Creating Systems of Innovation in Africa
238 Pages
English
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Creating Systems of Innovation in Africa

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Gain access to the library to view online
Learn more
238 Pages
English

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The most popularised concept in the economics of innovation literature has been the national system of innovation (NSI). It was in the late 1980s that the concept that Frederik List coined as the �National Political Economy of Production� took off again with different thinkers writing about the peculiarities and distinctions of the Japanese, American, British, German, East Asian Tigers and other varieties of system construction. Freeman defines National System of Innovation as �the network of institutions in the public and private sectors whose activities and interactions initiate, import, modify and diff use new technologies.� Richard Nelson defines it as �a set of institutions whose interactions determine the innovative performance of national firms. Lundvall defines the system of innovation as the �elements and relationships which interact in the production, diffusion and use of new and economically useful knowledge and are either located within or rooted inside the borders of a nation state.� The normative assumption is that those nations that succeeded in building economic strength relied on the science, engineering, technology and innovation capability that made them to achieve an innovation advantage to put them ahead in the world, acquiring national or regional economic leadership as the case may be depending on what level of analyses is selected to look at particular failure, success or progress they made. In this volume we have a glimpse of how in different African economies from Ghana, Uganda, Kenya, South Africa and Nigeria specific cases have been taken to explore how systems of innovation is evolving.

