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The Art of Writing an English Essay : Essay, Paragraph Comprehension and Exams with Tmodel Answers

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يتناول هذا الكتاب طرق كتابة مقال باللغة الإنجليزية، ومهاراتها وكيفية صقلها والتدريب عليها، كذلك وكيفية فهم نص باللغة الإنجليزية ...

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Published 01 January 2012
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َ


























The Art of Writing
an English Essay
Essay, paragraph comprehension & Exams
with tmodel answers
؟ﺔﻳﺰﻴﻠﺠﻧﻻا ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺎﺑ ﻻﺎﻘﻣ ﺐﺘﻜﺗ ﻒﻴﻛ
؟ﺔﻳﺰﻴﻠﺠﻧﻻا ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺎﺑ ﺎﺼﻧ ﻢﻬﻔﺗ ﻒﻴﻛو
ﻰﻔﻄﺼﻣ ضﻮﻌﻣ فﴍا















1

2 َ






The Art of Writing
an English Essay
Essay, paragraph comprehension & Exams
with tmodel answers
؟ﺔﻳﺰﻴﻠﺠﻧﻻا ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺎﺑ ﻻﺎﻘﻣ ﺐﺘﻜﺗ ﻒﻴﻛ
؟ﺔﻳﺰﻴﻠﺠﻧﻻا ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺎﺑ ﺎﺼﻧ ﻢﻬﻔﺗ ﻒﻴﻛو
ﻰﻔﻄﺼﻣ ضﻮﻌﻣ فﴍا
3













Mustafa, Ashraf Moawad.

The Art of Writing an English Essay:

/ﺔﻳﺰﻴﻠﺠﻧﻻﺎﺑ لﺎﻘﳌا ﺔﺑﺎﺘﻛ ﻦﻓ

st. Ashraf Moawad Mustafa. 1 - Giza: Atlas for
Printing and Media Production. 2012.

392 P. ; 24 cm.

ISBN: 978 977 399 185 4

1- English Essays.

I- Title.



824
4









A Dedication


ءاﺪﻫإ




ﺲﻴﻟ ﻞﺸﻔﻟاو ،ﺔﺸﻓ ﻦﻋ لوﺆﺴﳌا ﻮﻫ ﻞﺸﻔﻟا لاﻮﺣأ ﺐﻠﻏا ﰲو ﻪﻌﻟﺎﻃ ﺪﻴﺳ نﺎﺴﻧﻹا
ﻒﺼﺘﺗ نأ ﻲﻐﺒﻨﻴﻓ ﺎﺤﺟﺎﻧ نﻮﻜﺗ كﻟو ،ﺔﺤﺟﺎﻧ ةﺎﻴﺤﻟ ﺔﻳاﺪﺑ ﻮﻜﻳ نا ﻦﻜﻤﻣ ﻦﻜﻟو ،نﻮﻜﻟا ﺔﻳﺎﻬﻧ
.تاﺬﻟا ﲆﻋ دمﺘﻋﻻاو حﻮﻤﻄﻟاو ﺔﻋﺎﺠﺸﻟﺎﺑ
Man is the master of his own luck and on the most of conditions of
failure; he is responsible for his failure. Failure is not the end of the
universe, but it can be a beginning for a successful life. And in order to
be successful, you should have courage, ambition, self confdence and
self–dependence.



،،، ﻖﻴﻓﻮﺘﻟا ﱄو ﻪـﻠـﻟاو



The Author


ﻰﻔﻄﺼﻣ ضﻮﻌﻣ فﴍأ
5



The Art of Writing an English Essay


Preface
Essay-Writing

The word Essay is defned as” a literary composition on any subject . “
Properly speaking, it is a written composition giving expression
to one’s own personal ideas or opinions on some topic; but the term
usually covers also any written composition; whether it expresses
personal opinions, or gives information on any given subject, or details
of a narrative or description .

Characteristics of a good essay

1 . Unity:

An essay must be a unity, developing one theme with a defnite
purpose. The subject must be clearly defned in the mind and kept in
view throughout. Nothing that is not relevant to it should be admitted
to the essay. At the same time, the subject may be treated in a variety of
ways and from different points of view.


2 . Order:

The essay should follow a certain ordered line of thought and come to
a defnite conclusion. It should not consist of haphazard reflections put
down anyhow. There should be not only unity of subject but also unity of
treatment. Hence the necessity for thinking out a line of thought before
beginning to write.


3 . Brevity:

School essays should not be long. The limit should be about three
hundred words: though, of course, there can be no strict rule as to
length, which will depend a good deal on the nature of the subject. But
an essay should be a brief exercise, concisely, expressed .
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The Art of Writing an English Essay


4 . Style:

In friendly letters, the style should be conversational easy, natural
and familiar; and in writing such letters we may use colloquial terms
which would be out of place in a book. But the style of an essay must
be more dignifed and literary. Slang, colloquial terms and free and
easy constructions are not proper in an essay. At the same time it is a
mistake to attempt any flights of fne writing. The language and sentence
construction should be simple, direct and natural. The secret of writing
is clear thinking. “ If you clearly understand all about your matter, you
will never want thoughts, and thoughts instantly become words. “ This
was said by Cobbett, a writer whose style is model of clearness, simplicity
and directness.


5 . The personal touch:

An essay should reveal the personal feelings and opinions of the
writer. It should have his individuality in it. Strictly speaking, as has been
already said, an essay is a written composition giving expression to one’s
personal ideas or opinions on a subject; and this personal touch should
not be lost, or the essay will be colourless and devoid of individuality.
So do not be afraid to express in your essays your own view, and do not
be content with repeating the opinions of others. Let there be a note of
sincerity in all that you write.


To sum up:

An essay must be a unity, treating in an orderly manner of one subject;
it should be concisely written and not too long, and the style should be
simple, direct and clear; and it should have an individuality, or show the
personal touch of the writer .

Three features are necessary in a good essay-suitable subject-matter,
proper arrangement, and adequate power of expression. Where all these
three are present, the essay will be a success.
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The Art of Writing an English Essay


Classification of Essays


Essay may be classifed as Narrative Essays, Descriptive Essays,
Expository Essays, Reflective Essay and Imaginative Essays. The
classifcation is useful, so long as it is remembered that these classes
are not mutually exclusive, and that some essays may partake of the
peculiarities of more than one class. For example, a narrative essay may
contain a good deal of description; and essays of all classes should be
more or less reflective, for the original idea of this form of composition
is an expression of the writer’s own feelings and opinions about a given
subject. For this reason, let us begin with.

