Strange case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde

Strange case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde

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English

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Robert Louis Stevenson’s "Strange case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde" is a short novel or a novella set in London and published in 1886. Supposedly written in one night, then burnt and rewritten, it is central to Stevenson’s works. In this “gothic”, Poe-esque tale of dual personality, of good fighting evil, filled with religious overtones, and cast in the shadow of Stevenson’s own Edinburghian childhood, the reader finds what he wishes: a literary introduction to psychoanalysis, a reflection on the dual nature of man, an attack on Victorian society, or simply his own self. Rediscover "Strange case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde with an original preface and biography in this new edition by Les Éditions de Londres.


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Published 15 June 2013
Reads 35
EAN13 9781909782105
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Language English

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Strange case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde Robert Louis Stevenson 1886 With thanks to the Library Time Machine and Dave Wa lker for letting us use their picture of London in the 30s. http://rbkclocalstudies.wordpress.com/2012/12/27/da rk-citylondon-in-the-30s/
Preface
Robert Louis Stevenson
Contents
STRANGE CASE OF DR. JEKYLL AND MR. HYDE
Story of the door
Search for Mr. Hyde
Dr. Jekyll was quite at ease
The Carew murder case
Incident of the letter
Remarkable incident of Dr. Lanyon
Incident at the window
The last night
Dr. Lanyon's narrative
Henry Jekyll's full statement of the case
Preface
“Strange case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde” is a short novel by Robert Louis Stevenson published in 1886. It tells the story of a strange Dr Jekyll who seems to know an evil Mr Hyde, responsible for all kinds of crimes throughout London.
Plot
It is said Stevenson first wrote the story in one n ight and then burnt it, then rewrote it again. It is also said he dreamt a few scenes of the story before getting on with it shortly after waking up from a nightmare.
The action is set in London. Gabriel John Utterson is enjoying a walk with his friend Richard Enfield. The latter tells him about a certa in Mr Hyde, whom he saw one night trampling on a little girl. When asked by Utterson to describe the man, Enfield says: “There is something wrong with his appearance; some thing displeasing, something downright detestable. I never saw a man I so disliked, and yet I scarce know why. He must be deformed elsewhere; he gives a strong feeling of deformity, although I couldn’t specify the point…”. Then Utterson learns his friend Dr Jekyll has recently changed his will to make Hyd e his beneficiary. He finally meets Hyde, and is surprised by his revolting physical ap pearance. Utterson now believes Hyde might be exerting some kind of pressure on Jek yll, which would explain the strange change in the will. But Jekyll does not wan t to talk about it. One year later, a servant girl witnesses the beating to death of an M P by Hyde. The MP appears to be a client of Utterson, and he then confronts Jekyll on ce again who claims to have ended all relations with Hyde, even showing him a letter whose hand writing bears some resemblance. Then Jekyll decides to isolate himself , he does not want to see anyone, and Lanyon, a mutual friend, dies after getting inf ormation concerning Dr Jekyll. One day, Utterson and Enfield are called into Jekyll’s house by his butler. Apparently he has enclosed himself in his laboratory and does not wan t to leave it. They finally enter the room and find the body of Hyde in Jekyll’s clothes. They also find a letter written by Jekyll which explains everything.
