, TRàgICàlly, BEEN PRECISEly TE ExPERIENCE Of PEOPlE gROuPS wO ENCOuNTER TE COlONIàl àTTITudE. LET uS NOw TàkE ONE STRàNd Of CONTEmPORàRy àTEISm, Of wIC TE làTE bERTRàNd ruSSEll IS à gOOd ExàmPlE. aSkEd TE quESTION wàT wOuld E dO If IT TuRNEd OuT TERE wàS à GOd àfTER àll, E RESPONdEd, ‘nOT ENOug EVIdENCE, GOd, NOT ENOug EVIdENCE.’ nOw, IT IS INTRIguINg TàT ruSSEll’S REmàRk àS à SuPERfiCIàl àPPEàl. HOw RàTIONàl, Ow REàSONàBlE, ONE TINkS àT fiRST. buT IN fàCT TE ImPlICIT dEmàNd IS TàT GOd CONfORm TO wàTEVER RulES Of EVIdENCE wE lày dOwN, IN TE SàmE wày TàT bRITIS àuTORITIES wOuld ONly RECOgNISE aBORIgINàl auSTRàlIàN RIgTS If TEy CONfORmEd TO bRITIS RulES Of OwNERSIP. WIT REgàRd TO GOd, bERTRàNd ruSSEll wàS TOROugly COlONIàl. nOw, TO PuT IT mIldly, wE bRITIS àd à VESTEd INTEREST IN SEEINg TINgS ONly IN OuR CulTuRàl TERmS wEN IT CàmE TO làNd OwNERSIP àNdterra nullius. iN à SImIlàR wày, umàNS àVE à VESTEd INTEREST IN uN-PERSONINg GOd. pSàlm 24:1–2 TEll uS TàT TE wORld BElONgS TO GOd BECàuSE E màdE IT, àll Of IT, uS INCludEd. buT If wE àRE SàyINg TàT GOd dOES NOT ExIST uNlESS E mEETS OuR SElf-INTERESTEd ExàCTINg STàNdàRdS Of EVIdENCE OR BEàVIOuR, wEll, wO dOES EVERyTINg BElONg TO TEN? US, i SuPPOSE. WàT COuld BE mORE CONVENIENT? hERE àRE PROfOuNd ISSuES àT STàkE ERE. if àS IS umàN CREàTuRE i BElONg TO GOd, TEN i CàNNOT Sày my BOdy àNd mINd àRE mINE TO dO wàT i lIkE wIT. My uSE Of my BOdy àNd TE TOugTS TàT i TINk àRENOTmyPROPERTy.buTIfiCàNSàyGOdàSNOTmàdEgOOdISPROPERTyTITlE,TENwyCàNiNOTuSE my BOdy àNd mINd àS i wIS? all TIS àffECTS TE OBVIOuS àREàS Of SEx, màRRIàgE, SOCIàl lIfE, BuT àlSO TE INTEllECTuàl lIfE. if my mINd IS GOd’S PROPERTy, wàT BOOkS SOuld i REàd? WàT màTERIàl SOuld i ENTERTàIN? DO i EVER àSk If GOd wOuld àVE mE REàd SuC-àNd-SuC à BOOk? oR, àS à TEàCER, dO i EVER àSk wy i TINk GOd wOuld àVE my STudENTS REàd SuC-àNd-SuC à BOOk? of COuRSE, IT wàS NOT juST TE bRITIS wO uSEd IdEàS lIkEterra nulliusTO juSTIfy ExPROPRIàTINg làNd OTER PEOPlE lIVEd ON. oVER TE yEàRS OuR SPECIES àS PROVEd fRIgTENINgly àdEPT àT uN-PERSONINg OTER umàNS, wETER ON gROuNdS Of RàCE, ClàSS, OR BElIEf. buT TEN IT IS NOT juST àTEISTS wO àVE COlONIàl àTTITudES TO GOd, BECàuSE à kEy PàRT Of SIN IS TRyINg TO àVE GOd CONfORm TO uS àNd OuR NORmS, RàTER TàN CONfORmINg OuRSElVES TO GOd àNd IS. twENTIET-CENTuRy àTEISTS dO INdEEd àVE àN àPPàllINg RECORd Of uN-PERSONINg OTERS, BuT lEST wE fORgET, RElIgIOuS PEOPlE wERE INVOlVEd IN TE uN-PERSONINg Of GOd INCàRNàTE àT TE CRuCIfixION. cOlONIàlISm: wE bRITIS dIdN’T STàRT IT, BuT IT dIdN’T STOP wEN wE lEfT afRICà.
