The Inevitable Pipeline into Exile


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The role played by Botswana in various southern African liberation struggles has previously been neglected in historical studies. The country’s politics of support and mobilisation early on in Namibia’s struggle for independence from South Africa proved crucial for the formative period of both nation states. Botswana’s difficult and contradictory position as neighbour of the South African apartheid state and colonial power in Namibia are carefully dealt with, as are the challenges faced by the fragile Namibian refugee networks and liberation movements, SWANU and SWAPO, operating in Botswana for decades. “The Inevitable Pipeline into Exile” deals with a crucial phase of nationalism and transnational politics during the period of southern African decolonisation at the height of South Africa’s diplomatic and military aggression throughout the region.



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Published 29 December 2012
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EAN13 9783905758528
Language English
Document size 20 MB

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“The Inevitable Pipeline into Exile”
Joann Müller ïntroductîon by Reînart Kösser
“he Inevitable Pipeline into Exile” Botswanas Role in te Namibian Liberation Struggle
Baser Arîka Bîbîograpîen 2012
Kîndy supported by Arnod Bergstraesser ïnstîtute, Freîburg îm Breîsgau, Germany
©2012 he autor ©2012 Te potograpers ©2012 Baser Arîka Bîbîograpîen
Baser Arîka Bîbîograpîen Namîbîa Resource Centre & Soutern Arîca Lîbrary Kosterberg 23 PO Box 2037 CH-4051 Base Swîtzerand www.baserarîka.c
A rîgts reserved
Basîc Cover Desîgn: Hot Desîgns, Wîndoek, Namîbîa Adapted Cover Desîgn: Petra Kerckof
Cover îustratîon: “A group o Herero at Makunda, Botswana, ater avîng crossed te border îegay”. Amongst tem are Kaange Pîîp Maarero (sîttîng ar et, irst row) and Karotua Frans Tjîueza (centre, standîng beînd te man wît gasses sîttîng on a caîr). To te et o Tjîueza îs Mr Vetîra, standîng to te rîgt o Tjîueza are Mr Tjîo and Kuaîma Rîruako. Potograper: Kurt Damann, 1964. Arcîves: Baser Arîka Bîbîograpîen
Prînted by Jon Meînert Prîntîng (PTY) Ltd., Wîndoek, Namîbîa Prînted on “trîpe green” paper: sîxty percent sugar cane ibre, corîne-ree, sustaînabe aforestatîon
ïSBN 978-3-905758-29-0
Beyond te Confines of te Nation: Anoter Dimension of Liberation Politics in Soutern Africa. An Introductionby Reînart Kösser
1 Researc Overviewand heoretical Framework Current researc. An overvîew Room or manoeuvre? A teoretîca ramework Determînants or te degree o support Crîterîa or a we-ounded anaysîs About te concept o sovereîgnty Vaîdîty o approaces o ïnternatîona Reatîons heory
2 Historical Basis Botswana he Becuanaand Protectorate he încorporatîon îssue he Seretse Kama Afaîr Deveopments în te irst years ater îndependence Botswana’s geopoîtîca and economîc sîtuatîon Room or manoeuvre or dependence? Poîtîca reedom or te Becuanaand Protectorate Poîtîca reedom or te Repubîc o Botswana Namîbîa An outîne o îstorîca deveopments în Sout West Arîca he Namîbîan îberatîon strugge SWANU SWAPO Co-operatîon across te border Botswana’s Ovaerero Co-operatîon în an înternatîona context
1 1 4 5 8 13 15
18 18 18 20 23 24 26 28 28 30 34 34 35 37 40 41 42 46
3 Metodology Arcîva studîes Brîtîs Natîona Arcîves Botswana Natîona Arcîves ïntervîews Ora îstory Seectîon o întervîewees Desîgn o te întervîews Evauatîon o te întervîews
