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Globalization, Nationalism and the Text of Kichaka-Vadha


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The first English translation of ‘Kichaka-Vadha’ is presented alongside the most detailed scholarly analysis based on a comprehensive range of archival documents about this anticolonial Marathi classic to date.

In addition to providing the first English translation of ‘Kichaka-Vadha’, this volume offers the most detailed scholarly analysis to date of the anticolonial Marathi classic, drawing on a comprehensive range of archival documents.

The documentary material comes from colonial-era police, judicial, administrative, legislative, and newspaper sources. The commentary provides a broad overview of the formation of the modern Marathi theatre as well as a close reading of ‘Kichaka-Vadha’ itself. It illuminates the major events and personalities alluded to in the play and highlights the dramaturgic strategies used to advance a radical political agenda.

The play attracted immense audiences at the height of the Independence movement in early-twentieth-century India, making it extraordinarily influential, both politically and theatrically. Numerous playwrights sought to emulate its successful nationalist strategies and produced a significant body of political theatre in colonial India, while British authorities undertook several measures to minimize their impact.

This study of how anticolonial plays operated in an Indian context encourages fruitful comparisons with the resistance strategies employed by plays in other Asian and African countries facing various colonial mechanisms of regulation and suppression of public performances.

Preface; Part I: Globalization, Nationalism and Theatre in British India: The Historical Terrain of ‘Kichaka-Vadha’; Part II: Kichaka–Vadha, or The Slaying of Kichaka; A Note on the Translation; List of Characters; Act One; Act Two; Act Three; Act Four; Act Five; Key Terms; Index



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Globalization, Nationalismand
the TextofKichaka-Vadha

Globalization, Nationalismand
the TextofKichaka-Vadha

The First EnglishTranslation of the
Marathi AnticolonialClassic, witha Historical
Analysis ofTheatre in British India

Translated with an Introduction by
Rakesh H.Solomon

Anthem Press
An imprint of Wimbledon Publishing Company

This edition first published in UK and USA 2014
75–76 Blackfriars Road ,London SE1 8HA, UK
or PO Box 9779, London SW19 7ZG ,UK
244 Madison Ave #116, New York ,NY 10016 ,USA

Copyright © 2014 Rakesh H .Solomon introduction and translation.

The moral right of the author has been asserted.

All rights reserved.Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above,
no part of this publication may be reproduced ,stored or introduced into
a retrieval system ,or transmitted, in any form or by any means
(electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise),
without the prior written permission of both the copyright
owner and the above publisher of this book.

British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
A catalog record for this book has been requested.

ISBN­13: 978 1 78308 265 0 (Hbk)
ISBN­10: 1 78308 265 8 (Hbk)

Cover image: Untitled oleograph ,c .1895 ,by Raja Ravi Varma (1848–1906)

This title is also available as an ebook.