5
hemelios38.1 (2013): 6–17
hE pàSTORàl imPlICàTIONS Of WISE àNd FOOlIS sPEEC IN TE bOOk Of pROVERBS
 Eric OrtlUnd 
Eric Ortlund is associate professor of Old Testament at Briercrest College and Seminary in Caronport, Saskatcewan in Canada.
IS àRTIClE IS wRITTEN IN lOVE àNd àdmIRàTION fOR PàSTORS IN nORT amERICà. iT IS àlSO wRITTEN IN BROTERly CONCERN, BECàuSE PàSTORS IN OuR CulTuRE àRE fREquENTly SuBjECTEd TO gOSSIP, SlàNdER, wITNtESSINg TIS fOR yOuRSElf. i REmEmBER SPEàkINg wIT à fRIENd wO àTTENdEd à CuRC mEETINg TàT àNd màlICIOuS SPEEC. YOu PROBàBly dO NOT àVE TO àTTENd CuRC mEETINgS fOR VERy lONg BEfORE quICkly TuRNEd ugly. HIS COmmENT TO mE, àS à NEw cRISTIàN, wàS, “My ONEymOON IN TE CuRC wàS OVER.” i dOuBT àNy Of my REàdERS wIll àVE TROuBlE ImàgININg wàT TàT mEETINg wàS lIkE fOR my fRIENd. WIlE TIS IS NàTuRàlly à PROBlEm fOR àNy CuRC IN àNy àgE, CERTàIN TENdENCIES IN OuR CulTuRE màkE IT àN ESPECIàlly glàRINg ONE—àNd TE iNTERNET ONly màkES TINgS wORSE. i wOuld lIkE TO TINk TROug TE IS-SuE Of fOOlIS SPEEC IN à PàSTORàl CONTExT By TuRNINg TO TE BOOk Of pROVERBS BECàuSE TIS BOOk CONTàINS RIC RESOuRCES fOR BOT uNdERSTàNdINg àNd INTERPRETINg TE ROOTS Of fOOlIS SPEEC àNd RESPONdINg TO IT IN à fàITful wày. i wOuld lIkE TO àRguE TàT, IN TE BOOk Of pROVERBS, ONE CàNNOT àRguE wIT à fOOl wITOuT màkINg TINgS wORSE. hE wISE PERSON INSTEàd TRuSTS TE LORd TO INTERVENE By SIlENCINg àNd STOPPINg fOOlIS SPEEC àNd VINdICàTINg TOSE wO TRuST Im. i REàlIzE TIS CONCluSION mày SEEm ExTREmE. iN ORdER TO RECOmmENd IT, TIS àRTIClE BRIEfly SkETCES Ow TE màjOR CàRàCTERS IN pROVERBS SPEàk àNd ExàmINES Ow TE wISE RESPONd (OR dO NOT RESPONd) TO fOOlIS SPEEC. hEN IT TuRNS TO TE nt, fOCuSINg ON pàul’S dIRECTIONS TO Ow tImOTy àNd tITuS SOuld SPEàk IN dIffERENT SITuàTIONS, àS wEll àS pàul’S PRESENTàTION Of cRIST àS TE wISdOm Of GOd IN 1 cOR 1. hE ESSày ClOSES By àPPlyINg TE wISE SPEEC Of pROVERBS TO EVERydày-mINISTRy SETTINgS.
