Mushrooms as Functional Foods
256 Pages
English

Mushrooms as Functional Foods

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Description

Food scientists will dig into this robust reference on mushrooms

Mushrooms as Functional Foods is a compendium of current research on the chemistry and biology, nutritional and medicinal value, and the use of mushrooms in the modern functional foods industry. Topics covered range from the agricultural production of mushrooms to the use of molecular biological techniques like functional genomics; from nutritional values of newly cultivated mushroom species to the multifunctional effects of the unconventional form of mushroom (sclerotium); from the physiological benefits and pharmacological properties of bioactive components in mushrooms to the regulation of their use as functional foods and dietary supplements in different parts of the world. With contributions from leading experts worldwide, this comprehensive reference:

* Reviews trends in mushroom use and research, with extensive information on emerging species
* Includes coverage of cultivation, physiology, and genetics
* Highlights applications in functional foods and medicinal use
* Covers worldwide regulations and safety issues of mushrooms in functional foods and dietary supplements
* Discusses the classification, identification, and commercial collection of newly cultivated mushroom species
* Features a color insert with photographs of different types of mushrooms

This is an integrated, single-source reference for undergraduates majoring in food science and nutrition, postgraduates, and professional food scientists and technologists working in the functional food area, and medical and health science professionals interested in alternative medicines and natural food therapies.

Subjects

Informations

Published by
Published 29 December 2008
Reads 0
EAN13 9780470368190
License: All rights reserved
Language English

Legal information: rental price per page €. This information is given for information only in accordance with current legislation.