To June



Part I.Globalization, Nationalismand Theatrein British India

The Historical Terrain of


Part II.Kichaka-Vadha, or TheSlaying of Kichaka

A Note on theTranslation

List of Characters
Act One
Act Two
Act Three
Act Four
Act Five
Key Terms







I wish to thank a number of libraries and state and national government archives
that extended many courtesies to me while I consulted materials at their collections
for this as well as other projects on theatre in colonial India. I am grateful ,above
all ,to the Maharashtra State Archives, Bombay, for access to Judicial Department
Records of the Bombay Presidency .I am very grateful as well to the Mumbai
Marathi Grantha Sangrahalaya, and particularly to reference librarian Krushnakant
Shinde, for access to Marathi playscripts and production photographs. For giving
me of their time and advice ,I thank the respective heads of the following
institutions: Asiatic Society ,Bombay; Asiatic Society, Calcutta; National Library,
Calcutta ;and National Archives ,New Delhi .I also thank the Oriental and India
Office Collections ,British Library ,London, for access to their materials. Finally,
I thank the librarians and staff of Interlibrary Loan at Wells Library, Indiana
University Bloomington, for their assistance with obtaining print and microfilm
material, including a copy of the original 1907 text of Kichaka-Vadha rfmow ihhc
this translation was made.
I owe a special debt to the National Endowment for the Humanities and the
American Institute for Indian Studies for two senior fellowships that provided very
generous support for year­long research stays in India. I also wish to register my
appreciation to Indiana University Bloomington for several substantial research
awards .From among these ,I am especially grateful for two New Frontiers in the
Arts and Humanities Grants from the Indiana University Lilly Endowment as well
as awards from the College Arts and Humanities Institute ,the Office of the Vice
President for Research, and the President’s Council on International Programs.
I also wish to thank the National Science Council of Taiwan and Frank
J. Hildy for their invitation to present my Indian theatre research at the weeklong
Symposium on Theatre Historiography at Taiwan National University in Taipei.
For generous fellowships that encouraged my Indian theatre work at the earliest
stage of my career, I wish to record my continued appreciation to the East­West
Center at the University of HawaiʻMa tiāt aneah dootnevsrU inof City ornialif a
at Davis.
Beyond institutions and agencies,I am obliged to the following friends for their
help. I am especially grateful to Marathi theatre aficionado Pramod Mhaiskar for
his generous and gracious assistance ,despite his own professional obligations. For
their exertions in obtaining photographs and scripts, I thank Shweta and Prashant
Chavan in Mumbai and Nitin Madhukar Prabhune in Solapur.
My Indian theatre work has been sustained by both the extraordinary
professional generosity and the pioneering scholarship of Phillip Zarrilli, John
Emigh ,Farley Richmond and Kathy Foley .For that, and for their support in


Globalization, Nationalismand theText ofKichaka-Vadha

myriad ways and over many years, I wish to record my profound gratitude. For
invitations to contribute essays on Indian theatre historiography, I thank Thomas
Postlewait and Steve Wilmer (Theatre HistoriesWriting and Rewriting National) ,
Christopher Balme (Theatre Research International C),si­Hnghi( gnreP In Search of
the Historical Scene:Perspectives onTheatre Historiography (iaathB idnaN dna ,)Modern
Indian Theatre: ColonialEncounters and Contested Formations. )amI o tafelut a sl org
several professional organizations for allowing me to refine my work through
public presentation and discussion. My greatest debt is to ASTR (American Society
for Theatre Research) for invitations to present at its annual plenary sessions in
New York City ,Minneapolis, New Orleans, Durham and Philadelphia. While I
cannot list here all the societies that afforded me such occasions ,I must mention
the following that offered me multiple opportunities: ATHE (Association for
Theatre in Higher Education),AAP (Association for Asian Performance),Annual
Conference on South Asia, MLA (Modern Language Association) ,and IFTR
(International Federation for Theatre Research).
Since I work as much in American theatre as I do in Indian theatre, I would be
remiss if I did not acknowledge at least some of my most important debts to my
Americanist colleagues. For their generosity and support at some crucial junctures,
Iam especially grateful to Lincoln Konkle ,David Crespy, and Matthew Roudané.
I umCln oh Js,omtt eiramnaeJ ,ao lsshwio thtna khtmea sewll as Stephen Bo
Higgins ,Cecily Hill ,Billy Middleton ,Gerald Weales and William Demastes for
their generous assessments of my book Albee in Performance. For invitations to
write essays for their respective volumes ,I thank Bruce Mann (Casebook on Edward
Albee )na dtSpeeh noBomtt(s Cambridge Companion to Edward Albee).
At Indiana University Bloomington, I thank the India Studies Program for the
interdisciplinary exchange it has fostered by regularly bringing together South
Asia experts from a range of fields in the US and abroad. For camaraderie beyond
my Department of Theatre and Drama ,I am grateful to many colleagues in the
three academic units I am affiliated with: India Studies Program ,Department of
Comparative Literature and Cultural Studies Program. It is a pleasure to recall
the friendship of several Indiana University colleagues ,both past and present,
especially Susan and John Samuel ,Pravina Shukla ,Henry Glassie, Prema and Bill
Popkin ,Marsha Minton, Steve Raymer ,Barbara Skinner, Michael Dodson ,Murray
McGibbon ,Claire and Gerald Larson ,and Mala and Kumble Subbaswamy.
During research and other travel over the last several years ,I have incurred the
debt of many friends and relatives. So it is a very special pleasure to thank them
and to replay some fond memories, most particularly of the superb food and easy
laughter of June’s mother,Agnes ,in her Calcutta home. For their hospitality and
enduring friendship ,I thank Vinita and Amar Singh in Menlo Park ,Shamim and
Kaiz Poonawala in Austin, Cellie and Ronnie and Molly and Ronald in Mangalore,
Mr. and Mrs. Benjamin and Amisha and Gopal Shah in Dohad, Fatima Ghosh and
family in Calcutta, and Sumita and Vinod Mehta in New Delhi.