1 . Reflective Essays:

A reflection is a thought on some subject-on an idea arising in the
mind. So a reflective essay consists of reflections or thoughts on some
topic, which is generally of an abstract nature; for example;

(a) Habits, qualities, etc., such as truthfulness, thrift, temperance,
cowardice, heroism, patriotism, industry, etc.
(b) Social, political and domestic topics, such as riches and poverty,
caste, democracy, liberty, government, family life, education,
marriage, business, etc.
(c) Philosophical subjects, such as right and wrong, reality,
consciousness, the meaning of the universe, etc.
(d) Religious and theological topics.
In treating such themes, you should try

(i) to explain, for example, the importance or advantages of possessing
good habits and qualities, and the risks and disadvantages of lacking
them; and quote stories, fables, or historical or literary references in
support of your statements;

(ii) Discuss the importance of social institutions etc.,
(iii) Expound and discuss philosophical and theological theories.
You should reason and support your statements with arguments and facts.
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The Art of Writing an English Essay


2. Narrative Essays:

A narrative essay consists mainly in the narration of some event, or
series of events. I say “mainly” because a narrative essay must not be
confused with a story or bits of history. The narrative it relates should be
treated as a subject for thought and comment, and so the essay should
be more or less reflective. Narrative essays may treat of (a) historical
stories or legends (e.g., legend of Osiris and Set, the story of Antony
and Cleopatra ); (b) biographies (e.g., life of Taha Hussein, or of Gamal
Abdul Nassir ); (c) incidents (e.g., street quarrel, a festival, a marriage);
(d) an accident or natural disaster ( e.g., flood, a fre, a ship-wreck, an
earthquake; (e) a journey or voyage; (f) a story ( real or imaginary ).

3. Descriptive Essays:

A descriptive essay consists of a description of some place or thing;
e.g., (a) animals, plants, minerals (such as the elephant, the papal tree,
coal); (b) towns, countries, buildings, etc., (e.g., Egypt, Italy, the Taj
Mahal, the Pyramids); (c) aspects and phenomena of nature ( such as
volcanoes, the monsoon, sunlight, organic life); and (d) manufactured
articles (such as motor-cars, steam-engines, silk, paper, etc.)

4. Expository Essays:

An expository (or explanatory) essay consists of an exposition
or explanation of some subject; e. g.: (a) institutious, industries,
occupations (e.g., parliament, the press, silk-weaving, farming, etc.):
(b) scientifc topics (such as gravitation, evolution, astronomy, etc.); (c)
literary topics (such as the nature of poetry, prose styles, the genius of
Shakespeare, the novels of Scott, history of fction, etc.)

5. Imaginative Essays:

Essays on subjects such as the feelings and experiences of the sailor
wrecked on a desert island may be called imaginative Essays. In such the
writer is called to place himself in imagination in a position of which he
has had no actual experience. Such subjects as “If I were a kings,” or
“The autobiography of a horse,” would call for imaginative essays.
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The Art of Writing an English Essay


Hints on Essay-writing
1. General Preparation:

One of the chief diffculties young people feel in essay-writing is lack
of matter. They do not easily fnd anything to say about a subject. This is
natural, because their experience and general reading are limited. But it
may be remedied by reading, and by training the power of observation.

(a) Reading:

Bacon said, “Reading maketh a full man”; that is, a person who reads
much and widely stores his mind with a large variety of facts, thoughts,
illustrations and general information. If you want to write good essays
you must acquire a love of reading – not simply reading stories for
amusement, but reading good books of history, travel, biography and
science. Fill your mind with fne thoughts and accurate information. By
so doing you will become “a full man”, and “a full man” can always fnd
plenty to say on most subjects.

(b) Observation:

But all knowledge does not come from books. We may learn much from
the life around us – what we see and hear and observe for ourselves. Keep
eyes and ears open, and learn from your own experience. Practise writing
short descriptions of what you see in everyday life – the people you meet,
bits of scenery that strike you, buildings, street scenes, trees and flowers,
hills and valleys, the habits of animals and birds. Don’t be content with
reading other people’s description of such things, but see them for yourself.
It is surprising what a lot may be learnt from personal observation.

(c) Conversation:

Books are written by men and women; and if we can learn from the
books they write, we can learn also from the words they say. Listen to
people’s conversation; get them to talk to you about the things they
know, and discuss subjects that interest you, with your friends. In this
way, also, you may learn much.
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The Art of Writing an English Essay


A writer reads, observes, and gets people to talk; and in these ways he
is always enriching his mind with ideas and knowledge.

2. Special Preparation:

Now we come to the special preparation needed for writing an essay
on some particular subject; and the frst thing we must do is to defne
the subject.

(a) Defining the Subject:

It is very important that you should have a clear and accurate
conception of the subject of the essay before you attempt to write on it
– what exactly it is and (equally important) what it is not. Some subjects
are so simple that you can scarcely make a mistake about them; but some
want looking into to defne them exactly. For example, “The influence
of railway traveling on Egyptian social life.”

The subject is not railway travelling, nor is it the railway systems of
Egypt; still less the invention of the locomotive engine, and the history of
railways. Yet some students, carelessly reading the subject, might easily
take up a large part of their essay with such topics. In a short school-
essay there is no room for irrelevant matter. You have to come to the
point at once, and start away with the real subject, which in this case is
the different ways in which the habit of traveling by train is changing the
social customs of the people of Egypt. It is, therefore, very necessary that
you should defne the subject clearly in your own mind, or you may waste
much time and paper in writing on more or less irrelevant matters.

(b) Collecting materials:

(i) Reading up the Subject – When you have got a clear idea of your
subject, the next step will be to think of what you can say about it, Some
subjects are so simple that a little reflection should supply you with
suffcient material for a short essay; but for others, special information
will be needed for which you may have to do some special reading. For
instance, if you have to write about some historical subjects, or give a
11



The Art of Writing an English Essay


description of some country you have seen, you will have to get hold
of some book and read the subject up. But in any case, you have to
collect materials for your essay before you can write it. In schools, class-
discussions on the subject, under the guidance of the teacher, are very
helpful in this stage of special preparation. In any case, do not attempt
to write the essay before you have given some time to thinking over what
you can say on the subject. The common habit of beginning to write
down the frst thing that comes into one’s head, without knowing what
is to come next, is fatal to good essay-writing.