Dual personality
In his confession scattered withbiblical overtones, evocative of Stevenson’s Calvinist upbringing, Jekyll starts with numerous m entions of the duality of man: “profound duplicity of life”,“man’s dual nature”,“that man is not truly one, but truly two.”.on is apparent in thoseBut the true confession and the essence of Stevens lines:“If each (element), I told myself, could be housed in separate identities, life would be relieved of all that was unbearable; the u njust delivered from the aspirations might go his way, and remorse of his mo re upright twin; and the just could walk steadfastly and securely on his upward p ath, doing the good things in which he found his pleasure, and no longer exposed to disgrace and penitence by the hands of this extraneous evil….”. Still, the near religious tone of some of those lines tells us that Stevenson is at the same time c onscious of man’s dual nature, a key principle of Christian scriptures (seeRomans:“Now if I do what I don’t want to do, it is no longer I who do it, but it is sin living in m e that does it.”), and critical of
Calvinist religion’s forceful attempt at suppressin g that ambiguity, therefore turning most men into suppressed apparent do-gooders with r epressed violent and animal instincts, a society made of ticking human bombs on ly concerned with the trappings of respectability. One might also consider that Steven son’s enduring illness has enhanced this feeling of the duality of everything, creative soul, sick wreck, going through constant psychological and physical ups and downs, and probably dreaming of suppressing the one to the benefit of the other, bu t realising at the same time that the combination of the two is what makes man truly uniq ue: creative, imaginative, soulful. In other words,ake on the“Strange case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde” is also a t negative effects on society of religion’s repressiv e instincts.
In conclusion, “Strange case of Dr Jekyll and Mr H yde” is the product of multiple influences: (Edgar Allan Poe for the narrative construction?), gothic tales and Scottish tales, but the main influence remains one of the “d ouble” or “Doppelganger” stories such asMaupassant’ sLe Horla, Oscar Wilde’s Dorian Gray, Hoffman’s Die Doppelganger, Doestoïevski’s Le Double, and evenPoe’s William Wilson. No wonder that most of those literary works, scattered across the United States, Britain, Germany, Russia and France, predate Freud’s works and the su rge of psychoanalysis within society.tween art and scienceIt shows the interesting historical relationship be , how one influences the other, and vice versa, how b oth are influenced by their times.
The Victorian times
It has been argued that “Strange case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde” was violently critical of Victorian society. In the bourgeois-dom inated Nineteenth century, respectability and hypocrisy naturally go hand in h and, two sides of the same coin. And it is true that this self-confident, domineering so ciety had a tendency to forget about its darker sides: abject poverty, pauperisation of dise nfranchised social classes by the wealthy in cahoots with the powerful, colonial expl oitation of so-calledinferior races, respectability of marriage coupled with the general isation of prostitution… If at the core, “Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde” is the tale of the dual nat ure of man being suppressed by the harsh Calvinist religion, an allegory on the effet it has on the mental stability of men and society as a whole, preceding the rise to promi nence of psychoanalysis (Freud is experimenting with psychoanalysis at the same time Stevenson is writing this novel), the context of Victorian society provides a truer than life background.
Tale of two cities: Edinburgh
Stevenson is a Scottish writer. One of the outcomes of the Scottish Enlightenment is the new outlook of the Scottish capital, divided since the Eighteenth century between the New Town, domain of the upper classes, and the Old Town, squalid, filthy terrain of the underclass. Deep rooted in Stevenson’s memories , the faces of the two Edinburgh come to life under the traits of the genteel, solem n Dr Jekyll, and the small, ugly and animal looking Mr Hyde. Dr Jekyll’s attempt to sepa rate himself from his evil feelings, and at the same time the pleasure he first finds li ving his new alter ego life (“headlong into a sea of liberty”ctorian society,), is not only a representation of the repressed Vi proper in appearance and oozing with lust, but also an allegory of the Edinburgh of the 19th century.
Bruce Chatwin on Stevenson
Bruce Chatwin did not like Stevenson. He considered him to be a second rank author that struck it lucky. Whether we agree with him or not is not the subject. But in a 1974 article titled “The road to the isles”, Chatwi n explains Stevenson was inspired by Deacon Brodie, an Edinburgh historical character, w ho had his dark sides and was finally hanged. Chatwin also insists further on the importance of Edinburgh in the genesis of “Strange case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde”. He explains that Chesterton is the one who first highlighted its Edinburghian influenc e, with its dreary and solemn atmosphere, its sequences of lights, its Calvinist extremes between absolute Good and Evil.
