Control of Pests and Weeds by Natural Enemies

Control of Pests and Weeds by Natural Enemies

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English
484 Pages

Description

Biological control – utilizing a population of natural enemies to seasonally or permanently suppress pests – is not a new concept. The cottony cushion scale, which nearly destroyed the citrus industry of California, was controlled by an introduced predatory insect in the 1880s. Accelerated invasions by insects and spread of weedy non-native plants in the last century have increased the need for the use of biological control. Use of carefully chosen natural enemies has become a major tool for the protection of natural ecosystems, biodiversity and agricultural and urban environments.

This book offers a multifaceted yet integrated discussion on two major applications of biological control: permanent control of invasive insects and plants at the landscape level and temporary suppression of both native and exotic pests in farms, tree plantations, and greenhouses. Written by leading international experts in the field, the text discusses control of invasive species and the role of natural enemies in pest management.

This book is essential reading for courses on Invasive Species, Pest Management, and Crop Protection. It is an invaluable reference book for biocontrol professionals, restorationists, agriculturalists, and wildlife biologists.

Further information and resources can be found on the Editor’s own website at: www.invasiveforestinsectandweedbiocontrol.info/index.htm

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Published 26 January 2009
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EAN13 9781444300413
License: All rights reserved
Language English

Legal information: rental price per page €. This information is given for information only in accordance with current legislation.