(ii) Collection - As you think over the subject, ideas, facts, and
illustrations will pass through your mind. But if you don’t catch them
as they come, you may forget them just when you want them. So, as
you catch birds and put them in a cage, catch and cage these fleeting
thoughts by jotting them down on a piece of paper just as they come into
your head, without troubling yourself at this stage about their order or
suitability. You can examine the birds thus caught at your leisure later.
(To save time afterwards, and for convenience of reference, number
these notes as you jot them down .)

(iii) Selection - When you think you have collected enough material
for your essay, or you can’t think of any more points, read over the notes
you have jotted down to select the points most suitable for your purpose.
Examine at your leisure the birds in the cage, to see what they are worth.
You may fnd that some points are not very relevant or won’t ft in; cross
them out. You may fnd that some are mere repetitions of others; and
others may be simply illustrations to be brought under main heads. This
process of selection will probably suggest to you in a general way the
line of thought you may follow in the essay.


(c) Logical Arrangement:

Now you should be ready to decide on the line of thought of the
essay, i.e., the logical order in which you can arrange the points you
have selected. The necessity of thus arranging your thoughts according
to some ordinary plan cannot be too strongly insisted upon. Without it,
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The Art of Writing an English Essay


the essay will probably be badly arranged, rambling, disproportioned,
and full of repetitions and irrelevancies.


(i) Making the Outline:

Bearing your subject defnitely in your mind and with your purpose
clearly before you, sketch out a bare outline of the main heads; under
which you will arrange your various materials in a natural, logical and
convincing order – from a brief Introduction to an effective Conclusion.


(ii) Filling in the Outline:

Having thus mapped out the main points with which you are going
to deal, arrange the ideas you have collected each under its proper main
head, rejecting all those not really relevant to your subject or which
simply repeat other thoughts, and taking care that each really belongs
to the division in which you place it.

You will now have a full outline, which is to be a guide to you in writing
the essay. But this is not the essay, but only its well-articulated skeleton .You
must now clothe the skeleton with flesh, and (most diffcult of all) breathe
into it the breath of life, before you can call your production an essay.
13



The Art of Writing an English Essay


Writing the Essay

1. Paragraphs:

Every essay should be divided into paragraphs, and each heading
should have at least one paragraph to itself. An essay not thus paragraphed
looks unattractive, and is not easy to read.

A paragraph is a group of related sentences that develop a single point.
In constructing a paragraph these principles should be kept in view:

(i) Unity:

The paragraph must treat of one subject only.

(ii) Variety:

Paragraphs should not all be of the same length or of the same
monotonous structure.

(iii) Logical sequence of thought.
(iv) Topical sentence:
The most important sentences of a paragraph are the frst and the last.
In many paragraphs the frst sentence states the subject, and is called
the topical sentence (or key-sentence). The concluding sentence may
sum up effectively what has been said in the paragraph.

2. Structure of an Essay:

We may divide an essay into three parts – the Introduction, the Body
of the Essay, and the Conclusion.

(a) The Introduction:

This, in a short essay, must be very brief. It would be absurd to have
the porch bigger than the building itself. It may be simply a sentence, or
a very short paragraph. But it should always be arresting and pertinent to
the subject. The introduction may consist of a defnition or a quotation,
proverb, very brief story, or general remark, leading up to the subject.
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The Art of Writing an English Essay


(b) The Body of the Essay:

This is really the essay itself – the house to which the introduction is
the front door, and the conclusion the back door, or exit.

In arranging the body of the essay observe proportion; that is, let
each part have due weight given to it. If the subject is “The good and
bad influence of Newspapers,” do not devote three-quarters of the essay
to good influences and so leave only a quarter for the bad. Closely follow
your full outline throughout.

The paragraphs should be well constructed and should be related to
one another according to the direction of your outline; and, as far as
possible, the connection between one and another should be shown.
Avoid “padding” and keep to the point.

Take paint in selecting words and phrases which exactly express the
idea which you have in mind; and frame your sentences so that they are
quite clear and forceful.

Avoid the use of unnecessary words. In revising your essay, look out
for useless repetitions and redundant expressions, and strike them out.

Match the words to the sense, and adapt the style to the subject-
matter. Do not write frivolously on a serious subject, or ponderously on
a light and humorous subject.

(c) The conclusion:

As the introduction should arouse interest, the conclusion should
satisfy it. An effective and satisfying end to an essay is as important as
an arresting beginning. An abrupt or feeble ending may spoil the whole
effect of the essay. A good conclusion may consist of;

(a) A summing up of the arguments of the essay.
(b) Final conclusion drawn from the subject-matter.
(c) A suitable quotation.
(d) A sentence that strikingly expresses the main point you want to
drive home.
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The Art of Writing an English Essay


3. Finally:

A few words about your Style in Writing – To acquire a simple, direct
and forceful style in writing calls for constant practice. It does not come
“by nature.” As the poet Pope says: -
“True ease in writing comes from art, not chance ;
As those move easiest who have learned to dance .”

The secret of clear writing is clear thinking. So, be perfectly clear
about what you want to say, and then say it – as directly, as simply, as
concisely as possible, be direct: use short sentences in preference to
long and involved periods. Be simple: don’t attempt any oratory or
flowery language but use simple words and constructions and avoid
elaborate and superfluous words; say what you want to say as tersely as is
consistent with making your meaning clear. Never use two words where
one (the right one) will do. Be natural; don’t try to imitate any author’s
style, however eloquent, but be yourself.

Summary of Method of Approach
To sum up: -
1. Clearly defne your subject in your own mind.

2. Think over it, until ideas about it come into your mind, and jot the
points down on paper as they occur to you – numbering them.

3. Classify these points in groups under suitable headings, rejecting
any that are unsuitable.
4. Arrange these headings in a bare outline.
5. Fill in the outline, making a full outline.
6. Now begin to write the essay, dividing it into paragraphs.
7. The essay should consist of introduction, body and conclusion.
(a) Make the introduction arresting.