© 2013- Les Éditions de Londres
Robert Louis Stevenson
Robert Louis Stevenson (1850-1894) was a Scottish w riter of international fame, known mainly for Treasure Island and The strange ca se of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde. Novelist, poet, travel writer, Stevenson experiment ed with many genres: adventure, horror, travel…He was acclaimed in his time and is still acclaimed in ours, but was strangely dismissed as a second class author over m any decades of the twentieth century, a strange time of cultural self-denial whe n moral intentions seemed to matter more than creativity. Stevenson was also an intensi ve traveller. He went to France numerous times, crossed the Atlantic, crossed the A merican continent, sailed to the South Pacific, and died in the South Seas aged forty-four.
Short biography
Stevenson was born Robert Lewis Balfour Stevenson i n Edinburgh on November 13th, 1850. His father was a successful lighthouse engineer. He did visit the western shores of Scotland in his young age, accompanying h is father, found more interest in the sceneries which had already inspired Walter Sco tt than in civil engineering, and it is from the exposure to Celtic verbal culture over the se travels that he drew his art of story-telling. Three things had a profound influenc e on Stevenson’s early life, therefore influencing his future as a writer:his weak health, explaining why he would eventually die supposedly of tuberculosis (although people now think it was a different disease), and why Scottish winters were terrible, dark ordeal s for him;his Presbyterian family, of which he did not share the religious views; andEdinburgh, that he chose to escape all his life, even though it had a profound influence o n his aesthetic view of the world, its dark, dreary side, its physical contrast between go od and evil… He attended Edinburgh University, chose not pursue engineering as a caree r, and studied law. He became increasinglybohemianrty, Justice,, let his hair grow, belonged to the LJR club (Libe Reverence), something which his father eventually d iscovered much to his discomfort: “Disregard everything our parents have taught us”, so goes the preamble of the LJR constitution.
Stevenson then took part in literary circles. He me t Leslie Stephen from the Cornhill magazine, who liked Stevenson’s work, and then introduced him to William Ernest Henley, a man with a wooden leg who would th en become a close friend and also the model for Long John Silver of Treasure Isl and. It is because of health reasons
that Stevenson started travelling, first to Menton in 1873; then back in Scotland, he finished his studies but never practised law. And h e travelled again, mainly in France, Grez-sur-Loing, Fontainebleau and Paris, where he a lso spent time within the local Bohemian circles. He made a canoe voyage with Walte r Simpson between Belgium and France, true story which would become the basis for his first book,An Inland voyage. At the end of the canoe voyage, he also met Fanny Van de Grift Osbourne. He would later fall for her and become her lover. He t ravelled to the Cévennes, which would inspire another book,Travels with a donkey in the Cévennes. He then decided to join Fanny and embarked for America. He arrived in New York and travelled to California by train, eventually reaching Monterey. He was once again fighting against his poor health, and had to wait before making the trip to San Francisco, where he finally found Fanny. He married her in 1880, they s pent time in the Napa Valley, and together travelled back to Britain.
Between 1880 and 1887, Stevenson continued to strug gle with his health, and regularly changed residence, living in Scotland and England, but mainly Bournemouth, Poole, Dorset, and France in the winter. This is du ring this period that he wrote his most famous works: The strange case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, Treasure Island, Kidnapped, The black arrow.
In 1888, he chose to leave Britain and travel to th e South Seas. This is where he would spend the rest of his life and die. His first port of call was San Francisco, then Hawaï, then Tahiti, New Zealand and finally Samoa. He wrote“In the South seas”as an account of his South Pacific trips. He settled in V alima, a village situated in the Samoan island of Upola, where he managed to be in very fri endly terms with the locals whilst managing the colonial authorities. He asked many of his friends from Britain to come and visit him, but none of them ever did. After bei ng very concerned he was losing his creative streak, he produced interesting work in th e last few years: “Catriona” (or David Balfour), and also“Weir of Hermiston”, which he never finished but that he considered to be his best. He then died aged forty-four of a c erebral haemorrhage. Tusitala (or “story-teller”, his Samoan name) was buried on Moun t Vaea.
