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Customary Law Ascertained Volume 2

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Customary Law Ascertained Volume 2 is the second of a three volume series in which traditional authorities in Namibia present the customary laws of their communities. It contains the laws of the Bakgalagari, the Batswana ba Namibia and the Damara communities. The recognised traditional authorities in Namibia are expected to ascertain the customary law applicable in their respective communities and to note the most important aspects of the laws in written form. The Ministry of Regional and Local Government, Housing and Rural Development, and the Council of Traditional Leaders therefore initiated the ascertainment of customary law. The ascertainment project is housed in the Human Rights and Documentation Centre of the University of Namibia. The former Dean of the Faculty of Law of the University of Namibia, Professor Manfred O. Hinz, has directed the project since its inception.

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Published 02 April 2014
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EAN13 9789991642130
Language English
Document size 17 MB

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Customary Law Ascertained
Volume 2
The Customary Law of the Bakgalagari, Batswana and Damara Communities of Namibia
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Customary Law Ascertained
Volume 2
The Customary Law of the Bakgalagari, Batswana and Damara Communities of Namibia
Edited by Manfred O Hinz assisted by Alexander Gairiseb
2013
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UNIVERSITY OF NAMIBIA PRESS Private Bag 13301 Windhoek Namibia www.unam.na unampress@unam.na
First published: 2013
© Human Rights and Documentation Centre (University of Namibia) and Council of Traditional Leaders of Namibia, 2013
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in any retrieval system or transmitted in any form, or by any means, e.g. electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior permission of the copyright holders.
The research for this publication, the consultations with the communities whose customary law was ascertained, and the publication of the laws themselves were all generously funded by the Embassy of )LQODQG LQ 1DPLELD ZLWK VSHFLDO ¿QDQFLDO DVVLVWDQFH IRU WKLV SXEOLFDWLRQ IURP WKH &HQWUH RI $IULFDQ DQG Migration Studies in the Faculty of Law of the University of Bremen.
Centre of African & Migration Studies
Editor of the indigenous language texts of the Bakgalagari community: Waboraro Kwati Editor of the indigenous language texts of the Batswana ba Namibia community: Andrew Matjila Editor of the indigenous language texts of the Damara communities: Alexander Gairiseb Editor of all English texts: Sandie Fitchat Proofreading of the Setswana texts of the Batswana ba Namibia community: Lorato (Murangi) Letebele Assistance with coordination of this publication: Ilge Rheent (Bakgalagari and Batswana ba Namibia)
The Introduction toCustomary law ascertained, Volume 1: The customary law of the Owambo, Kavango and Caprivi communities of Namibia SXEOLVKHG E\ .XLVHE 3XEOLVKHUV1DPLELD 6FLHQWL¿F 6RFLHW\ LQ  is reproduced with their kind permission.
Photographs of traditional leaders provided by the various Traditional Authorities. &RYHU SKRWRJUDSK 'DPLDQ 0DJKDPED\L &RYHU GHVLJQ *UHWWD *DVSDU Layout: The Word Factory Printed by John Meinert Printing (Pty) Ltd, Windhoek
ISBN 978-99916-42-11-6
Distribution (Namibia) ,QWHUQDWLRQDO
Demasius Publications: www.demasius-publications.com $IULFDQ %RRNV &ROOHFWLYH ZZZDIULFDQERRNVFROOHFWLYHFRP
T ABLE OF CONTENTS
The Editors..............................................................viii................................ Preface................................................................................................ix........  John Boniface Nakuta Forewordix....................................................................................................  Advocate Bience Gawanas
PART I: INTRODUCTORY REMARKS
Introduction to Volume 1 - The ascertainment of customary law: What isascertainment of customary lawand what is it for?...................3  Manfred O Hinz Introduction to Volume 2 - The laws of the Bakgalagari, Batswana ba Namibia and Damara communities.................................13  Manfred O Hinz Editors’ general note................................................................................20
PART II: THE LAWS OF THE BAKGALAGARI AND BATSWANA BA NAMIBIA COMMUNITIES
The Bakgalagari Traditional Authority.................................................25 Supreme leader and coat of arms ................................................................................ 26 3UR¿OH.......................................................................................................................... 27 Molao wa setso wa Bakgalagari ................................................................................. 29 The laws of the Bakgalagari ....................................................................................... 39 &HUWL¿FDWH RI FRQVHQW WR SXEOLVK................................................................................. 62
The Batswana Traditional Authority.....................................................63 Supreme leader and coat of arms ................................................................................ 64 3UR¿OH.......................................................................................................................... 65 Dikamogelo................................................................................................................. 75 Molao-motheo wa Batswana ba Namibia ................................................................... 85 The laws of the Batswana ba Namibia................................................................... 133 &HUWL¿FDWH RI FRQVHQW WR SXEOLVK............................................................................... 179
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Contents
PART III: THE LAWS OF THE DAMARA COMMUNITIES
