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Statemaking and Territory in South Asia

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Analyzes how European colonization transformed the organization of territory in South Asia, by examining the territorial disputes that underlay the Anglo–Gorkha War and subsequent efforts of the colonial state to reorder its territories.


How did European colonization transform the organization of territory in South Asia? “Statemaking and Territory in South Asia: Lessons from the Anglo–Gorkha War (1814–1816)” seeks to connect two historical junctures at which the idea of the modern state as a geographically discernible and territorially circumscribed entity emerged in colonial South Asia.


The volume first examines the territorial disputes that emerged along the common frontiers of the Himalayan kingdom of Gorkha (present-day Nepal) and the English East India Company that eventually led to the Anglo–Gorkha War of 1814–1816. The volume argues that these disputes arose out of older tribute, taxation and property relationships that left their territories perpetually intermixed and with ill-defined boundaries. Following the war, the British sought to end this territorial illegibility by defining the joint boundary of the two states, rendering it linear and distinct.


Secondly, the volume also reveals the long-drawn-out process whereby the colonial state, through various cartographic projects and changes in administrative routines, attempted to rearrange its internal administrative divisions in an effort to create the geographical template of the modern state. This template would occupy a definite portion of the earth’s surface and with non-overlapping divisions and subdivisions.


List of Maps, Plates and Tables; Acknowledgments; Abbreviations; Chapter 1: Statemaking, Cultures of Governance and the Anglo–Gorkha War of 1814–1816; Chapter 2: The Agrarian Environment and the Production of Space on the Anglo–Gorkha Frontier; Chapter 3: The Champaran–Tarriaini Frontier; Chapter 4: The Gorakhpur–Butwal Frontier; Chapter 5: The Disjointed Spaces of Precolonial Territorial Divisions; Chapter 6: Making States Legible: Maps, Surveys and Boundaries; Chapter 7: Conclusion; Glossary; Notes; Archival Sources; Bibliography; Index 