Stevenson’s heritage
At the end of the Nineteenth century, along with Ki pling, Stevenson was one of the most popular writers. The diversity of Stevenson’s work, adventure, travel writing, “gothic” tales, meant later literary authorities s truggled to put him in a category, explaining why both in France and in England he cam e to be considered as a second class writer, or a children’s writer (witness the p roliferation of shortened versions and adaptations of Treasure Island). In France, the “hi gh brow-ness” of the Structuralist phase, with its theoretical, uncompromising approac h to writing, its emphasis on style over content, its willingness to break with the pas t at any cost, its disdain of minor genres, its rejection of narrative, all this meant Stevenson was forgotten. Fortunately, he has come back in recent years, and more and more people now appreciate him for what he is: a prolific, extraordinary story-teller and writer.
© 2013- Les Éditions de Londres
STRANGE CASE OF
DR. JEKYLL AND MR. HYDE
Story of the door
Mr. Utterson the lawyer was a man of a rugged count enance, that was never lighted by a smile; cold, scanty and embarrassed in discourse; backward in sentiment; lean, long, dusty, dreary, and yet somehow lovable. At friendly meetings, and when the wine was to his taste, something eminently human be aconed from his eye; something indeed which never found its way into his talk, but which spoke not only in these silent symbols of the after-dinner face, but more often an d loudly in the acts of his life. He was austere with himself; drank gin when he was alo ne, to mortify a taste for vintages; and though he enjoyed the theatre, had not crossed the doors of one for twenty years. But he had an approved tolerance for others; someti mes wondering, almost with envy, at the high pressure of spirits involved in their m isdeeds; and in any extremity inclined to help rather than to reprove. "I incline to Cain's heresy," he used to say quaintly: "I let my brother go to the devil in his own way." In this character, it was frequently his fortune to be the last reputable acquaintance and t he last good influence in the lives of down-going men. And to such as these, so long as th ey came about his chambers, he never marked a shade of change in his demeanour.
No doubt the feat was easy to Mr. Utterson; for he was undemonstrative at the best, and even his friendship seemed to be founded in a similar catholicity of good-nature. It is the mark of a modest man to accept hi s friendly circle ready-made from the hands of opportunity; and that was the lawyer's way . His friends were those of his own blood or those whom he had known the longest; his a ffections, like ivy, were the growth of time, they implied no aptness in the object. Hen ce, no doubt, the bond that united him to Mr. Richard Enfield, his distant kinsman, th e well-known man about town. It was a nut to crack for many, what these two could see i n each other, or what subject they could find in common. It was reported by those who encountered them in their Sunday walks, that they said nothing, looked singularly du ll, and would hail with obvious relief the appearance of a friend. For all that, the two m en put the greatest store by these excursions, counted them the chief jewel of each we ek, and not only set aside occasions of pleasure, but even resisted the calls of business, that they might enjoy them uninterrupted.
It chanced on one of these rambles that their way l ed them down a by-street in a busy quarter of London. The street was small and wh at is called quiet, but it drove a thriving trade on the week-days. The inhabitants we re all doing well, it seemed, and all emulously hoping to do better still, and laying out the surplus of their gains in coquetry; so that the shop fronts stood along that thoroughfa re with an air of invitation, like rows of smiling saleswomen. Even on Sunday, when it veil ed its more florid charms and lay comparatively empty of passage, the street shone ou t in contrast to its dingy neighbourhood, like a fire in a forest; and with it s freshly painted shutters, well-polished brasses, and general cleanliness and gaiety of note , instantly caught and pleased the eye of the passenger.
Two doors from one corner, on the left hand going e ast, the line was broken by the entry of a court; and just at that point, a certain sinister block of building thrust forward its gable on the street. It was two stories high; s howed no window, nothing but a door on the lower story and a blind forehead of discolou red wall on the upper; and bore in every feature, the marks of prolonged and sordid ne gligence. The door, which was equipped with neither bell nor knocker, was blister ed and distained. Tramps slouched