(b) Keep the parts of the body of the essay in proper
proportion; and take pains in choosing words, constructing
sentences and building up paragraphs.
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The Art of Writing an English Essay


(c) Make the conclusion effective and satisfying.
8. Write in a simple, concise, clear, direct and natural style.

Essays
1) A house on Fire
I had never seen a house on fre before, so, one evening when I heard
fre engines with loud alarm bells rushing past my house, I quickly ran
out and, a few streets away, joined a large crowd of people; but we could
see the fre only from a distance because the police would not allow any
one near the building on fre.

What a terrible scene I saw that day! Huge flames of fre were coming
out of each floor, and black and thick smoke spread all around. Every
now and then tongues of fre would shoot up almost sky-high, sending
huge sparks of fre round-about.

Three fre engines were busily engaged and the fremen in their dark
uniform were playing the hose on various parts of the building. The
rushing water from several hoses soaked the building but it did not seem
to have any effect on the flames.

Then the tall red ladders of the fre engine were stretched upwards
and I could see some fremen climbing up with hoses in their hands. On
reaching almost the top of the ladder, they began to pour floods of water
on the topmost part of the building.

This continuous flooding brought the fre under control but the
building was completely destroyed.

While fre is a blessing in many ways, it can also be a great danger to
human life and property.
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The Art of Writing an English Essay


2) Egypt my country


I love Egypt because it is the place where I was born, brought up,
received my education and grown up. I love her for her kind nature and
for her land which feeds me. I love her for her Nile which irrigates her
land , for the beauty of her nature, for the generosity of her people and
for the purity of her air.

I love her because I live or her land and enjoy her blessings. Egypt is the
land of a glorious past history. It is the land of ancient civilization. She is
fertile with her heritage of goodness for everyone who lives on her land.
Egypt has become safe and secure. Everyone leads a free life. Every citizen
enjoys his life in the way he likes.

No one interferes in the affairs of another. Everyone feels safe
and secure. Everyone can express about his views without fear of
punishment. Personal freedom is secured and respected by the
state. Law and justice prevail everywhere Equality Fraternity and
Justice are the main features of our new society.

We must preserve this democratic atmosphere which is the only way
for progress. Indeed Egypt is the land of peace, security, safety, freedom
and brotherhood.

3) Freedom
A man living absolutely alone in a desert or forest is free from other
people; but he is not absolutely free. His freedom is limited* in several
ways. First, by the things around him, such as wild animals or cliffs too
steep to climb. Secondly, by his own needs: he must have sleep, water,
food and shelter from extreme heat or cold. Lastly, by his own nature
as a man: disease may attack him, and death will certainly come to him
sooner or later*.

When men live together, on the other hand, protection against
wild animals is easier and they can work together to get food and build
shelters; but each man has to give up some of his freedom so that he can
live happily with the others.
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The Art of Writing an English Essay


When men become organized into very large groups, and civilization
develops, it is possible to get freedom from hunger, thirst, cold, heat
and many diseases, so that each person can live a happier life than he
could if he were living alone; but such a society cannot work successfully
unless the freedom of each human being is to some extent limited so that
he is kept from hurting others. I am not free to kill others, nor to steal
someone else’s property, nor to behave in a way that offends against the
moral sense of the society in which I live. I have to limit my own freedom
myself so that others will not limit it too much: I agree to respect the
rights of others, and in return they agree to respect mine.

The advantages of such an agreement are great: one man can become
a doctor, knowing that others will grow food, make clothes and build
a house for him, in return for the work he does to keep them healthy.
If each man had to grow his own food, make his own clothes, build his
own house and learn to be his own doctor, he would fnd it impossible
*to do any one of these jobs really well . By working together, we make
it possible for society to provide us all with food, clothes, shelter and
medical care, while leaving each of us with as much freedom as it can.

4) Why we should learn foreign languages?
In fact learning foreign languages is very important nowadays. It
is one of the best means of communications and exchanging cultures
among the peoples of the world.

It helps us keep in touch with the modern technology and inventions.
With foreign languages, we can make friends and travel abroad easily.
Also, it is vital for those who want to be successful in their practical life,
work and business to have a foreign language and the more you speak
languages, the better you are.

Learning foreign languages has become necessary as they enable us to
read foreign books, newspapers and magazines which keep us informed
0:!-4!.o of what happens in the world. People who go abroad should know
foreign languages. They cannot enjoy a journey there unless they know
their languages. To promote international good understanding. Young
19



The Art of Writing an English Essay


people tend to visit foreign countries during the summer vacation. This
is made pleasurable and useful if they know well the foreign language
of the country they visit. In fact, foreign languages are valuable for
business, culture and education.

5) Food shortage
The problem of food shortage is keenly felt in the developing countries.
It threatens to grow worse towards the end of this century. It is rather strong
that the poorer the country is, the higher the rate of growth in population.

Food is the most crucial factor in the world. A hungry world is never
a peaceful world. Hungry people are never satisfed. There should be
food for all if we aspire to live in peace.

In fact, the world is suffering from a food shortage and we often read
in newspapers and hear on the radio or television that people in some
African countries are starving to death. The shortage of food has caused
the death of not only people but animals as well.

Even plants starve because lack of water. The problems become more
complicated when we think of the costs of transporting food from places
which don’t need it to places where it is needed.

If the world thinks of human beings as equal regardless of colour,
race, poverty, location, religion, etc, the world must do something about
the food exist. It is undoubtedly a world problem.

6) Di ff erent methods of investing money
Money as anything else is of diminishing value with age if it is not
invested. Therefore, we should not keep money in a tin under the bed.
We should wisely invest any money that we can save.

There are different methods of investing money. Some people prefer
to invest their money by putting it in a bank. They believe that the interest
they get is enough for their purposes. A bank is a safe place where risk
is almost impossible.
20



The Art of Writing an English Essay


Another type of investment lies in buying gold. The value of gold
increases by time but in rare cases it decreases, there is also the risk
of theft.

Undertaking projects is also a method of investment. It is the most
proftable method as the profts can be added to the capital, thereby
making it bigger and bigger.

Investing in property is of a regular yield, because property is of
increasing value as risk is rather limited.

Also, land is getting scarce and scarce therefore its price increases.

