Introduction to Sustainability
English

Introduction to Sustainability

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About this book


This book develops a supporting structure for sustainable development, following a natural set of steps to reach an established goal. It provides the tools to navigate this Road to a Better Future by explaining concepts, giving ideas, proposing methods, and suggesting actions. To illustrate the utilization of techniques there are many examples, applied to a variety of activities, and to wrap up concepts, the last chapter is dedicated to the analysis of a community in search of a sustainable Environmental-Plant sciences. A thematic index has been designed to help a person quickly find information on relevant topics.



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Published 01 January 2005
Reads 11
EAN13 1402035586
Language English

Legal information: rental price per page €. This information is given for information only in accordance with current legislation.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1 - BASIC INFORMATION ON SUSTAINABLE ISSUES........ 1 1.1 The purpose of this book ......................................................................... 1 1.2 Defining sustainability........................................................................... 1  Weak and strong sustainabilit .................................................... ......... 15 1.4 Sustainable development vs. eco omic growth......... ......... 16 1.5 People’s participation .......... 21 1.5.1 Case study: Community participation in Albertslund - Denmark... 22 1.5.2 Case study - The will of a town - People defending their n ir nm nt an h alth 23 1.6 The ecological footprint .......... 24 1.7 The ecological rucksack ........... ......... 28 1.8 Emergy accounting ................................................................................ 30 1.9 Resilience social, economical, and olitical) .......... 3 1 10 En ir nm ntal r ili n 3 1.11 Externalities ......................................................................................... 34 1.12 Capital ................................................................................................. 35 1.13 Local Agenda 21.................................................................................. 3 1.14 The Bellagio principles........................................................................ 3 Internet references for Chapter 1 ............. ......... 37
CHAPTER 2 – THE CULTURE OF WASTE ............................................... 43 2.1 Introduction ........................................................................................... 43 2.2 First part: Current generation and treatment of waste ........................... 4 2.2.1 What is waste? ................................................................................. 43 2.2.2 Which are the com a t 4 2.2.3 Where is waste generated?............................................................... 49 2.2.4 How is waste dis osed of or treated?............................................... 5 2.2.5 Waste and its effect on the environment ........................................... 57 2.3 Hazardous waste ......... 59 2.3.1 Vitrification...................................................................................... 59 2.4 Recycling............................................................................................... 60 2.5 Incinerators ............................................................................................ 60 2.5.1 Case study: Heat from incinerator and wind energy for Göteborg, Sweden......................................................................................................... 6 2.6 Second part: Decreasing waste eneration ................... 6 2.7 Nature’s closed waste cycle................................................................... 64 2.8 Society’s open path for wastes .............................................................. 65 2.9 Ecosystem metabolism and metabolism in society ............................... 68 2.10 Why is waste produced? ....................................................................... 68 2.10.1 Case study: Generating light out of garbage, Groton, the USA..... 69 2.11 What can be done to correct thi it ati n ............. 72 2.12 Conservation of resources ................................................................... 73
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Introduction to Sustainability: Road to a Better Future
2.12.1 Energy reduction ............................................................................ 7 2.12.2 Controlling water usage ................................................................. 7 2 12 3 Th f at r f r in try and the reuse of wastewater............ 78 2.12.3.1 Examples to follow in water reuse .................................... 79 2.12.3.2 Case stud : Wastewater contributes to maintain a enewable resource: The ingenuity of a town, Clearlake, the USA.. 80 2.12.4 Keeping rivers clean ...................................................................... 8 2.12.5 Recoverin ener from tir 8 2.12.6 Savin s in the suppl chai 86 2.13 Actions to reduce consum tio ......... 2.14 Working together................................................................................. 94 Internet references for C apter 2 .............. ......... 98
CHAPTER 3 – SUSTAINABILITY IN THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT ... 105 3.1 Sustainability at the individual level ................................................... 105 3.2 Sustainability in the household............................................................ 10 3.2.1 Water use in the household ............................................................ 10 3.2.2 Solid waste in the household.......................................................... 107 3.2.2.1 An example to follow: Recover of carpets material ....... 110 3.2.3 Energy uses in the household......................................................... 111 3.2.4 Land use for the household ............................................................. 11 3.3 Urban transportation ............................................................................ 11 3.3.1 Case study: The role of transportation in sustainable Curitiba, razil 114 3.4 Upgrading slums in cities .................................................................... 117 3.5 Environmental sustainability ............................................................... 12 3 5 1 Air in a taina l n ir nm nt 120 3.5.2 Water in a sustainable environment .............................................. 124 3.5.3 Soil in a sustainable environment .................................................. 12 3 6 T am ff rt t ar taina l n ir nm nt 128 3.7 Sustainability in public admini trati n an in r an if 128 3.8 Sustainability in public health ............................................................. 13 3.9 Sustainability in education .................................................................. 13 3.10 Sustainabilit in commerce ............................................................... 134 3.11 Reducing energy consumption . ....... 13 3.11.1 Reducing energy consumption in the urban spac 140 3.11.2 Reducin land use ........................................................................ 14 Internet references for C a ter 3 .............. 142