The Dâure Daman Traditional Authority.............................................183 Supreme leader and coat of arms .............................................................................. 184 3UR¿OH........................................................................................................................ 185 The laws of the Dâure Daman .................................................................................. 191 &HUWL¿FDWH RI FRQVHQW WR SXEOLVK............................................................................... 215
The Tsoaxudaman Traditional Authority.............................................217 Supreme leader and coat of arms .............................................................................. 218 3UR¿OH........................................................................................................................ 219 7VRD[XGDPDQ GL ۆ+DQXJX...................................................................................122....... The laws of the Tsoaxudaman................................................................................... 235 &HUWL¿FDWH RI FRQVHQW WR SXEOLVK............................................................................... 248
TheۄGaiodaman Traditional Authority................................................249 Supreme leader and coat of arms .............................................................................. 250 3UR¿OH........................................................................................................................ 251 7KH ODZV RI WKH ۄ*DLRGDPDQ...................................................................................... 255 &HUWL¿FDWH RI FRQVHQW WR SXEOLVK............................................................................... 267
TheۄGobanin Traditional Authority.....................................................269 Supreme leader and coat of arms .............................................................................. 270 3UR¿OH........................................................................................................................ 271 ۄ*REDQLQ GL ۆ+DQXJX................................................................................................. 273 7KH ODZV RI WKH ۄ*REDQLQ.......................................................................................... 293 &HUWL¿FDWH RI FRQVHQW WR SXEOLVK............................................................................... 312
TheۄKhomanîn Traditional Authority..................................................313 Supreme leader and coat of arms .............................................................................. 314 3UR¿OH........................................................................................................................ 315 ۄ.KRPDQvQ GL ۆ+DQXJX.............................................................................................. 319 7KH ODZV RI WKH ۄ.KRPDQLQ....................................................................................... 339 &HUWL¿FDWH RI FRQVHQW WR SXEOLVK............................................................................... 359
Contents
7KH 2Hۆ*kQ 7UDGLWLRQDO $XWKRULW\.....................................................361 Supreme leader and coat of arms .............................................................................. 362 3UR¿OH........................................................................................................................ 363 2Hۆ*kQ GL ۆ+DQXJX................................................................................................. 367 7KH ODZV RI WKH 2Hۆ*kQ.......................................................................................... 385 &HUWL¿FDWH RI FRQVHQW WR SXEOLVK............................................................................... 402
7KH ۆ$RGDPDQ 7UDGLWLRQDO $XWKRULW\...................................................403 Supreme leader and coat of arms .............................................................................. 404 Introductory note....................................................................................................... 405 3UR¿OH........................................................................................................................ 406 7KH ODZV RI WKH ۆ$RGDPDQ........................................................................................ 415 &HUWL¿FDWH RI FRQVHQW WR SXEOLVK............................................................................... 449
ANNEXURES
Annexure 1: Statutes...............................................................................453 $QQH[XUH $ ([FHUSWV IURP WKH 1DPLELDQ &RQVWLWXWLRQ.......................................554.. Annexure 1B: The Traditional Authorities Act, 2000 (No. 25 of 2000) ................... 457 $QQH[XUH & 7KH &RPPXQLW\ &RXUWV $FW  1R  RI  ......................... 473 $QQH[XUH ' 5HJXODWLRQV WR WKH &RPPXQLW\ &RXUWV $FW   (No. 10 of 2003)................................................................................ 491
$QQH[XUH  /LVW RI RI¿FLDOO\ UHFRJQLVHG &RPPXQLW\ &RXUWV............499 The Owambo communities ....................................................................................... 501 The Kavango communities ....................................................................................... 502 7KH &DSULYL FRPPXQLWLHV.......................................................................................... 503 The Bakgalagari community..................................................................................... 504 The Batswana ba Namibia community ..................................................................... 504 The Damara communities ......................................................................................... 504
Annexure 3: Addresses of the Bagkalagari, Batswana and Damara Traditional Authorities............................................................507
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T E HE DITORS
Prof. Manfred O Hinzstudied law and philosophy at the University of Mainz, Germany, where he graduated in law. He took his legal practitioner examination in 1964, the year in which he also obtained his PhD from the University of Mainz. After studying anthropology, sociology and African and Oriental languages at the same University, he became assistant lecturer, teaching anthropology and public law. In 1971, he was appointed full professor at the University of Bremen.