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Preface ix
CONTENTS
PART 1 SCOPE OF BIOLOGICAL CONTROL 1
1 INTRODUCTION 3
2 TYPES OF BIOLOGICAL CONTROL, TARGETS, AND AGENTS 4 What is biological control? 4 Permanent control over large areas 4 Temporary pest suppression in production areas 6 Kinds of targets and kinds of agents 8
PART 2 KINDS OF NATURAL ENEMIES 9
3 PARASITOID DIVERSITY AND ECOLOGY 11 What is a parasitoid? 11 Terms and processes 11 Some references to parasitoid families 13 Groups of parasitoids 13 Finding hosts 15 Host recognition and assessment 19 Defeating host defenses 22 Regulating host physiology 24 Patch-time allocation 25
4 PREDATOR DIVERSITY AND ECOLOGY 29 Non-insect predators 29 Major groups of predatory insects 31 Overview of predator biology 33 Predator foraging behavior 34 Predators and pest control 37 Effects of alternative foods on predator impact 40
Interference of generalist predators with classical biological control agents 41 Predator and prey defense strategies 43
5 WEED BIOCONTROL AGENT DIVERSITY AND ECOLOGY 45 The goal of weed biological control 45 Terms and processes 45 Herbivory and host finding 46 Herbivore guilds 47 Groups of herbivores and plant pathogens 47
6 ARTHROPOD PATHOGEN DIVERSITY AND ECOLOGY 56 Bacterial pathogens of arthropods 56 Viral pathogens of arthropods 58 Fungal pathogens of arthropods 59 Nematodes attacking arthropods 61 Generalized arthropod pathogen life cycle 62 Epidemiology: what leads to disease outbreaks? 64
PART 3 INVASIONS: WHY BIOLOGICAL CONTROL IS NEEDED 67
7 THE INVASION CRISIS 69 Urgency of the invasion crisis 69 Case histories of four high-impact invaders 70 The extent of harmful impact by invaders 73 How do invasive species get to new places? 75 Why do some invasions succeed but others fail? 77 Invader ecology and impact 78
8 WAYS TO SUPPRESS INVASIVE SPECIES 80 Prevention: heading off new invasions through sound policy 80 Eradication based on early detection 83
vi
Contents
Invaders that do no harm 84 Control of invasive pests in natural areas 84 Factors affecting control in natural areas 86 Control of invasive species in crops 87
PART 4 NATURAL ENEMY INTRODUCTIONS: THEORY AND PRACTICE 89
9 INTERACTION WEBS AS THE CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR CLASSICAL BIOLOGICAL CONTROL 91 Terminology 91 Forces setting plant population density 93 Forces setting insect population density 94 Predictions about pests based on food webs 95
10 THE ROLE OF POPULATION ECOLOGY AND POPULATION MODELS IN BIOLOGICAL CONTROL,BY JOSEPH ELKINTON97 Basic concepts 97 Population models 104
11 CLASSICAL BIOLOGICAL CONTROL 115 Introduction 115 Classical biological control 115 New-association biological control 133 Summary 136
12 WEED BIOLOGICAL CONTROL 137 Differences and similarities between weed and arthropod programs 137 Why plants become invasive 138 Selecting suitable targets for weed biological control 139 Conflicts of interest in weed biological control 139 Faunal inventories: finding potential weed biological control agents 139 Safety: “will those bugs eat my roses?” 141 Pre-release determination of efficacy 142 How many agents are necessary for weed control? 143 Release, establishment, and dispersal 144 Evaluation of impacts 145 Non-target impacts 146 When is a project successful? 146 Conclusions 147
PART 5 TOOLS FOR CLASSICAL BIOLOGICAL CONTROL 149
13 FOREIGN EXPLORATION 151 Planning and conducting foreign exploration 151 Shipping natural enemies 154 Operating a quarantine laboratory 156 Managing insect colonies in quarantine 157 Developing petitions for release into the environment 158
14 CLIMATE MATCHING 160 Climate matching 160 Inductive modeling: predicting spread and incursion success 162 Deductive modeling: predicting spread and incursion success 164 Conclusions 165
15 MOLECULAR TOOLS,BY RICHARD STOUTHAMER167 Types of molecular data 168 Important biological control issues that molecular techniques can address 177 Conclusions 179
PART 6
SAFETY 181
16 NONTARGET IMPACTS OF BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AGENTS 183 Biological control as an evolving technology 183 The amateur to early scientific period (1800–1920) 184 A developing science makes some mistakes (1920–70) 188 Broadening perspectives (1970–90) 192 Current practice and concerns 195 “Re-greening” biological control 198
17 PREDICTING NATURAL ENEMY HOST RANGES 199 Literature records 199 Surveys in the native range 201 Laboratory testing to estimate host ranges 201 Interpretation of tests 207 Examples of host-range estimation 209 Risk assessment 213
18 AVOIDING INDIRECT NONTARGET IMPACTS 215 Kinds of potential indirect effects 215 Can risk of indirect impacts be reduced by predicting natural enemy efficacy? 216
PART 7 MEASURING NATURAL ENEMY IMPACTS ON PESTS 221
19 FIELD COLONIZATION OF NATURAL ENEMIES 223 Limitations from the agent or recipient community 223 Managing release sites 225 Quality of the release 225 Caging or other release methods 228 Persistence and confirmation 229
20 NATURAL ENEMY EVALUATION 230 Natural enemy surveys in crops 230 Pre-release surveys in the native range for classical biological control 231 Post-release surveys to detect establishment and spread of new agents 232 Post-release monitoring for non-target impacts 233 Measurement of impacts on the pest 233 Separating effects of a complex of natural enemies 248 Economic assessment of biological control 251
PART 8 CONSERVING BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AGENTS IN CROPS 253
21 PROTECTING NATURAL ENEMIES FROM PESTICIDES 255 Problems with pesticides 255 Super pests and missing natural enemies 256 Dead wildlife and pesticide residues in food 258 Cases when pesticides are the best tool 259 How pesticides affect natural enemies 259 Seeking solutions: physiological selectivity 261 Pesticide-resistant natural enemies 262 Ecological selectivity: using non-selective pesticides with skill 263 Transgenic Bt crops: the ultimate ecologically selective pesticide 264
22 ENHANCING CROPS AS NATURAL ENEMY ENVIRONMENTS 266 Problem 1: unfavorable crop varieties 266
Contents
vii
Solution 1: breeding natural enemy-friendly crops 268 Problem 2: crop fields physically damaging to natural enemies 269 Solution 2: cover crops, mulching, no-till farming, strip harvesting 269 Problem 3: inadequate nutritional sources 270 Solution 3: adding nutrition to crop environments 271 Problem 4: inadequate reproduction opportunities 272 Solution 4: creating opportunities for contact with alternative hosts or prey 273 Problem 5: inadequate sources of natural enemy colonists 273 Solution 5: crop-field connectivity, vegetation diversity, and refuges 274 Other practices that can affect natural enemies 276 Conclusions 278
PART 9
BIOPESTICIDES 279
23 MICROBIAL PESTICIDES: ISSUES AND CONCEPTS 281 History of microbial insecticides 281 What makes a pathogen a likely biopesticide? 282 Overview of options for rearing pathogens 283 Agent quality: finding it, keeping it, improving it 284 Measuring the efficacy of microbial pesticides 285 Degree of market penetration and future outlook 286
24 USE OF ARTHROPOD PATHOGENS AS PESTICIDES 289 Bacteria as insecticides 289 Fungi as biopesticides 291 Viruses as insecticides 295 Nematodes for insect control 298 Safety of biopesticides 301
PART 10 AUGMENTATIVE BIOLOGICAL CONTROL 305
25 BIOLOGICAL CONTROL IN GREENHOUSES 307 Historical beginnings 307 When are greenhouses favorable for biological control? 308
viii
Contents
Natural enemies available from the insectary industry 310 Growers’ commitment to change 315 Requirements for success: efficacy and low cost 315 Methods for mass rearing parasitoids and predators 318 Practical use of natural enemies 319 Programs with different biological control strategies 320 Integration of multiple biocontrol agents for several pests 322 Safety of natural enemy releases in greenhouses 323
26 AUGMENTATIVE RELEASE OF NATURAL ENEMIES IN OUTDOOR CROPS 324 Trichogrammawasps for moth control 325 Use of predatory phytoseiid mites 331 Control of filth flies 332 Other examples of specialized agents 333 Generalist predators sold for non-specific problems 336
PART 11 OTHER TARGETS AND NEW DIRECTIONS 339
27
VERTEBRATE PESTS 341
Predators as vertebrate control agents 341 Parasites as vertebrate control agents 341 Pathogens as vertebrate control agents 343 New avenues for biological control of vertebrates 346 Conclusions 348
28 EXPANDING THE BIOLOGICAL CONTROL HORIZON: NEW PURPOSES AND NEW TARGETS 350 Targeting weeds and arthropod pests of natural areas 351 Targeting “non-traditional” invasive pests 351 Conclusions 354
29 FUTURE DIRECTIONS 356 Classical biological control 356 Conservation biological control 356 Augmentation biological control 357 Biopesticides 357 Conclusions 358
References 359
Index 448