7) Earthquakes


Earthquakes are very dangerous. They occur suddenly as they do
not warn before they strike. They may destroy many buildings and kill
thousands of people. Earthquakes are movements in the Earth’s surface.
During earthquakes, rocks move thereby producing waves. The waves
to the surface and bring about the shock.

Earthquakes may take place anywhere on the Earth’s surface.
Earthquakes are often violent near mountains or volcanoes. Outside
these areas, earthquakes are generally weak.

Many earthquakes begin under the sea. Big waves in the sea result
from earthquakes under the sea. During the earthquakes frst the rocks
below the surface move, then waves are produced and fnally the surface
of the earth moves. An earthquake may have a duration of a second or it
may continue intermittently for days. Earthquakes can be measured by
means of a seismometer.

The study of earthquake is called seismology لزﻻﺰﻟا ﻢﻠﻋ.
Some earthquakes are capable of destroying everything made
by man.نﺎﺴﻧﻹا ﻊﻨﺻ ﻦﻣ ءﳾ ﻞﻛ يﻣﺪﺗ ﲆﻋ ةردﺎﻗ لزﻻﺰﻟا ﺾﻌﺑ
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8) Gardens and parks
Gardens and parks are important for the recreation ﺢﻳوﺮﺗ of the public.
They purify ﻰﻘﻨﺗ the air of towns and beautify ﻞﻤﺠﺗ them. In parks, boys
and girls can play freely far away from the danger of vehicles تﺎﺒﻛﺮﻣ in
the streets. One can spend one’s spare time under a shady tree enjoying
the beauty of nature and the fragrance of flowers.

Gardens are beautiful healthy places needed everywhere. They are
like the oases in the vast deserts.

Big cities suffer from a lot of problems, the most serious of which are
over-crowdedness, air pollution, noise pollution, irregularity of shape
and form of building and many others.

Gardens seem to be the easiest and least expensive solution. As
gardens are the places where there are plants, bushes, trees and flowers,
oxygen is given out and carbon dioxide is breathed in. This, in turn,
is breathed in by the inhabitants who badly need it as all day they are
breathing the polluted air with exhaust of factories and cars.

People can enjoy quietness when they spend some time in a garden
away from the noise caused by the deafening sounds of the different
means of transport.

Gardens, as green spots, vast and regular make a contrast with the
irregularity of shape and form of buildings in big cities. They are beautiful
places with beautiful colours of flowers, birds and butterflies.
Children can fnd in gardens a place where they can enjoy freedom.
They can run, play and smell flowers. In short, gardens are pleasant
places for writers, artists, and thinkers.
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9) Music
Music is a fne art known to all people of the world. Like national
languages and cultures, music differs from one nation to another, just
as there are widespread languages; English for example, there is also
widespread music.

Musical instruments are not the same. There are, for example,
stringed instruments, wing instruments and percussion instruments.

Music has always been connected with joy and sorrow, singing and
dancing, popular and refned taste. Also, it’s now a strong element of
effect in drama, on the radio, on TV and in the theatre and the cinema.

It is sometimes said that music is a good diet for the human souls. We
may agree with this idea if the kind of music matches the inner feelings
of man and refnes them. In fact music is the food of the spirit. It is
the language of feelings. It relieves our troubles, eases our nerves and
renews our energy. It cures sick minds and heals troubled spirits.

10) How do computers a ff ect our daily life?
In fact, our age witnessed a lot of wonderful, modern inventions that
have great effects on our daily life. Among these inventions is computer.
It is considered one of the most effective inventions in this century.
Computers have been developing since they appeared. They were huge
and expensive machines. Nowadays computer sets are small and most
people have computers at home.

Computers can be connected to the internet. In the future people
think that every home will have a computer connected to government
offces, banks, schools and shops. People can do lots of work using the
computer. They can study, make friend enjoy themselves, send e-mails
and marry.

In fact everything man does nowadays is helped or even controlled by
computers. The use of computers on a large scale has been one of the
main characteristics of modern life. In banking , computers control cash,
fnd out the balance of accounts and records all the details. Computers
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are now being used in medicine. In hospitals, patients’, appointments
are made through computers. Information about patients can be got
quickly by computers. Computers do help the police fght crime and
criminals. Booking air flights is all done by computers.

Finally it is clear that computers can affect our life to a great extent
and man can not do without computers.

11) My favourite hobby
Of all the pleasure of life, nothing is more interesting and appealing
to me than reading good books.

Good books are good friends that never get tired of us, betray us or fail
or forsake us. Moreover, they are always prepared to talk to us and keep
company with us. We can sit , in good company as long as we desire.

Good books are, in fact, true fairyland, a palace of delight and a haven
ذﻼﻣ وأ ﺄﻓﺮﻣ from the troubles of life.

I am interested in reading novels that drive away my cares, do away
with my disappointment and fll me with high spirits. Books about
foreign travel arouse, too, my interest. I may be sitting at home and yet
be in all quarters of the world. Description of long expeditions, places
of historical interest and tourist value, risks of explorers, discoverers
and hunters gives me infnite pleasure ﺎﻬﻟ دوﺪﺣ ﻻ ﺔﻌﺘﻣ

Over and above, history books that relate the achievement of statesmen,
leaders and inventors arouse my great interest.

To sum up, the hobby of reading that I have developed, has given me
access to good books – a source of information, culture, enlightenment
and interest.
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12) Family planning in Egypt
Egypt has been facing a rapid rise in population with no corresponding
increase in production to cater H for all people.

Many factors such as early marriages, having too many children,
having more than one wife at one and the same time, have given rise to a
thorny problem. Moreover, Egypt, as a mainly agricultural country, has
not had a noticeable increase in cultivable land. We still live in four per-
cent only of land in Egypt.

As a result of overpopulation, the standard of living is coming down,
development and investment are preceding at two low a pace and crime
is on the rapid increase.

As a matter of fact, family planning is one of the most effective
remedies. If it is put into effect regularly and carefully, families will
enjoy a better life and our population will decrease.

In an attempt to control the rapid increase in the population, the
authorities concerned have set up many family planning centers. The
husband can accompany wives who can have free medical examination,
prescription and the necessary remedy at a little cost. Advice on child-
bearing is given free of charge and wives are encouraged to visit the
center every now and then to ensure that the examination and the remedy
prescribed give good results.