1. Major CHaracters in Proverbs: he Simple, tHe Fool, and tHe Wise Man
hE fiRST màjOR CàRàCTER IN pROVERBS IS TE SImPlETON, mOST OfTEN IdENTIfiEd wIT TE SON OR TE yOuT IN TE BOOk. hE BOOk Of pROVERBS PORTRàyS à PIOuS iSRàElITE fàTER, guIdEd By sOlOmON, TEàCINg IS SON Ow TO ENgàgE SuCCESSfully IN TE COmPlEx àdVENTuRE CàllEd “lIfE.” hE SON OR yOuT IS ClàSSIfiEd àS “SImPlE” ( ) IN TE SENSE Of BEINg NàïVE àBOuT Ow lIfE wORkS àNd EàSIly fOOlEd (SEE pROV 1:4). WIlE יתִֶNOT mORàlly wRONg IN ITSElf, TE yOuT’S SImPlICITy IS dàNgEROuS BECàuSE IT IS SuSCEPTIBlE TO INfluENCE fROm EITER wISdOm OR fOlly (9:4–6, 16). if NOT lEfT BEINd, TE yOuT wIll SuffER TE mOST TERRIfyINg CONSEquENCES (1:22, 31). alTOug mORE COuld BE SàId àBOuT TIS CàRàCTER, IT TuRNS OuT TàT TE SImPlE yOuT dOES NOT àVE muC TO Sày IN pROVERBS—E IS RàTER CàllEd ON TO lISTEN quIETly TO TE wISE INSTRuCTION Of TE fàTER.
6
hE pàSTORàl imPlICàTIONS Of WISE àNd FOOlIS sPEEC IN TE bOOk Of pROVERBS
FOR TIS REàSON, wE TuRN TO TE TwO OTER màjOR CàRàCTERS IN TE BOOk: TE RIgTEOuS-wISE àNd 1 TE wICkEd-fOOl. iN màkINg TIS dISTINCTION, i àm NOT IgNORINg Ow pROVERBS uSES à NumBER Of wORdS ץלֵ fOR dIffERENT kINdS Of PEOPlE. FOR INSTàNCE, (“SCOffER”) SEEmS TO dENOTE à àRdENEd CyNIC fOR wOm 2 TERE IS TE lEàST OPE Of CàNgE. nEVERTElESS, IT IS fàIR TO màkE à BROàd dISTINCTION BETwEEN TwO BàSIC kINdS Of PEOPlE IN pROVERBS: TE RIgTEOuS àNd TE wICkEd, TE wISE àNd TE fOOlIS. hE ENTIRE BOOk Of pROVERBS IS àN àPPEàl TO TE SON TO lEàVE BEINd IS SImPlICITy àNd jOIN TE RàNkS Of TE RIgTEOuS-wISE By dESCRIBINg TE lIfE (àNd ESPECIàlly TE SPEEC) Of TESE PEOPlE àNd TE BlESSEd CONSEquENCES TàT mEET 3 TEm uNdER YHWH’S àNd. hE RIgTEOuS-wISE CàN BE dEfiNEd, fiRST, àS TOSE wO “dO RIgT By” GOd àNd NEIgBOR (1:3; 2:9; 12:17; 21:21, ETC.). hEy dISCàRgE àll RElàTIONàl OBlIgàTIONS, dOINg wàT IS RIgT IN TE COmPlEx juNCTuRES TO wIC EVERy RElàTIONSIP IS SuBjECT. hIS RIgTEOuSNESS SOuld NOT BE uNdERSTOOd ONly IN TE SENSE Of fàIRNESS OR BàlàNCE, BuT mORE ExTREmEly àS gOINg “OVER TE TOP” TO dO àS muC àS POSSIBlE TO ENàNCE TE lIfE Of ONE’S NEIgBOR. “hE RIgTEOuS àRE wIllINg TO dISàdVàNTàgE TEmSElVES TO àdVàNTàgE TE 4 COmmuNITy; TE wICkEd àRE wIllINg TO dISàdVàNTàgE TE COmmuNITy TO àdVàNTàgE TEmSElVES.” sECONd, TIS CàTEgORy Of PEOPlE àRE “wISE” IN TE SENSE Of BEINg SkIllEd àT ENgàgINg wIT TE COmPlEx ORdER GOd àS SET uP IN CREàTION, àNd ESPECIàlly IN RElàTIONSIPS (1:2–7). hIS CàTEgORy Of PEOPlE IS CONSISTENTly PORTRàyEd àS mORàlly uPRIgT àNd INSIgTful àBOuT Ow lIfE àNd RElàTIONSIPS