A Gender Perspective of Municipal Solid Waste Generation and Management in the City of Bamenda, Cameroon
290 Pages
English
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A Gender Perspective of Municipal Solid Waste Generation and Management in the City of Bamenda, Cameroon

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290 Pages
English

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The management of urban waste constitutes one of the major environmental challenges facing African cities in general and Cameroon in particular. Unprecedented population growth and changes in consumption patterns and lifestyles have led to increased waste generation. Municipal solid waste management efforts lag behind the rate of waste generation with attendant environmental and public health risks. The activities, the gender dynamics and politics at the pools of waste generation, particularly the households and markets largely influence the outcome of waste management strategies and policies. This book brings out the gender dimension of municipal solid waste generation and management in the City of Bamenda. It is hoped that the findings revealed and proposals made from the study will be employed by municipal authorities in Cameroon and beyond to enhance waste management efforts.

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Published 02 November 2018
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EAN13 9789956550296
Language English
Document size 4 MB

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Exrait

largely influence the outcome of waste management strategies
the City of Bamenda. It is hoped that the findings revealed
qualification from Ecole Normale Supérieure Yaoundé in 2001 and
of Yaoundé in 1992. She is currently a Geography Teacher at
A Gender Perspective of Municipal Solid Waste Generation and Management in the City of Bamenda, Cameroon
Akum Hedwig Kien
A Gender Perspective of Municipal Solid Waste Generation & Management in the City of Bamenda, Cameroon Akum Hedwig Kien L a ng a a R esea rch & P u blishing CIG Mankon, Bamenda
Publisher:LangaaRPCIG Langaa Research & Publishing Common Initiative Group P.O. Box 902 Mankon Bamenda North West Region Cameroon Langaagrp@gmail.comwww.langaa-rpcig.net Distributed in and outside N. America by African Books Collective orders@africanbookscollective.com www.africanbookscollective.com ISBN-10: 9956-550-63-9 ISBN-13: 978-9956-550-63-0 ©Akum Hedwig Kien 2019All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, mechanical or electronic, including photocopying and recording, or be stored in any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission from the publisher
Dedication
To my dear husband and friend
Gideon Akumah Ngwa,
and loving Children.
Preface I was pushed into researching on waste management issues by my experiences living in a typical growing and expanding urban area in a developing economy. In the town of Bamenda where I grew up, it is was common place to find pedestrians, cars and rubbish tips piled up with unsorted waste from households and markets competing for space on narrow roads. Insects and rodents foraged at the waste sites and stench ensued from them. Gutters and water courses were blocked with waste. Observation indicated the effective presence of women in household and market activities that had bearings with waste generation. Then it struck me that there could be a gender angle to the generation and management of municipal waste that was not exploited. The gap was made even more apparent by the fact that environmental and gender concerns take central stage in contemporary discourses, yet urban waste management has remained a challenge to the municipal authorities of Cameroonian cities and towns. The question then is whether the problem can be thoroughly researched into towards a coherent framework for municipal solid waste management. Unprecedented urbanisation and life style changes that drift towards a use and throw-away society continue to be a major contributing factor for waste increase. Waste characterisation including biodegradable and non-biodegradable with plastics and electronic waste streams further compound the challenges of waste management efforts. Unfortunately, these upsurges in waste production are often not accompanied by a commensurate improvement in management efforts. Hence, waste dumping with consequent environmental implications is common place in most cities. Municipal Waste management problems are often associated with inadequate finance and technology, poor planning, lack of expertise and other resources. However, we posit that a concerted social enculturation through sensitisation and awareness campaigns can assuage the problem. Waste management strategies have focused on waste collection, transportation and disposal by the council or organisations while ignoring waste generation. By so doing, the pools and actors of waste generation and primary level management are overlooked. The activities, the gender dynamics and politics at the pools of waste generation, particularly the households and markets
largely influence the success or failures of waste management strategies and policies. This work brings out the gender dimension of municipal waste generation and management. It makes visible the role of women, men and children in the municipal solid waste management problem. It is hoped that the findings revealed and proposals made from the study will be employed by municipal authorities in Bamenda and beyond to enhance waste management efforts. This book has been developed from a PhD thesis that I completed for the gender and development programme in the Department of Women and Gender Studies of the University of Buea, Cameroon. The major findings suggest that municipal solid waste generation activities in households and market places are gendered with women playing leading roles. That waste activities at the primary level of management are championed by women and children. Though municipal waste generation activities are gendered, council waste management strategies are not gendered. That there is a large gap between environmental related awareness and environmental consciousness in people’s behaviour as concerns waste management issues. Mainstreaming gender in waste management policies and strategies alongside proper planning, adequate finances and technology will go a long way to improve on waste management and urban sanitation. To make the findings and proposals of the study to reach a wider audience, data from the thesis, and some parts of this book, have already been published in article form in peer reviewed journals. However, the core of the work in the original thesis in the form defended before a constituted academic panel of the University is presented in this book. Anyone who wants to have a feel and understanding of the gender roles played by the different actors in municipal solid waste generation and management will find this book very useful. Akum Hedwig Kien Buea October 2018
