Nitrogen Fixation in Agriculture, Forestry, Ecology, and the Environmental-Plant sciences

Nitrogen Fixation in Agriculture, Forestry, Ecology, and the Environmental-Plant sciences

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This book is the self-contained fourth volume of a seven-volume comprehensive series on nitrogen fixation. The outstanding aspect of this book is the integration of basic and applied work on biological nitrogen fixation in the fields of agriculture, forestry, and ecology in general. Nowadays, the concept of sustainability, which originated in agriculture and land use, is reaching many other areas of society and industry. Sustainability has a major part to play in the global challenge of continued development of regions, countries, and continents all around the World and biological nitrogen fixation has a key role in this process. This volume begins with chapters specifically addressing crops of major global importance, such as soybeans, rice, and sugar cane. It continues with a second important focus, agroforestry, and describes the use and promise of both legume trees with their rhizobial symbionts and other nitrogen-fixing trees with their actinorhizal colonization. An over-arching theme of all chapters is the interaction of the plants and trees with microbes and this theme allows other aspects of soil microbiology, such as interactions with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and the impact of soil-stress factors on biological nitrogen fixation, to be addressed. Furthermore, a link to basic science occurs through the inclusion of chapters describing the biogeochemically important nitrogen cycle and its key relationships among nitrogen fixation, nitrification, and denitrification. The volume then provides an up-to-date view of the production of microbial inocula, especially those for legume crops. No other available work provides the up-to-date and in-depth coverage of this volume, which is intended to serve as an indispensable reference work for academic, government, and industrial scientists working in the applied areas of agronomy, plant breeding, plant nutrition, ecology, and forestry as well as those in the basic science areas of plant physiology, soil microbiology, and related Environmental-Plant sciencesal disciplines. This volume will be an invaluable tool for students entering this challenging area of research and will provide science administrators with ready access to vital relevant information.