wORk. by CONTRàST, TE wICkEd-fOOl PRIVIlEgES SElf OVER NEIgBOR. HIS wICkEdNESS CONSISTS IN wORkINg fOR IS OwN àdVàNTàgE TO TE dETRImENT Of OTERS. HIS fOlly IS SImIlàRly SEEN IN TE làCk Of SkIll wIT wIC E lIVES, dESPITE TE dISàSTROuS CONSEquENCES TO ImSElf àNd OTERS. FuRTERmORE, TIS TyPE Of PERSON CONSISTENTly REfuSES TO lISTEN TO INSTRuCTION OR REBukE OR àdVICE. hE fOOl IS SOmEONE wO IS INCORRIgIBly CERTàIN E kNOwS Ow lIfE wORkS, NO màTTER Ow E IS wàRNEd (1:7, 22; 12:15; 15:5). hEy àRE TE ONES wO àRE wISE IN TEIR OwN EyES (3:5–8). iN CONTRàST, TE wISE àRE RECEPTIVE, OPEN, àNd lISTENINg TO wISdOm (1:7–8; 2:1–4; 10:8, ETC.), EVEN lOVINg REBukE (9:8). HOw dO TESE TwO gROuPS Of PEOPlE Tàlk? pROVERBS SPENdS NO Smàll àmOuNT Of SPàCE PORTRàyINg wISE àNd fOOlIS SPEEC.
1 הקדְצ i uSE yPENàTEd TERmS fOR TESE TwO gROuPS BECàuSE pROVERBS REfERS TO RIgTEOuSNESS ( ) àNd wICk-ע ַׁרֶ EdNESS ( ) àlmOST àS fREquENTly àS IT dOES TO wISdOm àNd fOlly; TE BOOk CàNNOT INVOkE wISdOm TERmS wITOuT àlSO REfERRINg TO mORàl ONES. FOR INSTàNCE, pROVERBS uSES TE ROOT (“BE wISE”) 55 TImES, wIlE IT REfERS TO TE םכח קיִצליִוְאֶליִסְ(“TE RIgTEOuS”) 66 TImES. sImIlàRly, TE TwO mOST COmmON wORdS fOR “fOOl,” àNd , COmBINE TO עׁר OCCuR 76 TImES (27 àNd 49 TImES, RESPECTIVEly), wIlE TE ROOT (“BE wICkEd”) OCCuRS 83 TImES. WIlE “RIg-TEOuSNESS” àNd “wISdOm” àRE NOT SyNONymOuS (NOR àRE “wICkEdNESS” àNd “fOOlISNESS”), IN pROVERBS, ONE CàNNOT BE wISE wITOuT BEINg RIgTEOuS, àNd VICE-VERSà. FOR TIS REàSON, i wIll REfER SOmETImES TO “TE RIgTEOuS-wISE” àNd SOmETImES juST “TE wISE,” BuT TE SàmE gROuP Of PEOPlE IS INTENdEd By BOT dESIgNàTIONS. hE SàmE IS TRuE Of “TE wICkEd-fOOlS” àNd “fOOlS.” 2 sEE bRuCE WàlTkE,Proverbs 1–15(nicot; GRàNd ràPIdS: eERdmàNS, 2004), 93–116, àNd MICàEl FOx, Proverbs 1–9(ab 18a; nEw HàVEN: YàlE UNIVERSITy pRESS, 2000), 28–43, fOR àN ExTREmEly ElPful dISCuSSIONS Of TE NuàNCES Of dIffERENT TERmS uSEd fOR wISdOm àNd fOlly. 3 iN SPEàkINg TIS wày, Of COuRSE, i àm TàkINg à BOOk TàT wàS EdITEd IN SEVERàl STàgES àS à COERENT, uNI-fiEd wOlE (fOR INdICàTIONS Of REdàCTIONàl làyERS, SEE 25:1; 30:1; àNd 31:1; RECàll àlSO TE CONNECTION BETwEEN TE iNSTRuCTION Of amENEmOPE àNd pROV 22:17–23:11). DOINg SO IS uNPROBlEmàTIC IN my OPINION, fOR wàTEVER dIffER-ENCES ONE mIgT dETECT IN dIffERENT PàRTS Of TE BOOk, NO ONE EdITORIàl làyER CONTRàdICTS OR CRITICIzES TE wOlE. a CONSISTENCy IN TE BOOk IS uNmISTàkàBlE EVEN wITIN TE dIVERSITy Of TOugT TàT wISdOm lITERàTuRE àllOwEd àNd PERàPS EVEN ENCOuRàgEd. 4 WàlTkE,Proverbs 1–15, 97.