4 Government Attitude Genera poîcîes în te Becuanaand Protectorate and Botswana Genera reugee poîcy Genera poîcy towards te îberatîon movements ïmmîgratîon and reugee egîsatîon Becuanaand Protectorate Botswana he Namîbîa questîon and înternatîona reatîons he Rodesîas Zambîa he Organîsatîon o Arîcan Unîty (OAU) UN Councî or Namîbîa he Sout Arîcan neîgbour Pressure rom Sout Arîca and Botswana’s reactîon Vîoatîon o Botswana’s terrîtory Concusîon
5 he Role of Residents and Organisations in Botswana Botswana’s Ovaerero Mbanderu actîvîtîes în Ngamîand Cîe Munjuku Danîe Munamava Hep rom te Herero communîtîes he Ovaerero în western Botswana he Ovaerero o Maaapye he questîon o te Herero cîetaînsîp Poîtîca and etnîc ceavages
48 48 48 48 49 49 51 51 53
54 54 54 57 58 58 63 67 67 71 72 75 76 76 81 84
86 88 89 89 91 94 95 96 98 99
Recruîtments în Botswana100 Support rom te Batswana and oters104 Poîtîca partîes107 Becuanaand Peope’s Party (BPP)108 Botswana ïndependence Party (BïP)110 Botswana Natîona Front (BNF)112 Botswana Democratîc Party (BDP)114 he Namîbîan îberatîon strugge în Botswana’s domestîc poîtîcs115 ïnternatîona aîd agencîes and weare organîsatîons116 he attîtude towards te weare organîsatîons în Becuanaand and Botswana116 he assîstance o te varîous organîsatîons and agencîes118 Concusîon119
6 SWANU SWANU’s structures on te way to exîe Motîves or eavîng Namîbîa he route înto exîe he organîsatîon o SWANU în Botswana Danîe Munamava as a representatîve SWANU’s “agents” în Botswana SWANU actîvîtîes în Botswana Propaganda în Ngamîand Botswana: A meetîng pace or Externa Councî and Natîona Executîve Consutatîon wît te Natîona Executîve în 1964 A mîssîon în 1966 SWANU reugees: he second wave A buîd-up o SWANU reugees Representatîves o te “second wave” group he protracted stay o te SWANU reugees Attempts to aunc an armed strugge Pans o te Externa Councî he Revoutîonary Councî Concusîon
7 SWAPO SWAPO’s structures on te way to exîe Preparatîon or exîe
121 122 122 125 127 127 129 131 131 133 133 135 137 137 138 139 142 142 144 146
148 149 149
he route înto exîe he way to Botswana he WENELA optîon SWAPO reugees în Botswana SWAPO’s structures în Botswana SWAPO representatîves în Francîstown Maxton Josep Mutonguume Gîdeon Kaseta Luckeye Bakî “Lucky” Soopaa SWAPO representatîves în Botswana up untî Namîbîan îndependence SWAPO: Actîve on Botswana’s terrîtory Organîsatîon rom Botswana Probems created by te presence o reedom igters and reugees A traînîng camp în Botswana: A brîe îusîon SWAPO’s reatîons wît SWANU în Botswana Concusîon
8 he Makunda Refugees and Nudo Mburumba Kerîna Kerîna’s sîtuatîon ater îs expusîon rom SWAPO Kerîna and îs movements Preparatîons or te movement Becuanaand Namîbîa he movement he movement and te sudden stop Brîtîs reactîon he pîgt o te Herero group Eforts to move on he învovement o SWAPO and SWANU în te Makunda case Reatîons wît trîba eaders Consequences o te protracted stay în Botswana A ast attempt he contînuîng presence în Makunda he questîon o resettement Concusîon
150 150 152 156 158 159 159 164 165 168 169 169 173 175 177 179
182 183 183 184 186 186 187 188 188 190 194 198 201 204 206 206 207 210 212
9 Conclusion he împact o te terrîtory and îts peope he Becuanaand Protectorate Botswana Actîon aternatîves Mozambîque Maawî Botswana’s approac în îgt o te presented aternatîves Current reatîons between Namîbîa and Botswana he overa reevance o tîs book Fîna remarks
Appendix Lîst o Abbrevîatîons Lîst o Maps and Potograps Sources Bîbîograpy ïndex
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