325 Pages
English

The Changing Identity of Rural India

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The book explores the pattern of rural development in contemporary India from a multidisciplinary and historical perspective.


The book explores the pattern of rural development in contemporary India from a multidisciplinary and historical perspective. The essays overcome the limits of disciplinary approaches to provide a comprehensive analysis of the processes of change and growth at work in the Indian countryside and to review the social and cultural dynamics that have led to the contemporary situation. Providing an analysis of the economic, political and social changes experienced in rural India, they examine the interactions between actors and institutions at different levels. Some contributions focus on the impact of state policies on rural development and on the rationale of capitalistic expansion in the Indian countryside, while others analyse how the changes are promoted, adopted and resisted at the local level.


The general issue raised in the book refers to the assessment of the nature and working of contemporary Indian rural economy. In order to analyse the complexity of the rural economy and the forms it takes in different Indian contexts, this issue has been deconstructed considering, in turn, the process of rural change, the impact of rural growth on working and living conditions, and finally the categories of the inhabitants of rural areas and the construction of their identities in colonial and post-colonial rural India.


INTRODUCTION: Capital and Labour Transformations in Shaping Rural Development in India; PART 1: INDIAN RURAL TRANSFORMATIONS; Identifying Livelihoods in Rural India; The Institutional Embeddedness of Indian Rural Capitalism; PART 2: INEQUALITY IN RURAL INDIA; Social Capital and Poverty Reduction Strategies: The Case of Rural India; An Overview of Indian Microfinance; Income-based Estimates vs Consumption-based Estimates of Poverty: Evidence from Rural Tamil Nadu after Liberalization; Occupational Diversification of the Rural Workers: Some Results from Field Surveys in West Bengal; Literacy and Externalities in Human Development; PART 3: SOCIAL MOVEMENTS AND IDENTITIES; The Social Context of Politics in Rural West Bengal (1947–92); Agrarian Expansion under Colonial Rule and its Impact on a Tribal Economy; Acting on Institutions to Preserve Agricultural Biodiversity: The Syngenta Controversy in Chhattisgarh; The Conflicting Opinions of the Colonial Bureaucracy over the Paraiyans Right over ‘Waste’ in late 19th Century Tamil Nadu; Appendix 1: Maps of India; Appendix 2: Socio-Economic Indicators of Rural India

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Published 01 July 2009
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EAN13 9781843318231
Language English
Document size 2 MB