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Published 29 January 2013
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EAN13 9780798303453
Language English
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Creating Systems of Innovation in Africa: Country Case Studies Edited by Mammo Muchie and Angathevar Baskaran
Creating Systems of Innovation in Africa: Country Case studies
First Copublished in 2012 by the
Africa Institute of South Africa PO Box 630 Pretoria 0001 South Africa
and the
Institute for Economic Research on Innovation Tshwane University of Technology 159 Skinner Street Pretoria 0001 South Africa
ISBN:9780798303477
© Copyright 2012 Africa Institute of South Africa
The chapters in this volume were initially published as articles in the African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development in 2011.
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted by any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior permission from the copyright owner.
To copy any part of this publication, you may contact DALRO for information and copyright clearance.
Any unauthorised copying could lead to civil liability and/or criminal sanctions.
Telephone:086 12 DALRO from within South Africa +27 011 7128000 Telefax:+27 011 4039094 Postal Address: P O Box 31627, Braamfontein, 2017, South Africa www.dalro.co.za
Opinions expressed and conclusions arrived at in this book are those of the authors and should not be attributed to the Africa Institute of South Africa.
Technical-editor:Jan B. Mwesigwa Proofreader:LiseMarie Keyser Cover design and layout:Berekile Pila Projects
The Africa Institute of South Africa is a think tank and research organisation, focusing on political, socioeconomic, international and development issues in contemporary Africa. The Institute conducts research, publishes books, monographs, occasional papers, policy briefs and a quarterly journal – Africa Insight. The Institute holds regular seminars on issues of topical interest. It is also home to one of the best library and documentation centres worldwide, with materials on every African country.
For more information, contact the Africa Institute at PO Box 630, Pretoria 0001, South Africa; Email ai@ai.org.za; or visit our website at http://www.ai.org.za
DEDICATION
Mikael and Adey Muchie and all the children of Africa to stand up and innovate a strong, free, confident, independent and proud Africa.
Table of Contents
Preace
Contributing authors
IntroductionMammo Muchie and Angathevar Baskaran
CHAPTER 1 Research Typology and Knowledge Needs or Development in AricaRobert Joumard and Ménouèr Boughedaoui
Introductîon Dîferent Types o Research The Knowedge Economy Research System and îts Connectîon wîth Deveopment Producîng Knowedge Locay Programme to Strengthen Research-deveopîng Capabîîtîes în Arîca Concusîon Notes Reerences
CHAPTER 2 Ghana’s Innovation SystemWhat’s Wrong Wîth ït, and Why Jo Lorentzen
Introductîon Context Methodoogy and Data Natîona Innovatîon System în Ghana Concusîons and Recommendatîons Notes Reerences
CHAPTER 3 Labour Productivity, Exports and Skills FormationComparîng Foreîgn and Loca Fîrms în Kenyan Manuacturîng Geofrey Gachino
Introductîon Comparîng oreîgn and oca irms
v
vîî
îx
1
1 2 8 12 13 14 16 17 17
21
21 22 23 25 38 41 42
46
46 48
i
Data and methodoogîca approach Determînants o abour productîvîty Determînants o exports Determînants o skîed abour Concusîons Notes TABLE OF CONTENTS Reerences
ii
CHAPTER 4 Innovative Approaches to Industrial Utilisation o Cassava in a Developing EconomyAbolaji D. Dada, Godwin A. Ali, Oladele O. AFolabi, and Williams O. Siyanbola
Introductîon Scîence and Technoogy în Agrîcuture Cassava Productîon în Nîgerîa: The Trend Cassava Processîng and Marketîng Opportunîtîes Constraînts acîng the Cassava sub-sector în Nîgerîa Concusîons and Poîcy Recommendatîons Reerences
CHAPTER 5 Enhancing Innovation in Developing Country SystemsA Synthesîs o Case Studîes and Lessons rom Uganda* Kiggundu Rose
Introductîon Theoretîca Background and Anaytîca Framework Case Studîes Comparatîve Overvîew, Concudîng Observatîons and Poîcy Inerences Notes Reerences Abbrevîatîons
CHAPTER 6 Innovation Financing, Industrial production and the Growth o Nigeria’s Non-oil ExportsEmmanuel Sebastian Akpan, Hodo Bassey Riman, and Helen Walter Mboto
Introductîon Theoretîca Background and Revîew o Lîterature Cross-Country Innovatîon Strategy and Technoogy Acquîsîtîon Methodoogy Presentatîon o Empîrîca Resut Concusîons and Poîcy Recommendatîons
51 55 60 67 74 74 75
78
78 79 81 83 90 93 95
97
97 99 104 113 116 116 119
121
121 123 130 134 136 138
Reerences
Abbrevîatîons
140 143
CHAPTER 7 A Firm-Level Analysis o Technological Externality o Foreign Direct Investment in South Arica 144 Abdelrasaq Al-Suyuti Na-Allah and Mammo Muchie
Introductîon Skî Constraînts, Aggomeratîon Economîes and Technoogîca Externaîty o FDI Debate Maîn Hypotheses Mode Specîicatîon, Data and Varîabe Constructîon Resuts Concusîons Notes Reerences
144
147 151 153 159 163 164 165
CHAPTER 8 A Consensual Approach to Domain-Partitioning o a Cancer Data Sample Space 168 Lessons rom Tanzanîa Kassim S. Mwitondi and Khamza K. Maunda
Introductîon Lîterature revîew Research methodoogy Anayses, resuts and înterpretatîons Dîscussîons, Concudîng Remarks and Potentîa Dîrectîons Reerences
CHAPTER 9 Remote Sensing and Geological Investigation o Okemesi Area, Southwestern NigeriaOlusiji Samuel Ayodele
Introductîon Regîona Geoogîc Settîng Loca Geoogy o the Study Area Method o Study Resuts and Dîscussîon
Concusîons
Reerences
CHAPTER 10 ConclusionMammo Muchie and Angathevar Baskaran
169 170 172 179 190 192
194
194 195 196 198 201 207 208
211
TABLE OF CONTENTS
iii
Preface
The South African Research Initiative (SARChI) started the research apply-ing the innovation systems theory approach to African problems of develop-ment and structural transformation since 2008. Throughout the last four years the SARChI chair has concentrated research on innovation to address the challenges of African development inspired by the vision that Africa’s bright future is better created by making it rather than predicting a destina-tion to reach at some unknown date. The SARChI started the African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development in 2008 and we have published four issues every year, it is the expectation that six issues will be published in 2013 with Taylor and Francis publishers. This has been an important outlet for emergent African researchers as nearly 70 per cent of those who publish in the journal are Africans both in Africa and abroad. The objective is to create a publishing outlet in Africa with ISI listing This will enable researchers to produce and publish research papers that are peer reviewed with high impact factors. The African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development is firmly on track in achieving the recognition and rating that will make it sustainable. It is one of the key milestones of the DST/NRF Research chair in innovation and development that Tshwane University was offered. The journal has a website: www.ajstid.com This book series is another milestone of the SARChI chair initiated. This volume has the distinction in 2012 of being the first to start the production of a series of books on the systematic application of the innovation system approach to the challenges and opportunities of accelerating and fully real-ising the creation of an African national innovation system. The application of systems of innovation framing and theories to African problems of devel-opment is still new. The field has been dominated by development studies. This book series offers an alternative by proposing systems of innovation approach to generate knowledge, learning and competence building in Africa as a primary highway for Africa to make the development journey into the future. In the African context, the combination of innovation with development is a big challenge. It is not easy to do it. The main reason is that Africa’s economic development has been constrained by the load it still suffers from the colonial legacy. The states as they exist are divided and when they form regions, they still remain divided. There are claims that Africa’s fortunes are changing and conflicts are decreasing. There are some economies that are growing by over seven per cent. Democratisation is slowly and surely
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