7
2. FoolisH SpeecH in Proverbs
WE CàN BROàdly SummàRIzE fOOlIS SPEEC IN TwO wàyS.
2.1. Constant
hemelios
FIRST, TERE IS à lOT Of IT: TE fOOl IS àlwàyS TàlkINg. iNSTEàd Of PONdERINg Ow E SOuld àNSwER, IS mOuT POuRS fORT wICkEd TINgS (pROV 15:28; Cf. 15:2). HE àNSwERS BEfORE E lISTENS (18:13). HE gETS INVOlVEd IN àRgumENTS NOT IS OwN (26:17). hIS kINd Of PERSON IS COmPlETEly uNRESTRàINEd: CROSS Im àNd E ExPlOdES (12:16; 29:11). HE CàNNOT kEEP àNOTER’S SECRET (11:13; 12:23). HE àBuSES PEOPlE 5 E dISlIkES (11:12) àNd CRITICIzES TEm TO OTERS (10:18). iNSTEàd Of kEEPINg quIET, IS RàS wORdS àRE SwORd-TRuSTS (12:18) TàT SPàRk àRgumENTS wIT OTERS (15:18). hE fiRST-TImE REàdER Of pROVERBS mIgT CONCludE àT TIS POINT TàT PEOPlE wO àRE NàTuRàlly OuTgOINg àNd TàlkàTIVE àRE ClOSER TO fOlly TàN TOSE wIT à quIETER PERSONàlITy. pROVERBS dOES CONTàIN SOmE SOBER wàRNINgS àBOuT TàlkINg à lOT: “IN màNy wORdS, SIN IS NOT làCkINg” (10:19); “TE ONE guàRdINg IS lIPS guàRdS IS lIfE” (13:3). buT TE BIBlICàl PORTRàyàl Of TE fOOl’S uNRESTRàINEd SPEEC lOCàTES ITS SOuRCE ElSEwERE: TE fOOl TàlkS SO muC BECàuSE E IS SOmEONE wOasTO BE RIgT. HE wIll NOT STOP àRguINg (20:3). if yOu gET INTO àN àRgumENT wIT TE fOOl, INSTEàd Of gIVINg yOu TE BENEfiT Of TE dOuBT àNd wORkINg wIT yOu TOwàRd à RESOluTION, “E ONly RàgES àNd làugS, àNd TERE IS NO quIET” (29:9). FROm TE VERy fiRST CàPTER Of pROVERBS, gàININg wISdOm mEàNS lISTENINg TO TOSE wISER TàN yOu; ONE CàNNOT BECOmE wISE wITOuT BEINg RECEPTIVE. aN ESSENTIàl CàRàCTERISTIC Of TE fOOl IS TàT E wIll NOT dO SO, INSTEàd dESPISINg , “fàTERly INSTRuCTION” (1:7; 5:23; 10:17; 12:1; 13:1; Cf. àlSO TE uNdERSTàTEmENT fOR רסי EffECT IN 15:12). rEfuSINg TO àCCEPT INSTRuCTION IN Ow lIfE wORkS, TE fOOl IS INTERESTEd ONly IN àIRINg IS OwN OPINION (18:2). aNd TERE IS à SENSE IN wIC TE fOOl CàNNOT àCCEPT SuC INSTRuCTION. hE fOOl’S uNwISE SPEEC IS CONSTITuTIONàl: E dOES NOT kNOw Ow TO Sày àNyTINg ElSE. hE mOuT Of TE wICkEd kNOwS ONly wàT IS PERVERSE (10:32); wEN à fOOl dECIdES TO INSTRuCT SOmEONE, àll E CàN dISPENSE IS mORE fOlly (16:22). tRuTS TàT wOuld OTERwISE ElP OTERS dàNglE lIkE CRIPPlEd lEgS IN IS mOuT (26:7; Cf. 1:22, 23; 13:19; 17:10; 24:7; 27:22).