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Published 15 December 2012
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EAN13 9780857285324
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Statemaking and Territory in South Asia
Statemaking and Territory in South Asia
Lessons from the Anglo–Gorkha War (1814–1816)
BERNARDO A. MICHAEL
Anthem Press An imprint of Wimbledon Publishing Company www.anthempress.com
This edition first published in UK and USA 2012 by ANTHEM PRESS 7576 Blackfriars Road, London SE1 8HA, UK or PO Box 9779, London SW19 7ZG, UK and 244 Madison Ave. #116, New York, NY10016, USA
Copyright © Bernardo A. Michael 2012
The author asserts the moral right to be identified as the author of this work.
All rights reserved. Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise), without the prior written permission of both the copyright owner and the above publisher of this book.
British Library CataloguinginPublication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.
Library of Congress CataloginginPublication Data Michael, Bernardo A. Statemaking and territory in South Asia : lessons from the AngloGorkha War (1814–1816) / Bernardo A. Michael. pages cm. – (Anthem modern South Asian history) “This title is also available as an ebook”–Title page verso. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 9780857285195 (hbk : alkaline paper) – ISBN 085728519X (hbk : alkaline paper) 1. Nepalese War, 1814–1816. 2. Nationbuilding–Nepal–History–19th century. 3. Nationbuilding–Great Britain–History–19th century. 4. Nepal–Colonization. 5. Great Britain–Territorial expansion. 6. Nepal–Boundaries–India. 7. India–Boundaries–Nepal. I. Title. DS485.N4M47 2012 954.96–dc23 2012036738
ISBN13: 978 0 85728 519 5 (Hbk) ISBN10: 0 85728 519 X (Hbk)
This title is also available as an eBook.
For Ammedeus and Nirmala Michael and Thomas and Mary Varughese
List of Maps, Plates and Tables
Acknowledgments
Abbreviations
C
O
N
TEN
TS
Chapter 1 Statemaking, Cultures of Governance and the Anglo–Gorkha War of 1814–1816
Chapter 2
The Agrarian Environment and the Production of Space on the Anglo–Gorkha Frontier
Chapter 3 The Champaran–Tarriaini Frontier
Chapter 4 The Gorakhpur–Butwal Frontier
Chapter 5
The Disjointed Spaces of Precolonial Territorial Divisions
Chapter 6 Making States Legible: Maps, Surveys and Boundaries
Chapter 7 Conclusion
Glossary
Notes
Archival Sources
Bibliography
Index
i
x
xiii
xvii
1
1
7
3
4
6
1
9
7
8
7
123
129
137
197
201
221
LIST OF MAPS, PLATES AND TABLES
Book Cover Military encampment on the banks of the Bagmati River, at the foot of a steep wooded hill. The Gurkha fort of Harriharpur stands on the crown, with smoke from shellfire and tracers from shells between a stockade and a promontory below (1816). 27.5 × 36 cm. Ink and watercolor by John Harris. Inscribed: “Shelling the Goorkahs 1st March at Sun Set, & storm coming on. Harriorpore [sic]. J. Harris HM 24th Regt.” This battle, fought only 20 miles south of Kathmandu, resulted in the signing of the peace treaty between Sir David Ochterlony and the Gurkhas on 3 March 1816. Reproduced by permission of the British Library © British Library Board.
Source: Prints & Drawings, Hastings Albums, WD4396, India Office Records, Asia, Pacific & Africa Collections, British Library.
Maps 1.1 The Anglo–Gorkha frontier, 1814 CE
1.2
2.1
2.2
3.1
3.2
4.1
“A Map of the Routes by which General Sir David Ochterlony’s Army advanced in Three Divisions towards Mukwanpoor (Nipaul) in February 1816,” 1820 CE
Sketch of the line of boundary between the Nipaul Tarriani and the Zillah Sarun, 1822 CE
“Map of the Northern Frontier of the District of Goruckpoor, where it touches the Nepaulese Dominions, including the Goruckpoor Turrai and that portion of it ceded to the Nepaulese Government comprehending also a Survey of the Course of the Arrah Nuddee, which forms the Boundary between the Territories of His Excellency the Nawab Vizier on the west, and the Goorkhali Dominions on the east,” 1818 CE
The Champaran–Tarriani frontier, 1814 CE
Location and internal divisions of thepargana/pragannaof (Gadh) Simraon, 1814 CE
The Gorakhpur–Butwal frontier, 1814 CE
4
13
19
20
32
39
50
104
106
102
5.2
6.13
Sketch showing the kingdoms of Sirmur, Jubal and Otroj, 1815 CE
ParganaMajhowa, insarkarChamparan showing detached portions oftappasJaffarabad, Mando and Mudhwal
Colonel Jean Baptiste Gentil’s map of thesubaof Bihar, 1770 CE
113
108
7
8
9
8
9
1
97
115
116
0
9
119
114
73
Map of a portion of Western Nepal in the Hodgson Collection, 1830–1840 CE
Map ofparganaGurdhan insubaKashmir, 1830s CE
Detail from the Revenue Survey of India’s “Map of the District of Bhagulpoor,” 1852 CE
Detail from a section of the Revenue Survey of India’s “Map of the District of Purneah [Purnea],” 1851 CE
6.14
6.15
5.1
x
4.2
6.1
5.3
Thesubasof Lahore and Multan as depicted on a Mughal map of northwestern India and Kabul, 1780 CE
Boundaries and internal divisions of the Mughal Empire, 1650 CE
Map showing a portion of the district of Jaunpur with detached portions of the kingdom of Awadh and theparganasof Raree and Mureeahoo, 1846 CE
6.8
6.7
6.12
6.11
Thana divisions of Gorakhpur district showing their detached portions and location of police posts in 1814 CE
6.9
6.10
Parganasandtappason the Gorkahpur–Butwal frontier, 1814 CE
Rough sketch of the Terae lying between the Rivers Raptee and Koosah by Lieutenant John P. Boileau, 1816 CE
Map of Central Nepal in the Hodgson Collection, 1835–1840 CE
Detail from the Revenue Survey of India’s “Map of the District of Rangpur including the independent state of Kooch Behar,” 1861 CE
Rearrangement of Thana boundaries in District Manbhoom [Manbhum], 1875 CE
103
A Nepali map of Central Asia, post1855 CE (?)
6.3
6.4
6.2
6
1
68
Sketch of District West No. 1 (Dhading) showing detached segments, Nepal, 1957–1959 CE
Topographic map of Southeastern Nepal showing rivers, forests and hills, c. 1860 CE
6.5
6.6
101
STATEMAKING AND TERRITORY IN SOUTH ASIA