CHAPTER 4 - INDUSTRIAL APPROACH TO SUSTAINABILITY……149 .1 Sustainability in industry ...................................................................... 149 4.1.0.1 Reductions in contamination ............................................. 149 4.1.0.2 Cleaner Production and other approaches .. ....... 151 4.1.0.3 Waste reduction ................................................................. 151
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.1.0.4 Reducing rejection ............................................................. 154 .1.0.5 Reengineer ng................ 154 .1.0.6 Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)........................................... 158 .1.0.7 Input-Output model .. ...... 159 .1.0.8 Environmental Input/Output model................................... 161 4.1.1 Industrial ecology (IE) ................................................................... 164 .1.1.1 Eco-efficiency............ ...... 16 4 1 2 In trial m ta li m 166 4.1.3 Materials flow anal sis .................................................................. 168 4.1.4 Industrial integration ...................................................................... 171 .1.4.1 Case study: Industrial integration, Kalundborg, Denmark ........................................................................................... 17 .1.4.2 Case study: A metallurgical process using the thermal content of flue gas for heating and to extract commercial products . 173 .1.4.3 Case study: Generation of electricity by using residues from other industries. The case of Belize ....................................... 174 4.1.5 Dematerialization ........................................................................... 175 4.1.6 Design for the environment (DfE) ................................................. 177 4.1.7 Indicators ....................................................................................... 177 4.1.8 Waste exchanges ...... 178 4.1.9 Comparison of methodologies ....................................................... 179 4.1.10 Rec clin in industr ................................................................... 180 4.1.11 Conclusions on industry............................................................... 184 4.2 Sustainability in transportation ............................................................ 18 4.2.1 Case study: The Transmilenio bus system in Bogotá, Colombia... 198 4.3 Sustainability in agriculture................................................................. 20 4.4 Forestry sustainability ......................................................................... 20 4.5 Sustainability in the construction industry .......................................... 203 4.5.1 Comparison between singles dwellings and multi-family buildings……………...…………………………………………………...205 4.5.2 Case study: Sustainability in paradise – The Maho Bay resort omplex, Virgin Islands, USA ................................................................... 209 nternet references for Chapter 4 .............. 212
CHAPTER 5 - ENERGY SUSTAINABILITY............................................ 219 5.1 Introduction ......................................................................................... 219 5 2 Bri f t hni al information on ener conversion equipment ............ 22 5.2.1 Coal-fired, gas-fired or oil-fired ower lants ............................... 223 5.2.2 Nuclear power plants ..................................................................... 224 5.2.3 Gas turbines ................................................................................... 224 5.2.4 Wind turbines................................................................................. 22 5.2.5 Diesel engines ........................................................................ ...... 225 5.2.6 Hydropower plants......................................................................... 22 5.2.7 Biomass.......................................................................................... 225
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Introduction to Sustainability: Road to a Better Future
5.2.8 Geothermal..................................................................................... 227 5.2.8.1 Heat um s ........................................................................ 22 5.2.8.2 Geothermal energy ............................................................ 231 .3 Non-conventional sources for energy generation ........... ....... 23 .3.1 Wind ener ................................................................................... 234 3 2 Ph t ltai PV .................................................................. 238 5.3.2.1 Case study: 1 MW decentralized and building integrated PV system in a new housing area, Amersfoort, the Netherlands...... 241 5.3.2.2 Case stud : Solar modules made inte ral to h permarket oof - Tam ere, Finland.................................................................... 241 .3.3 Solar collectors .............................................................................. 24 3 4 Bi ma 24 5 3 4 1 M than l 244 5 3 4 2 Ethan l 245 5.3.4.3 Biodiesel ............................................................................ 245 5 3 4 4 M than 245 5.3.4.5 Pyrolisis ............................................................................. 24 .3.5 Fuel cells ......................................................................................... 24 5 3 5 1 Th f l ll in a t m il 248 5.3.5.2 PAFC – Phosphoric acid fuel cell...................................... 252 5.3.5.3 PEM – Proton exchange embrane ........... ....... 25 5.3.5.4 MCFC – Molten carbonate ................................................ 253 5.3.5.5 SOFC – Solid oxide ........................................................... 253 5.3.5.6 AFC – Alkaline.................................................................. 254 5.3.5.7 DMFC – Direct methanol f l ll 254 5.3.5.8 Regenerativ 25 3 6 Th a a a r f n rgy ................. 25 Internet references for C apter 5 .............. ....... 258