I am grateful to my family for their understanding while I pursued this work.
I owe special thanks to my sister Rita, her husband Vijay Somgal and my nephew
Raunak for sharing a number of their Marathi contacts. For their moral support,
I thank my sister Rekha and my brother Felix and his wife Susan and my nieces
Asha and Aneesha in San Francisco. For debts whose import becomes clearer still
with the passage of time, I must thank my parents Gulab and Horace. For some
inherited affinity to Marathi, I should thank my grandparents Prem and Bala Ram
Solomon and particularly my great­grandfather whom family tradition recalls as a
Sanskrit scholar from the Maratha Holkar court.
Finally ,and most crucially, my deepest debt of all is to my wife June who
supported this enterprise with characteristic enthusiasm. For this – and for her
support for my several endeavors over so many years – I remain truly grateful.


Part I

Globalization, Nationalismand Theatre
in British India


Sawai Mahavraowancha Mrityu981 )3Sawai Madhavrao, T(ehD aehto f

K. P. Khadilkar: Lifein Theatreand History

Krishnaji Prabhakar Khadilkar was born on 25 November 1872 in the small
Indian principality of Sangli that boasted a rich cultural history and a claim as
the birthplace of modern Marathi drama. Following high school Khadilkar
studied at the Deccan College in Poona, one of the oldest institutions of modern
Western education in India founded in 1821 by the liberal Orientalist and
education reformer Mountstuart Elphinstone. At this distinguished college in the

1 In all quoted material in the following pages ,I have retained each source’s original spelling –
without any editorial comment. These spellings include multiple variants for Indian names and
terms .I have followed this policy in order to convey a flavor of each document’s historical period as
well as to allow my text to flow without the excessive editorial interruptions that would otherwise
have been necessary. Moreover ,in my own text ,for the sake of consistency – and given the period
primarily covered here – I have used colonial­era names for Indian cities ,even for those that have
been renamed in recent years.