Table of Contents
Preface........................................................................................................ v List of Illustrations ................................................................................ xiii Acknowledgements .............................................................................. xvii Abstract................................................................................................... xix List of Abbreviations ............................................................................ xxi Chapter One General Introduction................................................................. 1 1.1 Background ............................................................................................................2 1.2 Statement of the Problem................................................................................. 11 1.3 Objectives............................................................................................................ 13 1.3.1 General Objective........................................................................................... 13 1.3.2 Specific Objectives.......................................................................................... 13 1.4 Justification and Significance of Study ........................................................... 14 1.5 Delimitation of the Study ................................................................................. 15 1.6 Limitations of the Study.................................................................................... 16 1.7 Operational Definition of Terms .................................................................... 16 1.8 Chapter Presentation of Thesis ....................................................................... 18 Chapter Two Literature Review .................................................................... 192.1 The Concept of Waste ...................................................................................... 19 2.2 Municipal Solid Waste Generation and management in the Developed World.................................................................. 20 2.2.1 Municipal Solid Waste Generation in Developed Countries........................................................................................... 21 2.2.2 Municipal Solid Waste Management in Developed Countries........................................................................................... 21 2.2.2.1 Waste Composition..................................................................................... 21 2.2.2.2 Actors and Stakeholders in Urban MSWM............................................. 22 2.2.2.3 Municipal Solid Waste Management Strategies and Techniques....................................................................................... 23 2.2.2.4 Waste Disposal Techniques ....................................................................... 23 2.3 Municipal Solid Waste Generation and Management in the Developing World ................................................................ 24 2.3.1 Municipal Waste Generation in Developing Countries ........................... 24 2.3.2.1 Actors and Stakeholders in Urban Municipal Waste Management ............................................................................... 26 2.3.2.2 Waste management strategies and techniques ........................................ 30 2.3.2.3 Waste Disposal Methods............................................................................ 30
vii
2.3.2.4 Municipal solid waste reduction strategies .............................................. 31 2.3.2.5 Composting .................................................................................................. 33 2.3.2.6 Waste management Cost ............................................................................ 35 2.3.2.7 Waste Disposal Impact on Health and Environment ........................... 36 2.4 MSW Generation and Management in Cameroon....................................... 36 2.4.1 Municipal Solid Waste Generation in Cameroon...................................... 36 2.4.2 Municipal solid waste management in Cameroon..................................... 38 2.5 Municipal Solid Waste Generation and Management in Bamenda........................................................................................ 41 2.5.1 Major Sources of Municipal Solid Waste Generation in Bamenda........................................................................................... 41 2.5.1.1 Household Waste Generation and Management ................................... 41 2.5.1.2 Market Waste Generation and Management .......................................... 42 2.5.2 Municipal waste management....................................................................... 43 2.6 Gender Issues in MSW Generation and Management ................................ 44 2.6.1 Basic gender concepts.................................................................................... 44 2.6.2 Gender and Environment ............................................................................. 45 2.6.3 Gender-based perceptions of waste............................................................. 47 2.6.4 Gender Roles and Gender Division of Labour in the Waste Economy .............................................................................. 47 2.6.5 Gender in Access to Waste Resources for Livelihood............................. 48 2.6.6 Gender and Waste Impact on Health ......................................................... 