CHAPTER 6 –MEASURING SUSTAINABILITY .................................... 265 .1 Types of indicators .............................................................................. 265 .2 Approach for choosing indicators................... ....... 26 .3 Sustainable vs. common indicat r 268 .4 Indicator uses....................................................................................... 269 .5 Indicator linkages ................................................................................ 274 .6 Integration of sustainable indicators.................................................... 275 .7 Wei ht of indicators ............................................................................ 276 8 Th h i f in i at r ....... 27 .9 Multipliers ........................................................................................... 281 10 Fram rk f r in i at r 284 11 Thr h l 28 .12 Carrying capacity.... ....... 28 .12.1 Carrying capacity in the en ironment ................ ....... 288 .12.2 Carrying capacity in the social fa ri ....... 290
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.12.3 Carrying capacity in the economy .......... ....... 291 .13 Selection of a set of final indicators .................................................. 293 .14 Monitoring progress .......................................................................... 294 .15 Indicators for the city.......................................................................... 295 .15.1 Case stud : Selection of indicators for the cit of Guadala ara, M xi 30 Internet references for Chapter 6 ............. ....... 309
HAPTER 7 – SUSTAINABLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT (SuIA) ........... 315 .1 Urban and regional sustainability ........................................................ 31 .1.1 Assets inventory................. ....... 316 .1.2 The baseline concept...................................................................... 316 .2 Agreeing on the goal ........................................................................... 320 .3 Understanding the problem .... 322 .4 Resources inventory ............................................................................ 32 .5 Plan to accomplish the objective ......................................................... 326 .6 Peo le’s o inion 326 .7 Criteria and indicators to gauge projects .............. .......... 328 .8 Application example: A communit looks for a sustainable ener o tion ................................................................................................. 33 .8.1 Goals .............................................................................................. 332 .8.2 Resources inventor .................. 33 .8.3 Criteria ........................................................................................... 333 .8.4 Criteria weights............................................................................... 33 .8.5 Threshold selection ........................................................................ 337 .8.6 Gathering the information............................................................. 339 .8.7 Coefficients .................................................................................... 34 .8.8 Alternatives selection..................................................................... 341 .8.9 Solving the problem ....................................................................... 341 .8.10 Objective of this exercise............................................................. 349 .8.11 The database ................................................................................ 350 .8.12 Conclusion ................................................................................... 35 Internet references for Chapter 7 ............. 356
HAPTER 8: CASE EXAMPLE - A COMMUNITY IN SEARCH OF ITS FUTURE ............................................................................................... 359 8.1 Back round information for a process ................................................ 359 8.2 Introduction to the sustainable initiative for a community .................. 36 8.2.1 The system and the process ....... 36 8.3 The process .......................................................................................... 36 A. Create an agency to be in charge f this whole proj t 366 . Make an inventory of assets and problems, and determine general orientation and sources of information ...................................................... 36 . Determine a general goal and es a li h a tim limit 368
Introduction to Sustainability: Road to a Better Future
. Establish definite objectives............................................................... 369 E. Create work commissions and establish res onsibilities.................... 370 . Set up measures, actions, plans and projects to be executed to accomplish the objectives .......................................................................... 37 G. Determine t pe of indicators needed ................................................. 375 . Choose indicators to measure progress of actions in (F) and of targets and goals established ...................................................................... 375 I. Develop a schedule detailin on a bar chart each action, from start and finish, listed in (F), includin their interrelationships and sequence... 37 . Determine the economic im acts that tourism and the other ndertakings will have on the economy, the environment and society...... 380 8.4 Impacts created by tourism.................................................................. 380 8.5 How to measure im acts ..................................................................... 38 8.6 Conclusions from studies .................................................................... 387 K. Establish a reporting mechanism to communicate results to people an f r f a k ....... 38 Internet references for C a ter 8 .............. ....... 3
APPENDIX .................................................................................................. 393 A.1 The Zeleny method for determining weights...................................... 395 A.2 Determination of Return on Investment and Net Present Value ........ 399 A.3 A uide to strate ic plannin .............................................................. 40 A.4 Visualizing progress towards su tainability goals .............................. 40 A.5 Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)............................................................. 410 A.5.1 Example of application in industrial complex .............................. 411 A.6 Regression analysis for weights determination .................................. 415 A.7 Discharges and their effect on th n ir nm nt 421 Internet references for Appendix...... ....... 42
GLOSSARY ................................................................................................. 427
IBLIOGRAPHY ........................................................................................ 435
INDEX.......................................................................................................... 439
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