It is a good thing that specialists are in change of family planning
centers and they are prepared to pay visits to wives’ homes, whenever
they feel it is necessary to do so.

13) The over population problem
One of the problems of the hour which Egypt faces today is the
problem of over-population. It is considered a ferce challenge that
faces our society. Let us examine this serious problem together in some
of its aspects.

On one hand, progress in science and in medical health is an
important factor that has contributed to the growth of the problem. In
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the past, people often died of some diseases because they were ignorant
of how they should be cured. Nowadays, progress in medicine provides
the remedies, decreasing the rate of death. On the other hand, birth
rate in Egypt is still increasing. This simple equation would prove that a
decrease in death rate plus an increase in birth rate equals an increase in
population. This huge increase in population swallows up every increase
in production, large as it may be. The problem is endless because one
thing leads to another.

Here are some suggestions which may provide solutions to this serious
problem. We should start by going to the desert land and building new
houses, new schools and therefore, new communities and cities.

Birth control is also one sure solution. The media, the television, the
radio and the newspaper provide many advertisements which remind us
constantly of the necessity of birth control. Yet we should not just stop
at watching these advertisements and keeping passive. We should go
one step beyond by responding to these calls, so as to see Egypt, our
dear country, living in happiness and prosperity.

14) Living in a crowded street
In every town or city there is a busy street which is the center of life
with all its necessities and activities.

Unfortunately, I live in one of these crowded noisy streets. It contains
the main buildings of the town besides a great number of schools and
shops. From the very early hours of the morning our street becomes
crowded with many people. The great number of school boys and girls
block our street and change it into a bee hive. It is very diffcult to walk
along this huge mass of people without making a great effort.

A very terrible noise comes from the motor-car horns and the wheels
of the tram-cars. The heavy traffc of our street begins from an early hour
until late at night and prevents us from sound sleep or rest.

But this is not all. The work-shops and cafes make matters worse in
our street. In the evening, when one should be resting, the loud sound of
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radios at cafes deafen our ears and disturb us. As for the thundering sound
that comes out of these workshops, it is nerve-racking بﺎﺼﻋﻷا ﻢﻄﺤﻣ and
unbearable .موﺎﻘﻳ ﻻو

15) Science in the service of man
Science has played a tremendous role in making man the master
of the world in which he lives. He can now, with the help of modern
scientifc inventions, fly swifter than the wind and cross oceans safely.
By the modern means of travel such as the airplane and the car we save
much of our time and trouble.

Science also plays an important part in our home life. It cooks our
food, washes our clothes and irons them. We see how electricity is
used in our modern home for lighting, heating, turning all our electric
appliances and doing several important things. A modern home can be
easily run and it has become very comfortable to live in.

In the feld of medicine, science has done wonders. It has relieved
man from many painful and deadly diseases.

In the factory or in the feld, modern scientifc inventions do the work
of man. He has to watch a machine ploughing or irrigating his land.

We hope that science may always be used for peace. This will help
man live an easy, happy and comfortable life.

16) Famous buildings in your country
There are buildings which are famous not only in my country but also
all over the world.

The Egyptian museum, for example, is very well known by a great
number of people in many countries because it contains the treasures of
the greatest ancient civilization the world has ever known. Its monuments
attract many tourists every year who express their admiration of its
valuable contents. School excursions are made every day to the Museum
to let our pupils have a true picture of our eternal past.
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The Pyramids are also famous buildings and they are considered one
of the Seven Wonders of the World. They are a sign of the genius of
the Pharaohs in architecture. Tourists come to Egypt, visit the Pyramids
and express their wonder at the magnifcence of such a building.

The most famous building of all is the High Dam. It is the greatest
engineering project in all the Arab World. It is famous not only for its great
benefts but also as a symbol of the determination of the Egyptian people.

17) Television is a double-edged weapon
As a matter of fact, television is considered one of the most important
means of culture, knowledge and entertainment. It is an easy way for
gaining information so it has occupied the place of reading as a source
of knowledge. Most people; young and old are so attracted to it that it
has become very diffcult for any family to do without it.

TV introduces a variety of programmes. People can watch the current
events happening all over the world while sitting at home. However,
television can make people passive. They don’t have to think, and their
brains become lazy. TV commercials encourage them to buy things
they don’t really need. It takes time away from activities such as reading,
conversation and games.

It sometimes makes people violent when they watch flms of violence
and crime. Moreover TV rays are harmful to the eyes. They do harm
when we watch TV for many hours. Its advertisements have a bad effect
on the children’s mind.

Television with its varied programmes has its great influence on the
minds of the people everywhere. So, it is the duty of those in authority
to provide well planned programmes which develop value and virtues
the viewers.
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18) To preserve peace, we should prepare for war
Peace means quietness and security which are necessary for thinking
and for work. It is a symbol of God’s teaching in His Holy Books. It is
the fnest quality in man. It helps him to make progress and to lead a
happy life.

On the other hand, war is an evil that leads to ruin and destruction,
hatred, jealousy, death and loss of our values and civilization. The
sufferings and miseries during the last wars are never forgotten by
man. The mass slaughter, the ruin of productive resources, hunger and
diseases are all still alive in his memory.

Therefore, efforts should be made to preserve peace. But, in order
to preserve peace, we should prepare for war. In other words, peace
should be backed by power.

Accordingly, we should be always ready to defend our country against
any aggressor. We should be always strong so that we may not give our
enemies any chance to attack us. Our armed forces should be equipped
with up-to-date weapons. They should be well trained. They should be
acquainted with the techniques of modern warfare.

19) To be happy is to be free from worry
Millions of people are attacked by a secret enemy which causes more
harm and greater suffering than any other disease. Its name is worry.
As doctors tell us, worry can actually cause organic disease. And even
when it does not, it can, by eating up our energy in useless ways, ruin
our health and make life very miserable.

Worry may be caused by the strains and stresses on us. These strains
and stresses are very great because of speed and competition. As a
result, some of us get tired easily, others get depressed, and others are
often irritable or worried.

Worry affects nearly everybody in society from teenagers to elderly
people. Students are worried. They fear lest they should fail or get low
marks in the exams. Parents are worried about their children. They fear that
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they may not be able to feed, clothe or educate them owing to the high cost
of living. Young men and women are worried. They fear lest they should not
be able to fnd suitable houses to live in when they get married.