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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Series Preface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ix
Preface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii
List of Contributors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii
Chapter 1. Production and Biological Nitrogen Fixation of Tropical Legumes D. Werner. . . . . . . 1. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2.Phaseolussp. andVigna2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sp. (Beans) 3.Arachis hypogaea. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (Groundnut, Peanut) 7 4.Cicer arietinum8(Chickpea) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.Cajanus cajan(Pigeon pea) . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 6.Mucuna pruriens10(Velvet bean) and Other Legumes . . . . . . . . . . . . Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Chapter 2. Nitrogen Fixation by Soybean in North America S. G. Pueppke . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. Soybean: Pathways to North America and Establishment as a Crop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2. Soybean Production in North America . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 3. Major Soybean Cropping Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 4. Biological Nitrogen Fixation by Soybean in North America . . . . . 20 5. Perspectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Chapter 3. The Importance of Nitrogen Fixation to Soybean Cropping in South America M. Hungria, J. C. Franchini, R. J. Campo and P. H. Graham. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Taxonomy, Origins, and Importance of Soybean . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. Biological Nitrogen Fixation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. Economic Importance of Biological Nitrogen Fixation (BNF) in South America . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. Crop Management in South America . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. Final Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Acknowledgement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 4. Production, Regional Distribution of Cultivars, and Agricultural Aspects of Soybean in India S. K. Mahna. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. Introduction and Historical Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
v
25 25 25 29
32 34 38 39 39
43 43
vi
2. All-India Area Coverage, Productivity, and Production of Soybean between 1970-2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. All-India State-wise Area Coverage, Productivity, and Production of Soybean . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. Regional Distribution of Soybean Cultivars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. Regional Agricultural Aspects of Soybean Cultivation . . . . . . . . . . Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
45
46 49 59 64 64
Chapter 5. Soybean Cultivation and BNF in China J. E. Ruiz Sainz, J. C. Zhou, D.-N. Rodriguez-Navarro, J. M. Vinardell and J. E. Thomas-Oates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 1. Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 2. Soybean Cultivation in China: Historical Aspects and Current Situation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 3. Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria that Nodulate Soybean . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 4. The Soybean Germplasm Collection in China . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 5. Soybean in Crop Rotation and in Continuous Cultivation82. . . . . . . 6. Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Acknowledgement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Chapter 6. Soil Stress Factors Influencing Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation M. J. Sadowsky . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 2. Importance of Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 3. Symbiotic Interaction of Legumes with Rhizobia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 4. Nodulation and Nitrogen-Fixation Genetics in the Rhizobia and Bradyrhizobia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 5. Rhizobia in the Soil Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 6. Stress Factors in the Soil Environment that Influence N295Fixation . . 7. Concluding Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Chapter 7. Nodulated Legume Trees J. I. Sprent. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 2. Leguminosae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 3. Rhizobia that Nodulate Legume Trees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 4. Types of Nodule formed on Trees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 5. Mycorrhizas and Other Nutrient-Acquisition Systems . . . . . . . . . . 135 6. Measurement of Nitrogen Fixation by Trees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 7. Role of Legume Trees in Natural and Managed Systems . . . . . . . . 137 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
vii Chapter 8. Nitrogen Fixing Trees with Actinorhiza in Forestry and Agroforestry R. O. Russo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 2. General Characteristics of the Actinorhizal Symbiosis . . . . . . . . . . 144 3. Host Botanical Families . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 4. Nitrogen Fixation in Actinorhizal Trees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 5. Mycorrhizal Associations with Actinorhizal Trees . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 6. Actinorhizal Trees in Agroforestry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 7. The GenusCasuarina. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 8. The Experience of the Central America Fuelwood Project . . . . . . . 159 9. The Case ofAlnus acuminata161in Tropical Highlands . . . . . . . . . . . 10. Other Uses of Actinorhizal Trees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 11. Concluding Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
Chapter 9. Molecular Ecology of N2-fixing Microbes Associated with Gramineous Plants: Hidden Activities of Unknown Bacteria T. Hurek and B. Reinhold-Hurek. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 2. The Problem of Identifying Key Diazotrophic Bacteria in Gramineous Plants: The Classical Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 3. The Significance of Diazotrophic Grass Endophytes . . . . . . . . . . . 176 4. The Significance of Culture-Independent Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 5. The Significance ofnifH180-Targeted Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. Limitations ofnifH181-Targeted Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. Many Diazotrophs Defy Cultivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 8. Diazotrophic Grass Endophytes as Key Organisms for BNF in Gramineous Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 9. Summary and Outlook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
Chapter 10. Interactions of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza and Nitrogen-Fixing Symbiosis in Sustainable Agriculture J. M. Barea, D. Werner, C. Azcón-Guilar and R. Azcón199. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 2. Purpose of Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 3. Nitrogen-Fixing Symbioses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 4. Arbuscular Mycorrhiza . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 5. Interactions between AM Fungi and Rhizobia to Improve Legume Productivity in Agriculture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 6. Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
viii Chapter 11. Inoculant Preparation, Production and Application M. Hungria, M. F. Loureiro, I. C. Mendes, R. J. Campo and P. H. Graham. . . 223 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 2. Strain Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 3. Inoculant Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230 4. Inoculant Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237 5. Factors Affecting the Success of Inoculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 6. Main Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
Chapter 12. Nitrifying Bacteria C. Fiencke, E. Spieck and E. Bock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255 1. Nitrification as Part of the Nitrogen Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255 2. Two Physiological Groups of Bacteria Contribute to Nitrification . .257 3. Ecology and Detection of Nitrifying Bacteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258 4. Metabolism of Nitrifying Bacteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
Chapter 13. The Nitrogen Cycle: Denitrification and its Relationship to N2Fixation R. J. M. van Spanning, M. J. Delgado and D. J. Richardson. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277 2. The Nitrogen Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 3. Denitrification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281 4. Bacterial Respiratory Nitrate Reductases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282 5. Nitrite Reductases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296 6. Nitric Oxide Reductases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301 7. Nitrous Oxide Reductase.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .306 8. Linkage of the Denitrification Gene Clusters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307 9. Bioenergetics of Denitrification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310 10. Regulation of Transcription of Denitrification Genes . . . . . . . . . . 312 11. Regulation of Denitrification by Environmental Factors . . . . . . . 320 12. Diversity of Denitrification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321 13. Yeast and Fungal Denitrification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325 14. Concluding Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
Subject Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343