Globalization, Nationalismand theText ofKichaka-Vadha

huge colonial administrative unit known as the Bombay Presidency ,Khadilkar
combined familiarity with ancient Sanskrit literature and culture with proficiency
in English ,European literary traditions and modern political ideas. Soon after
his graduation in 1892 he wrote his first play, Sawai Mahavraowancha Mrityu(The
Death of Sawai Madhavrao ,1893) that dramatized events from Maratha history
but drew imaginatively on several Shakespearean models. Eventually over a career
of forty­two years Khadilkar authored a total of fifteen dramatic works – six plays
and nine sangeet natakspeesalci, cht bu ylcal dram or musi yfow ihsa– m
naKichakaVadha elS(hT gfoyanihaka Kic07),, 19Manapman11 )ronoH( is Dnd a19r,noho
andSwayamvara (1916) fused great theatrical entertainment with covert calls for
nationalist resistance and enjoyed extraordinary popular success as well as high
critical acclaim. Together with his main actor­singer Bal Gandharva, Khadilkar
became the principal force in shaping a period now regarded by common consent
as the golden age of Marathi theatre.
Khadilkar also studied law and pursued a parallel career as a journalist ,political
activist and associate of Bal Gangadhar Tilak, the dynamic leader of the radical wing
of the Indian National Congress – the chief political organization fighting British
rule. Tilak was a scholar ,philosopher ,mathematician, and, above all ,a towering
nationalist leader who laid the groundwork for India’s independence and whose
strategies inspired Mahatma Gandhi. Popularly called Lokamanya, or Revered by
the People,Tilak was acknowledged as “the Father of the Indian Revolution” by
Jawaharlal Nehru, independent India’s first prime minister.Tilak picked Khadilkar
to serve as an editor at two weekly newspapers he owned ,the Marathi­language
Kesarignaueg lgsi­hal( ehTthd Ene onLian) Mahratta In 1892 .Kesari deyojnee th
largest circulation among vernacular newspapers in India. Both these publications
were geared to rally mass political opposition against colonial rule, and for their
pronouncements in these newspapers Tilak and Khadilkar were at different times
imprisoned on charges of sedition and conspiracy against the state.
Khadilkar went on to serve as the chief editor of Mahratta o9180t 01 .m 19 fro
After 1910, however ,he withdrew from both newspapers .In 1917 he returned
to edit the Kesariaey ,sr eereromil T’sakd anonup n9102h d aehti r th foe took
over the editorship of the Lokamanyauntil 1923.That year he founded and edited
a new daily called Navakald y anmoabniB eh dlbsi – a newspaper httai stsli lup
that still gets embroiled in skirmishes with political personalities and government
authorities from time to time, as happened recently when its editorial against a
state politician led to an attack on its offices.
Given his close and longstanding association with Tilak, the most frequent
epithet for Khadilkar today in both popular as well as scholarly writing is “Tilak’s
lieutenant.” It was a label that colonial authorities themselves had pinned on him

2Brown, 77.
3 trrepuop es‘R“na revtideairo ”,l’sa ttca kaMarhti daily office oTimes of Indianaau22J 00.9yr2 Six,
years earlier the editor of Navakalmp ias wmpteoft ofs on cuoc trfor severisoned nhcraeg nadsyo
for publishing editorials critical of a judge: see “Navakaldelia j” ,rotide Times of IndiaJu6 1,3.00 2ly

The HistoricalTerrain ofKichaka-Vadha

Sawai Mahavraowancha Mrityu1893) havrao, Dee Th (daM iawaS fo hta


as early as 1917: a biographical sketch prepared for the Government of Bombay
lists him prominently – right behind the leader’s main relatives – as one of
Tilak’s principal “lieutenants.” Given this connection, it is no surprise that most
Khadilkar plays – whether set in historical, contemporary, or mythical locales –
grapple directly or indirectly with his era’s political or social issues .In A History
of Marathi Literatureksya shageug tst tahmawati Deshpandea dnM V. .aRajhdsuKu
for Khadilkar “writing for the stage was a part of his larger mission :to teach the
people ,and the teaching was moral as well as political […] He was ,in a sense,
a journalist first ,and everything else afterwards.”Although this might overstate
the case somewhat, their assessment of the source of his rhetorical power is quite
accurate:“The telling prose of his plays came from the journalist in him – as also,
if a little, from the public speaker in him.”
It is this rhetorical power to move an audience in the cause of a radical nationalist
program, a program deemed terrorism by colonial authorities ,that makes his best
known play Kichaka-Vadha so successful saa p eieco foptilil caeathe trna –ht d ta
once rendered it so dangerous to the British .Coupled with the rhetorical prowess
is his dramaturgy that crafts characters and events that emerge from considered

4Judicial Department ,No .3074/H/l, Maharashtra State Archives ,Bombay.
6 Deshpande and Rajadhyaksha 11.4,