2.2. DeliberatelY Violent and DestrUctive
hE INdIVIduàl PROVERBS àlREàdy CITEd SOw TàT TE fOOl IS à dESPERàTE CàRàCTER. buT pROVERBS àS mORE TO Sày àBOuT TIS kINd Of PERSON: IN àddITION TO IS INgRàINEd, àRgumENTàTIVE TàlkàTIVENESS, TE fOOl SPEàkS wIT TE INTENTION Of uRTINg OTERS. hIS IS TE SECONd màjOR CàRàCTERISTIC Of fOOlIS SPEEC: IT IS VIOlENT àNd dESTRuCTIVE, àNd NOT mEREly àS à SECONdàRy CONSEquENCE, BuT dElIBERàTEly SO. hE mOuT Of TE wICkEd COVERS VIOlENCE ( ) àNd àTREd (10:6, 11, 18): NO màTTER wàT E SàyS, VIOlENCE luRkS סמח BENEàT. hE mOST VIVId mETàPORS àRE uSEd fOR TE dESTRuCTIVE EffECTS Of TE fOOl’S SPEEC: IT SETS à CITy ON fiRE (29:8) àNd TEàRS IT dOwN (11:11); IT IS à BuRNINg fiRE (16:27) àNd à CudgEl TO BEàT OTERS (25:18). WICkEd wORdS “àmBuS BlOOd” (12:6): TE fOOl lIES IN wàIT, lOOkINg fOR wàyS TO dESTROy OTERS TROug wàT E SàyS (Cf. 14:25; 24:2). HIS dESIRE IS fOR VIOlENCE (1:16; 13:2): IS wOlE INTENTION IN STàRTINg à CONVERSàTION IS fOR TE OTER PERSON TO wàlk àwày wOuNdEd àNd BROkEN. hIS IS TE CàSE EVEN wEN
5 WEN TE SECONd ClàuSE Of TIS VERSE SàyS TàT TE màN Of uNdERSTàNdINg kEEPS SIlENT, IT ImPlIES TàT TE TIRd PàRTy IN quESTION IS NOT wORTy Of PRàISE. iN OTER wORdS, TE fOOl wO dESPISES IS COmPàNION IS NOT NECES-SàRIly SàyINg fàlSE TINgS. HIS fOlly CONSISTS IN SPEàkINg wEN E SOuld kEEP quIET.
8
hE pàSTORàl imPlICàTIONS Of WISE àNd FOOlIS sPEEC IN TE bOOk Of pROVERBS
TE fOOl IS PRàCTICEd àT IdINg IS àTREd Of OTERS àNd PàSSINg ImSElf Off àS à fRIENd TROug flàTTERy (26:24–26, 28; 29:5). WE SOuld NOT fàIl TO BE SOCkEd àT TIS PORTRàyàl Of TE fOOl. iN TESE PROVERBS àNd OTERS, TE iSRàElITE fàTER wàRNS IS SON TàT TERE àRE mEmBERS Of GOd’S PEOPlE wO CàN PàSS TEmSElVES Off àS ENTIREly SPIRITuàl àNd lOVINg, BuT wOSE CONSCIOuS INTENTION, wEN TEy SPEàk, IS TO dESTROy SOmEONE. i àm ESPECIàlly STRuCk By 11:9: צלֵ ח יֵ םי ִקיִ ַצ ת ַדַ ְב הֵ רֵ תחִ ְׁ יַ ףנֵ ח ה ֶפ ְּ