Worry is the result of thinking in a wrong way. So, by learning to
control our way of thought, we can cure ourselves of worry and make
our life cheerful and happy.

20) Advertisements
Advertisements have been greatly developed in shape, style
and content. They are tools to propagate commerce and achieve a
competitive spirit among producers and manufacturers. They help
those who seek employment and secure best element to apply for vacant
posts. Customers can be aware of the new products and commodities
through advertisements. People can satisfy their ends comfortably
through reliable advertisements.

However, advertisements may be a destructive tool if they adopt the
style of exaggeration that may lead to tempting customers to buy things
not at the same standard they have been advertised. They may ruin the
commercial trust when they distort facts. They may take the trend of
dishonest and untrue competition when they do not give true facts about
the product.

Advertisements are very important because they attract a big number
of people to buy goods. If the advertisement is well prepared, it can help
the producer and make a good propaganda for his good. Advertisements
are also important because they create competition among producers,
and this is good as it makes people get good qualities of goods.

21) To solve our Economic Problems, we should in-
crease our production
Egypt today suffers much from over-population. The main cause
of the population explosion in our country is the rise in birth rates
especially in the rural areas. People wish to have a lot of children to help
them with their work.
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This rapid increase in population creates serious economic problems.
One of these problems is food shortage. The amount of food we produce
today doesn’t satisfy the needs of the rapidly increasing population.
Another problem is the high cost of living . Everything in our country
is now very expensive. The salaries and wages of most people, at the
same time, are very low. As a result, people can’t afford to buy most
of their needs. A third problem which arises from overpopulation is
unemployment. A lot of young people nowadays can’t fnd work.

To solve these economic problems, we should increase our production.
We should look upon work as a national obligation. We should punish
workers and offcials who waste their time and reward those who do their
work properly and conscientiously. We should be careful about what
we produce so that our products may be able to compete with foreign
products. This will make our exports increase and our import decrease.

In conclusion, I can safely say that the increase of production is the
only solution to most of our economic problems .

22) New ways of Generating Energy
Since oil, the easiest and most reliable source of energy, is an
exhaustible material, scientists have been working hard to fnd alternative
sources of energy. Some of the sources they are experimenting on were
used long ago such as the power of the wind and rushing water. Others
are almost new such as the solar energy or nuclear energy.

Each of the above-mentioned sources has its advantages and
disadvantages. The sun is the most promising source for the future
because it will not stop radiating and the solar energy can be used in
various ways such as in heating houses and driving cars. The problems
with the solar energy are that we need ways of storing it on a large scale
as it can only be collected during daylight hours.

The newest source scientists are trying is the energy generated by
hot water or steam from under the earth (geothermal energy).
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There is the fear that by using more energy, we may damage the earth’s
atmosphere and therefore change the pattern of animal and vegetable
life through the world.

23) Problems of Modern Youth
Modern youth face many problems which they cannot solve. Such
problems affect their future life.

Youth men, nowadays, do not know how to spend their leisure time
proftably. They often waste their time keeping company with bad
people who spoil their character. They sometimes fall into bad habits
which may ruin their health and make them lead a miserable life.

It is now diffcult for a young man to choose his future wife. He often
fails to marry the right one . His marriage is not, therefore, a success and
often ends in divorce.

A young man may have family troubles. He may lose his father when
he is too young. So, he is forced to fnd work to earn his living. The
wages and salaries which young people get nowadays are so low that
they do not keep pace with the high cost of living.
Therefore, young people may run into debt to support their families.
The housing problem forces many young people to remain unmarried.
It is now diffcult for a young man to fnd a house to live in. and even if he
fnds one, he has to pay a high rent which he can’t afford.

24) We live now in the age of computers
This is the age of computers. Computers are now used in all feld of
life for the good of man.

In the feld of education, the science of computers is now being
studied in many schools and universities. This helps students during
their studies and in the choice of their future career.

In the feld of industry and agriculture, computers are now widely
used, especially in developed countries. They help such countries to
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produce better articles and more crops.

In the feld of transport and communication, computers are used on
a large scale. They are used in airplanes and steamers to ensure safety.
But for computers, we should be unable to send earth satellites and
space vehicles into space.

In the feld of medicine, computers are used to know the cause of
certain diseases and the medicines to be prescribed for such diseases.
During surgical operations, computers are used to make sure that these
operations are being well performed.

In modern banking extensive use is made of computers. Bank
computers control our cash. They record all the details of cash or
cheques paid into or drawn out of customers’ accounts.

Computers now help the police fght crime and catch criminals. They
are also a great help to scholars in subjects like history and literature.
Computers can even control our love lives and make marriages.

There seems to be no limit to the use of computers. They are, no
doubt, wonderful machines.

25) How to create labour opportunities for our future
generations.
One of the most dangerous problems which faces Egypt nowadays
is unemployment. Unemployment is a serious social evil that is not in
Egypt only, but it exist in almost all countries.

So the government is keen on solving the problem of unemployment and
fnding labour opportunities for our future generations. The most giant
project that will create such opportunities for youth is desert reclamation.

The communication revolution has been given due care recently in
Egypt. This has modernized our systems especially in exporting software
programmes. Training graduates in this feld enables the responsible to
pave the way for a real revolution.
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Great industrial projects in the new cities and encouraging foreign
and Arab investors to invest their money in the new cities are very
signifcant. These investors employ jobless youth in different felds.
Tourism also plays a vital role in this respect. We should bear in mind
that our efforts are directed to fnd actual jobs for our present and future
generations.

26) Women have achieved great progress in asserting
and advocating their rights.
No one can deny that women play an important role in society. In
the past most societies were male dominated. Women were completely
deprived of practising their rights, especially the political rights. Women
suffered a lot from illiteracy and even gender discrimination. She was
not allowed to take part in any social activities or even to express herself
freely. She was greatly humiliated and oppressed by man.

At present women asserted all her rights including her political
rights. They have struggled hard and bitterly to assert such rights and
to be treated on an equal footing with man. Women organized their
feminist movements and called for their full emancipation. At present
women participate actively in all social and environmental projects.
They can hold prominent posts and have their great effects on taking
any decision.