Foreword
Preface
CONTENTS
Acknowledgments
Contributors
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Overview of Mushroom Cultivation and Utilization as Functional Foods ShuTing Chang 1.1. Introduction 1.2. What Are Mushrooms? 1.2.1. Definition of a Mushroom 1.2.2. Ecological Classification of Mushrooms 1.2.3. Identification of Mushrooms 1.3. Concept of Mushroom Biology and Applied Mushroom Biology 1.3.1. Mushroom Biology 1.3.2. Applied Mushroom Biology 1.3.3. Impact of Applied Mushroom Biology 1.3.3.1. Nongreen Revolution 1.3.3.2. Mushroom Bioremediation 1.4. Mushroom Cultivation 1.4.1. Major Phases of Mushroom Cultivation 1.4.2. Cultivation of Several Selected Mushrooms 1.4.2.1. Cultivation of it Agaricus 1.4.2.2. Cultivation ofLentinula edodes 1.4.2.3. Cultivation ofPleurotus sajorcaju 1.4.2.4. Cultivation ofVolvariella 1.4.2.5. Cultivation ofAgaricus brasiliensis
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1.4.2.6. Cultivation ofGanoderma lucidum 1.4.3. Utilization of Mushroom Germplasm 1.5. World Mushroom Production 1.6. Mushroom Biotechnology 1.6.1. Nutritional and Medicinal Value of Mushrooms 1.6.2. Nutriceuticals and Dietary Supplements 1.7. Development of World Mushroom Industry Movements 1.7.1. International Movement for Edible Mushrooms 1.7.2. International Movement for Medicinal Mushrooms 1.7.3. International Movement for Wild Mushrooms 1.8. Concluding Remarks References
Molecular Analysis and Genomic Studies of Shiitake MushroomLentinula edodes HoiShan Kwan and Winnie W. Y. Chum 2.1. Introduction 2.2. Isolation of Genes 2.2.1. Growth 2.2.1.1. SubstrateUtilizing Genes 2.2.2. Development 2.2.2.1. MatingType Genes 2.2.2.2. Genes Differentially Expressed in Dikaryotic Mycelium 2.2.2.3. Genes for Initial Fruiting Bodies/Primordium Formation 2.2.2.4. Genes for Mature Fruiting Bodies Formation 2.2.3. Physiological Processes inLentinula edodes 2.2.3.1. Signal Transduction 2.2.3.2. Energy Production 2.2.3.3. Structural Proteins in Development 2.3. Molecular Genetics 2.3.1. Generation of Markers 2.3.2. Typing/Fingerprinting 2.3.3. Genetic Mapping
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2.4. Functional Genomic Approaches for Gene Expression Analysis 2.4.1. Differential Display: RAPPCR 2.4.2. cDNA Representation Difference Analysis 2.4.3. SAGE and LongSAGE 2.4.3.1. SAGE Profiles: Mycelium to Primordium 2.4.3.2. SAGE Profiles: Fruiting Bodies 2.4.4. cDNA Microarray 2.4.5. Expressed Sequence Tag 2.4.6. Yeast TwoHybrid System 2.4.7. SequencingbySynthesis Approach (454 Life Science) 2.5. Transcriptional Regulation 2.5.1. Transcriptional Factors 2.5.2. Promoter Analysis 2.6. Transformation 2.6.1. Transformation Methods 2.6.1.1. PEGMediated Transformation 2.6.1.2. Restriction Enzyme – Mediated Integration 2.6.1.3. Others 2.6.2.Lentinula edodesGenes Used in Transformation 2.7. Process Analysis 2.7.1. Postharvest Studies 2.7.2. Stress Responses 2.7.2.1. Studies of Temperature Stress in Mushrooms 2.7.2.2. Studies of Molecular Chaperones in Fungi 2.7.3. Lignocellulose Degradation 2.7.4. Meiosis 2.8. Conclusion References
Nutritional Value and Health Benefits of Mushrooms Peter C. K. Cheung 3.1. Introduction 3.2. Wild and Cultivated Edible Mushrooms 3.3. Production of Cultivated Mushrooms
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3.4. Nutritional Composition 3.4.1. Conventional Edible Mushrooms 3.4.1.1. Moisture 3.4.1.2. Protein and Amino Acids 3.4.1.3. Fat 3.4.1.4. Ash and Minerals 3.4.1.5. Vitamins 3.4.1.6. Dietary Fiber 3.4.1.7. Carbohydrates 3.4.1.8. Energy 3.4.1.9. Other Components 3.5. Newly Cultivated/Nonconventional Mushrooms 3.6. Nutritional Evaluation 3.6.1. General Aspects 3.6.2. Biological Methods for Nutritional Evaluation 3.6.3. Mushroom Protein Quality 3.7. Health Benefits of Edible Mushrooms 3.7.1. General Aspects 3.7.2. Antioxidants in Mushrooms 3.7.2.1. Bioactive Components and Their Antioxidative Activities 3.7.2.2. Characterization of Mushroom Phenolic Antioxidants 3.7.2.3. Biosynthesis of Phenolic Compounds from Mushrooms or Fungi 3.7.3. Hypocholesterolemic Effect of Mushrooms 3.7.4. Hypoglycemic Effect of Mushrooms 3.8. Conclusion References
Sclerotia: Emerging Functional Food Derived from Mushrooms KaHing Wong and Peter C. K. Cheung 4.1. Introduction 4.2. Concepts of Mushroom Sclerotia 4.3. Ontogeny of Sclerotia 4.3.1. Morphological Aspects 4.3.2. Physiological Aspects
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4.3.2.1. Translocation 4.3.2.2. Exudation 4.4. Structure of Sclerotia 4.4.1. Rind 4.4.2. Cortex 4.4.3. Medulla 4.5. Cultivation of Mushroom Sclerotia 4.5.1. Sclerotia ofPleurotus tuberregium(Fries) Singer 4.5.2. Sclerotia ofPolyporus rhinocerusCooke 4.5.3. Sclerotia ofWolfiporia cocos(Schw.) Ryv. Et Gilbn [Poria cocos(Schw.) Wolf] 4.6. Biochemical, Nutritional, and Technological Characteristics of Mushroom Sclerotia 4.6.1. Biochemical Components of Mushroom Sclerotia 4.6.1.1. Cell Walls 4.6.1.2. Extracellular Matrix 4.6.1.3. Cytoplasmic Reserves 4.6.2. Nutritional Evaluation of Mushroom Sclerotia 4.6.2.1. Proximate Composition 4.6.2.2. Sclerotial Dietary Fiber 4.6.3. Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Mushroom Sclerotial DF 4.7. Biopharmacological Values of Mushroom Sclerotia of P. tuberregium, P. rhinocerus, andW. cocos 4.7.1. In Vitro Mineral Binding Capacity 4.7.2. In Vitro Fermentability 4.7.3. In Vivo Ca and Mg Absorption 4.7.4. Antitumor and Immunomodulatory Activities 4.8. Conclusion References
Antitumor and Immunomodulatory Activities of Mushroom Polysaccharides Vincent E. C. Ooi 5.1. Introduction 5.2. Antitumor Polysaccharides from Mushrooms (Higher Fungi)
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5.3. Mechanisms of Antitumor Action of Mushroom Polysaccharides 5.3.1. Antiproliferation of Cancer Cells and Induction of Apoptosis 5.3.2. Immunomodulation 5.3.2.1. Effects of Mushroom Polysaccharides on Macrophages and Spleen Cells 5.3.2.2. Effects of Mushroom Polysaccharides on NK Cells 5.3.2.3. Effects of Mushroom Polysaccharides on DCs 5.3.2.4. Effects of Mushroom Polysaccharides on Hematopoietic Stem Cells 5.3.3. Antimetastasis 5.3.4. Antiangiogenesis 5.4. Structure and Antitumor Activity Relationship of Polysaccharides 5.4.1. Effect of Molecular Mass 5.4.2. Impact of Branching Configuration 5.4.3. Relationship of Antitumor Activity and Conformation 5.4.4. Improvement of Antitumor Activity by Chemical Modifications 5.5. Conclusions References
Regulatory Issues of Mushrooms as Functional Foods and Dietary Supplements: Safety and Efficacy Solomon P. Wasser and Eden Akavia 6.1. Introduction 6.2. Legal and Regulatory Issues of Introducing and Controlling Dietary Supplements from Medicinal Mushrooms in Different Countries 6.2.1. World Health Organization Guidelines 6.2.2. Codex Alimentarius 6.2.3. United States 6.2.4. European Union 6.2.5. Canada 6.2.6. Australia and New Zealand 6.2.7. Japan 6.2.8. Israel
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6.3. Safety and Diversity of Dietary Supplement Types from Culinary – Medicinal Mushrooms 6.4. Submerged Culturing as Best Technique for Obtaining Consistent and Safe Mushroom Products 6.5. Experiences of Seven Countries in Consolidating Their Food Safety Systems 6.6. Summary References
Index
CONTENTS
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