WIT IS mOuT TE yPOCRITE wOuld dESTROy IS COmPàNION;  BuT By kNOwlEdgE TE RIgTEOuS àRE dElIVEREd. pàSSINg ImSElf Off àS à fRIENd, TE yPOCRITE wOuld RuIN IS NEIgBOR. hE VERB IN TIS VERSE ( IN TE ׁחת HIPIl) OCCuRS IN 6:32 fOR TE dEàdly dàmàgE TE àdulTERER dOES TO ImSElf; IT OCCuRS ElSEwERE fOR TE dESTRuCTION Of TE wORld IN TE flOOd (GEN 6:12–13) àNd TE dESTRuCTION Of sOdOm àNd GOmORRà (fiVE TImES IN GEN 18–19). clEàRly, pROV 11:9 IS NOT wàRNINg àgàINST ONly RECEIVINg wOuNdS fROm SOmEONE ElSE, BuT TE COmPlETE SPIRITuàl dESTRuCTION Of ONE Of GOd’S PEOPlE By SOmEONE wO IdES TEIR EVIl INTENTIONS. hE PROVERB dOES NOT SPECIfy ExàCTly Ow TE yPOCRITE wOuld dEVàSTàTE IS NEIgBOR; BuT TE kNOwlEdgE Of TE RIgTEOuS TàT dElIVERS TEm PROBàBly REfERS TO TEIR uNdERSTàNdINg Of YHWH’S 6 RulE OVER CREàTION àNd TE wày E àS SET uP lIfE TO wORk. aS à RESulT, TIS ExàmPlE Of fOOlIS SPEEC PROBàBly àS TO dO wIT TE yPOCRITE’S àTTEmPTS TO dRàw Off TOSE àROuNd Im fROm TRuSTINg YHWH àNd fEàRINg Im (TE OVERàRCINg gOàl Of TE BOOk Of pROVERBS [1:7; 3:5]) By jOININg TE yPOCRITE IN fOOlIS BEàVIOR. hIS PROVERB IS à mOST STRIkINg ExàmPlE Of TE fRIgTENINg POwER Of fOOlIS SPEEC àNd TE SINISTER INTENTIONS àgàINST TE RIgTEOuS Of TOSE SPEàkINg TIS wày. sPEàkINg Of TE kNOwlEdgE Of TE RIgTEOuS RàISES TE ISSuE Of Ow TIS OTER CàTEgORy Of PERSONS SPEàkS. buT BEfORE ExPlORINg wISE SPEEC fuRTER, wE muST NOTE pROVERBS’ INSISTENCE TàT YHWH wIll judgE TE fOOl àNd IS SPEEC. hERE àRE à NumBER Of OmINOuS dIVINE PàSSIVES dESCRIBINg IN PàRTICulàR TE judgmENT Of fOOlIS SPEEC (10:8, 31; 12:19; 19:5, 9; 21:28; 22:12; 26:2). eVEN If TESE VERSES lEàVE TE ExàCT màNNER àNd TImINg Of TIS judgmENT OPEN, TEy INSIST TàT YHWH gOVERNS IS CREàTION IN SuC à wày TàT SuC SPEEC wIll BE judgEd, fOR IT IS àN àBOmINàTION TO Im (12:22; 15:26). sImulTàNEOuS wIT TESE àSSERTIONS Of dIVINE judgmENT ON fOOlIS SPEEC àRE PREdICTIONS TàT IT dESTROyS ITSElf: TE mOuT Of à fOOl BRINgS RuIN NEàR (10:14), àCTINg àS à SNàRE fOR Im (12:13) àNd à ROd fOR IS BàCk (14:3; SEE àlSO 10:13, 21; 18:6–7; 21:6). hIS duàl àSSERTION Of dIVINE judgmENT àNd NàTuRàl CONSEquENCE NEàTly fiTS, Of COuRSE, wIT pROVERBS’ TEOlOgy Of RETRIBuTION.
3. Wise SpeecH in Proverbs
HOw dO TE RIgTEOuS SPEàk? JuST àS TE CàRàCTER Of TE RIgTEOuS NEàTly mIRRORS TàT Of TE fOOl, SO TEIR SPEEC: IT IS RESTRàINEd àNd lIfE-gIVINg.
6 elSEwERE pROVERBS EquàTES TIS kNOwlEdgE wIT wISdOm àNd TE fEàR Of TE LORd; IT gIVES TE SàmE BEN-EfiTS TàT wISdOm dOES (1:7; 2:5–6; 8:12; 9:10; 13:16; 15:2; 19:2; 20:15; 21:11; 22:12; 24:4; 30:3).
9