In 1989, he went to Namibia where, after its independence, he assisted the Ministry of Justice in its projects to restructure the traditional administration of justice and to make DQ LQYHQWRU\ RI FXVWRPDU\ ODZ +H ZDV ODWHU VHFRQGHG WR WKH RI¿FH RI WKH ¿UVW 9LFH &KDQFHOORU RI WKH 8QLYHUVLW\ RI 1DPLELD 81$0 WR KHOS EXLOG WKH ¿UVW LQVWLWXWLRQ IRU legal education on Namibian soil: UNAM’S Faculty of Law. He joined the Faculty upon its inception. He has served as Deputy Dean and Dean of the Faculty.
3URI +LQ] KHOG WKH 8QLWHG 1DWLRQV (GXFDWLRQDO 6FLHQWL¿F DQG &XOWXUDO 2UJDQLVDWLRQ 81(6&2 &KDLU +XPDQ 5LJKWV DQG 'HPRFUDF\ LQ WKH /DZ )DFXOW\¶V +XPDQ 5LJKWV DQG 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ &HQWUH IURP  WR  ,Q  3URI +LQ] UHWLUHG IURP KLV IXOO time position at the University of Namibia. In 2010 he returned to Germany, but remains related to UNAM as research professor.
3URI +LQ] KDV SXEOLVKHG ZLGHO\ LQ KLV DUHDV RI VSHFLDOLVDWLRQ SDUWLFXODUO\ LQ WKH ¿HOGV of legal and political anthropology and constitutional and international (economic) law.
okavango@mweb.com.na
Alexander Gairiseb holds the degrees of BJuris and LLB from the University of Namibia. For the past two years he has worked as an assistant to the Ascertainment RI &XVWRPDU\ /DZ 3URMHFW ,, ZKLFK IDOOV XQGHU WKH DXVSLFHV RI WKH +XPDQ 5LJKWV DQG 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ &HQWUH RI WKH )DFXOW\ RI /DZ DW WKH 8QLYHUVLW\ RI 1DPLELD 0U *DLULVHE is a candidate legal practitioner at Fisher, Quarmby & Pfeifer Attorneys, Namibia.
agairiseb@gmail.com
P REFACE
The Namibian legal system is premised on the principle of legality. One of the essential HOHPHQWV RI WKH SULQFLSOH RI OHJDOLW\ LV WKDW WKH ODZ PXVW EH VSHFL¿F DQG FOHDU 7KLV presupposes that the law has to be drafted clearly and in such a way that a person may ascertain the legality of a particular course of conduct. Implicit therein is also the requirement that the law should be accessible and foreseeable. These requirements, needless to say, equally apply to customary law – given the pluralistic nature of our legal system.
7KH &XVWRPDU\ /DZ $VFHUWDLQPHQW 3URMHFW DV PHQWLRQHG HOVHZKHUH LV QRW DLPHG DW codifying customary law in Namibia. That task is the preserve and prerogative of the Executive. The global objective of this Project seeks to assist in giving meaning and HIIHFW WR WKH SULQFLSOH RI VSHFL¿FLW\ DV LW UHODWHV WR WKH FXVWRPDU\ ODZV DSSOLFDEOH LQ Namibia.
The principle of legality in all its facets is inextricably linked to human rights. The major international and regional human rights instruments all expressly and implicitly guarantee DQG SURWHFW WKLV SULQFLSOH )RU LQVWDQFH WKH ,QWHUQDWLRQDO &RYHQDQW RQ &LYLO DQG 3ROLWLFDO 5LJKWV $IULFDQ &KDUWHU RQ +XPDQ DQG 3HRSOHV¶ 5LJKWV DQG WKH (XURSHDQ &RQYHQWLRQ for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms all guarantee and protect this important legal principle.
,W LV DJDLQVW WKLV EDFNGURS WKDW WKH +XPDQ 5LJKWV DQG 'RFXPHQWDWLRQ &HQWUH RI WKH /DZ Faculty of the University of Namibia (UNAM) takes particular pride and joy in being associated with this epoch-making Project. With this work we are not only seeking to contribute towards ascertaining and making customary law accessible to its users, but also to ensure that traditional and informal justice systems in our country evolve towards serving justice in full respect of international human rights standards.
In celebrating this work, a few names deserve special mention. In this regard, Prof. Manfred Hinz, former Dean of the Faculty of Law (2000–2004) and a long-standing friend of the Faculty, the University itself and the Namibian nation, stands out. Prof. Hinz conceived the idea of ascertaining Namibian customary law. The love, passion and commitment for Namibian customary law as displayed by Prof. Hinz are beyond dispute. This Project serves as a prime example. We take this opportunity, therefore, to acknowledge and give credit to his active involvement and guidance for the successful completion of this Project.
The work and involvement of my immediate predecessors, Prof. Oliver Ruppel and Associate Prof. Nico Horn in bringing this Project into being are also acknowledged and credited.
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