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TheChangingIdentityofRuralIndia
Anthem South Asian Studies
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TheChangingIdentityofRuralIndia:ASocioǦHistoricAnalysis
Edited by Elisabetta Basile Ishita Mukhopadhyay
ANTHEMPRESSAn imprint of Wimbledon Publishing Company www.anthempress.com
This edition first published in India 2009 by ANTHEM PRESS C49 Kalkaji, New Delhi 110019, India 75–76 Blackfriars Road, London SE1 8HA, UK or PO Box 9779, London SW19 7ZG, UK 244 Madison Ave. #116, New York, NY 10016, USA © 2009, SPES Development StudiesResearch Centre at the University of Rome La Sapienza individual chapters © individual contributors The moral right of the authors has been asserted. All rights reserved. Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise), without the prior written permission of both the copyright owner and the above publisher of this book. ISBN13: 978 81 9075 70 2 7 1 3 5 7 9 10 8 6 4 2
Printed at Sadhana Press Pvt. Ltd, Kolkata
Contents
Acronyms and AbbreviationsAbout the Authors  INTRODUCTION Capital and Labour Transformations in Shaping Rural Development in India Elisabetta Basile and Ishita Mukhopadhyay
PART1:INDIANRURALTRANSFORMATIONS Identifying Livelihoods in Rural India Ishita Mukhopadhyay
The Institutional Embeddedness of Indian Rural Capitalism Elisabetta Basile
PART2:INEQUALITY INRURALINDIA Social Capital and Poverty Reduction Strategies: The Case of Rural India Claudio Cecchi, Luca Molinas and Fabio Sabatini
An Overview of Indian Microfinance Shirsendu Mukherjee and Sukanta Bhattacharya
Incomebased Estimates vs Consumptionbased Estimates of Poverty: Evidence from Rural Tamil Nadu after Liberalization Marco Cavalcante
Occupational Diversification of the Rural Workers: Some Results from Field Surveys in West Bengal Sankar K Bhaumik
Literacy and Externalities in Human Development Rabindranath Mukhopadhyay and Sudeshna Ghosh
vii x
1
15
31
65
96
113
150
174
ADB Agri AoA APRACA BDS BPL BSA CBD CBI CBSSCCRR CGIAR
CLI CMJSCMMCND CPI CPI(M) CRRI DFID EG FAO GB&O GDP GNP GOB GP HYVs IB ICA ICAR ICRISAT
Acronyms and Abbreviations
Asian Development Bank Agriculture Agreement on Agriculture Asia Pacific Rural and Agricultural Credit Association Business Development Services at UNIDO Below Poverty Line Bihar State Archives Convention on Biological Diversity Central Bureau of Investigation Chhattisgarh BalShramik Sangathan Chaibasa Collectorate Record Room, Jharkhand Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research Chhattisgarh Labour Institute Chhattisgarh Mahila Jagriti Sangathan Chhattisgarh Mukti Morcha Chota Nagpur Division Communist Party of India Communist Party of India (Marxist) Central Rice Research Institute Department for International Development Expert Group Food and Agriculture Organization Government of Bihar and Orissa Gross Domestic Product Gross National Product Government of Bengal Gram Panchayat High Yield Varieties Individual Banking International Cooperative Alliance Indian Council of Agricultural Research International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics
viii
IFAD IFI IFPRI IGAU ILO IPRs IRRI ITPGRFA
IWMI JNKVV JP LLIS MACS MDGs MFI MFO MoU MPRRI NABARD NAS NBA NCERTNGO NSS OBCs PACS PDS PPP PS PVPFR RBI RMK RP RRB SAPs SC SCI SHG SIDBI
THE CHANGING IDENTITY OF RURAL INDIA
International Fund for Agricultural Development International Financial Institutions International Food Policy Research Institute Indira Gandhi Agricultural University International Labour Organization Intellectual Property Rights International Rice Research Institute International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture International Water Management Institute Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwavidyalaya Judicial Proceedings Local Level Institutions Study Mutually Aided Cooperative Societies Millennium Development Goals Microfinance Institution Microfinance Organization Memorandum of Understanding Madhya Pradesh Rice Research Institute National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development National Academy of Sciences National Biodiversity Authority National Council of Educational Research and Training Non Governmental Organization National Sample Survey Other Backward Castes Primary Agricultural Cooperative Society Public Distribution Systems Purchasing Power Parity Panchayat Samiti Plant Varieties Protection and Farmers’ Rights Reserve Bank of India Rashtriyo Mohila Kosh Revenue Proceedings Regional Rural Banks Structural Adjustment Programmes Scheduled Castes Social Capital Initiative SelfHelp Group Small Industries Development Bank of India
SPES
SSK
ST TRIPS UK UN UNDP UNIDO USA USD WB WBSA WFP WTO WWII ZP
ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS
ix
Development Studies Research Centre at SAPIENZA University of Rome Sisu Shikhya Karmashuchi (i.e., Child Education Programme)Scheduled Tribes Trade and Related Intellectual Property Rights United Kingdom United Nations United Nations Development Programme United Nations Industrial Development Organization United States of America United States Dollar World Bank West Bengal State Archives World Food Programme World Trade OrganizationSecond World War Zilla Parishad
About the Authors
Christine Lutringeris a researcher and teaching assistant at the Centre for Asian Studies of the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies in Geneva (Switzerland). Claudio Cecchi (PhD in City and Regional Planning, Cardiff University) is Professor of Rural Development at the University of Rome ‘La Sapienza’. Elisabetta Basileis Professor of Development Studies at the University of Rome ‘La Sapienza’. Fabio Sabatini(PhD in Economics, University of Rome ‘La Sapienza’) is research and teaching assistant at the University of Siena (Italy). Ishita Mukhopadhyay is a faculty in Department of Economics, University of Calcutta. She specializes in Economic methodology, Labour economics, Gender and development economics. Luca Molinas (PhD in South Asian Studies, University of Rome ‘La Sapienza’) is a research fellow at SPES – Development Studies Research Centre at the University of Rome ‘La Sapienza’. Marco Cavalcantein South Asian Studies, University of Rome (PhD ‘La Sapienza’) is works at the Policy, Strategy and Planning Division of the United Nations World Food Programme. Mario Prayer (PhD in South Asian Studies, University of Cagliari) is Associate Professor of Modern Indian History at the University of Rome ‘La Sapienza’. Rabindranath Mukhopadhyaya faculty in Department of is Economics in University of Calcutta. His area of specialization is Economics of education and human rights.