In fact the Egyptian woman plays an important part in society.
She enjoys a good position in society. She has proved that there is no
difference between a man and a woman in handling any kind of work.

27) The environment pollution leads to fatal results
as humans and all living organisms
In fact, pollution has a lot of serious and harmful effects on the
environment and on our health. The environment is getting polluted
by the fumes of the cars and the poisonous chemicals and gases from
factories. People should cooperate in order to keep the environment
clean and get ride of the sources of pollution.
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Pollution affects badly all living organisms. Man has ruined the nature
balance. Cutting down many trees and decreasing the cultivated areas to
be replaced by dwelling areas constitute stumbling obstructions that face
such nature balance. Air pollution, water pollution and soil pollution
result in bad effects that may lead to the spread of infectious diseases
everywhere. It is only man to be blamed for destroying the blessings the
nature has endowed humans.

Hence, the individuals and communities should cooperate to put
an end to such a ferce enemy against development and progress.
There should be strict measures against polluting nature. It is not the
responsibility of the Ministry of Environment only but the responsibility
of each individual as well. The role of awareness is very signifcant in this
respect.

Man should not let the fruits of technology spoil everything. Wise
dealing and cautious use may save humanity from fatal results.

28) Smoking
Nowadays, there is no longer any doubt that smoking is a fatal habit.
In fact the number of those who have died from smoking related diseases
surpasses the number of victims of epidemics, wars or accidents in our
times. Media campaigns were launched explaining the dangers and
encouraging a large number of smokers to stop smoking.

Smoking is very harmful to health. Scientifc researches have proved
that respiratory diseases are mostly caused by smoking . It causes
cancers which results in inevitable death. Recent researches have also
proved that nonsmokers are exposed to lung diseases: the smell of
smoking affects negatively their respiratory system .Therefore a lot of
people claimed that smoking should be banned in public places. Their
call was fruitful and a law was issued in different countries to punish
smokers who smoke in public places. No doubt, smoking is a nasty habit
that smokers must give up before it destroys their lives. All of us should
keep our health and never yield to such a destructive habit.
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29) Crimes committed by young people
Crimes committed by young people have been increased all over the
world. This is a serious problem which worries people and needs solutions.
The most common sort of crimes are theft , violence and murder.

Poverty, lack of education, the absence of religious values, bad
company and bad upbringing are causes behind an alarming increase in
crime and criminality.

As a matter of fact, poverty plays a very important role in criminality.
The bad economic situation increases social imbalance and crime rate.
“A hungry man is an angry man” .

The unemployed are inclined to commit crimes such as robberies
and murders. One of the measures to decrease crime is education.
Education should be conducted on proper lines. It is no use flling
minds with information that serves no real purpose. Needless to say “A
little knowledge is dangerous”.

Creation of chances of work in workshops, factories and on farms are
healthy measures against crimes. Non governmental organizations and
the private sector can provide means of earning honest living and this
can do a lot to decrease violence and crime.

Over and above, bad upbringing and bad company are responsible
for the spread of crimes. Evil company corrupts good manners. A man
is known by the company he keeps. Here parents must take due care
of their children so that they may not mix with delinquents or wicked
people who tempt them to deviate from the right path.

Perhaps there is something wrong with our society which encourages
crime. Young people see flms and read about crimes and they are indeed
influenced by them . We all feel that the fault may be as much with our
whole society as with those young people.
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30) Drugs
Drugs are substance such as opium and cocaine that induce sleep and
fll the addict with temporary high spirits. Once of the effect of the dose
has died away the addict gets nervous and restless and cannot control
his speech or movements.

Addiction is in most cases not connected with poverty as poor people
cannot afford drugs that are usually very costly. Cocaine taking costs a
lot, and is therefore, beyond the means of many people.

It is something very strange that almost all addicts know the destructive
effects of drug taking, but they cannot stop it .

Most important still is the fact that parents must take due care of their
children so that they may not associate with addicts and bad friends who
may tempt them to take to drugs. It is the responsibility of parents,
schools and universities to point out destructive effects of drug-taking.
Prevention is better than cure.

Some young people may become drug addicts because of bad
upbringing. This may be due to the absence of a good example or a
disconnected family.

To fght drug-taking, careful studies are made of addicts, including
their ages , the kind of drugs they take and the effect on them. The radio,
television and the press should concentrate on drug-taking to show the
addicts the destructive results of addiction and the fatal consequences
of drug-taking which end in death or madness.

31) Conservation of the environment
Conversation means preservation of forests, water power and animal.
Energy, too, can be conserved. It is known that the ozone layer protects
the universe from ultra violet rays that have a destructive effect on man
and his health. This happens when carbon dioxide and other pollutants
cause gaps or holes in the ozone layer with the result that ultra violet rays
pass through the universe. They cause heat to rise so that snow melts
and as a result the level of sea and ocean waters rise and cover vast areas
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of land. As a matter of fact, the weakness and the decrease of the ozone
layer bring about a decrease in fsh and agricultural production.

Therefore, the conservation of the ozone layers is a necessity if man
is to survive. His life is connected with the existence of the ozone layer
without holes or gaps.

Moreover, petrochemical compounds exhaust fumes; toxic emissions
and misuse of insecticides are time bombs that threaten the environment
with damage and pollution.

Over and above, many species of animals are in danger of dying out.
There must be laws to prevent hunting rare animals.

The conservation of the ozone layer is the responsibility of the United
Nations Organization. Collective efforts of all nations are required to
combat pollution.

More important still is the fact that the increase of trees and
extensive Greenland is a must so that oxygen may increase and carbon
dioxide decrease.

32 ) What Globalization Really Means
One of the hottest, most discussed topics of the last decennium is
globalization. Everybody talks about it and has an opinion about it. But
what does it really mean and how does it influence people’s everyday
life? Globalization is a process to create a more open world in many
areas, i.e. in politics, economics, law, and media. “It is driven by global
dreams of vast corporate empires, compliant governments, a globalise
consumer monoculture, and a universal ideological commitment to
corporate libertarianism”.

In politics it means that countries worldwide are supposed to act
multilaterally, and to share and carry out the same values and principals
like peace and human rights. In economics it largely comes down to
free trade and an open market between all countries worldwide. All
countries are supposed to open their borders to foreign products and to
not protect their own markets. the goal of this is that everyone will get
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