49 2.6.7 Women as Central Actors in the Generation and Management of Household Waste................................................................. 50 2.6.8 Limitations on women’s effective participation in the waste economy............................................................................................... 50 2.6.9 Men and women’s participation in decision making in the waste management process ........................................................... 51 2.7 Theoretical Background.................................................................................... 52 2.7.1 Consumerism Theory..................................................................................... 52 2.7.2 Treadmill of Production Theory .................................................................. 55 2.7.3 Ecofeminism.................................................................................................... 56 2.8 Gender Analysis Framework: The Harvard Analytical Framework.......... 58 2.9 Conceptual Framework..................................................................................... 59 Chapter Three Methodology ........................................................................... 613.1 Research Scope, Type and Context ................................................................ 61 3.2 Area of Study ...................................................................................................... 62 3.2.1 Physical Environment .................................................................................... 62 3.2.2 Social and Political Environment................................................................. 64 3.2.3 Administrative Division................................................................................. 65 3.2.4 Education ......................................................................................................... 67 3.2.5 The Economy.................................................................................................. 67 3.3 Basis for Selection of City Case and Study Design ...................................... 69 viii
3.4 Household Waste Generation and Management.......................................... 70 3.4.1 The Study Design............................................................................................ 70 3.4.2 Population, Sample Size and Sampling Procedure.................................... 71 3.4.2.1 Population..................................................................................................... 71 3.4.2.2 Sample Unit and Sample Size Calculation............................................... 72 3.4.2.3 Sampling........................................................................................................ 73 3.4.3 Data Collection Instruments......................................................................... 75 3.4.3.1 Questionnaire ............................................................................................... 75 3.4.3.2 Household On-site Observation and Measurements ............................ 77 3.5 Market Waste Generation and Management................................................. 78 3.5.1 Research Design.............................................................................................. 79 3.5.2 Population, Sample Size and Sampling Procedure.................................... 79 3.5.2.1 Population..................................................................................................... 79 3.5.2.2 Sample unit, Sample Size and Sampling Procedure ............................... 80 3.5.3 Instruments for Data Collection .................................................................. 82 3.5.3.1 Observation Information Sheet ................................................................ 82 3.5.3.2 Structured Interview Guide ....................................................................... 83 3.6 Other Data Collection Techniques ................................................................. 84 3.6.1 Interviews with Elected and Appointed Officials..................................... 84 3.6.2 Observation of Household Waste Composition and Council Waste Collection Techniques .......................................................... 85 3.7 Data Processing and Analysis .......................................................................... 85 3.7.1 Processing and Analysis of Questionnaire-Based Data............................ 86 3.7.1.1 Review and Labelling of Questionnaire................................................... 86 3.7.1.2 Coding Questionnaire Based Data............................................................ 86 3.7.1.3 Questionnaire-Based Data Analysis.......................................................... 86 3.7.2 Processing and Analysis of Interviews ........................................................ 86 3.8 Validity and Reliability of Research Instruments.......................................... 86 Chapter Four Gender Analysis Of Household Solid Waste Generation ........................................................... 894.1 Demographic Profile of Households Respondents ..................................... 89 4.1.1 Sex and Age Profile of Household Respondents ...................................... 89 4.1.2 Level of Education in Households .............................................................. 90 4.1.3 Household Occupational Profile.................................................................. 92 4.1.4 Household Income Levels ............................................................................ 94 4.1.5 Household Size................................................................................................ 96 4.1.6 Correlation between Demographic Background Indicators ............................................................................................ 96 4.2 Physical Environment: Condition of the Streets and Drainage Features................................................................................ 98 4.3 Gender Analysis of Household Waste Generation.................................... 100 4.3.1 Perception of Waste ..................................................................................... 101 4.3.2 Analysis of Waste Generating Household Gender ix