Revolutionary Overthrow of Constitutional Orders in Africa

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English
208 Pages
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The subject of revolutionary overthrow of constitutional orders in Africa is at the intersection of three disciplines: jurisprudence and legal philosophy, constitutional law and power politics, and civil-military relations, that is, military security policy which is one aspect of national security policy. The subject is of interest in at least four ways. It problematizes the inescapable question of governance in the African continent. It challenges the democratization agenda in Africa � how does one democratize not only political governance but also the instruments of violence in the state? It also challenges African constitutional lawyers and policy makers to seek a constitutional model that addresses the enduring menace of the power of the gun in African affairs and the changing role of the military in African politics. Finally, it underscores concerns about sovereignty and national security. This book contributes to a fuller understanding of the coup syndrome in African. To this end, it vigorously interrogates the place of coups in the governance of Africa, and explores the relevance of Kelsen�s theory of revolutionary legality in the context of coup d��tats in Africa. It is a major contribution by a leading thinker in the field.

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Published 11 July 2012
Reads 2
EAN13 9789956727575
Language English
Document size 3 MB

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Revolutionary Overthrow of Revolutionary Overthrow of Constitutional Orders in Africa Carlson Anyangwe
Carlson Anyangwe
Revolutionary Overthrow of Constitutional Orders in Africa Carlson Anyangwe L a ng a a R esea rch & P u blishing CIG Mankon, Bamenda
Publisher: LangaaRPCIG Langaa Research & Publishing Common Initiative Group P.O. Box 902 Mankon Bamenda North West Region Cameroon Langaagrp@gmail.comwww.langaa-rpcig.net Distributed in and outside N. America by African Books Collective orders@africanbookscollective.com www.africanbookcollective.com ISBN: 9956-727-78-4 ©Carlson Anyangwe 2012
DISCLAIMER All views expressed in this publication are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of Langaa RPCIG.
Table of Contents Chapter 1: Introduction………………………………………..1Coup in the then Republic of Transkei…………………………. 2 Meaning of coup d’état…………………………………………..7 Armed rebellion as old as history……………………………….. 8 Monarchy, early target of coups………………………………….9 Farcical incompetence in some coup attempts………………….. 10 Coup, shortcut to political power……………………………….. 11 Chapter 2: The Military, a Frankenstein Monster…………. 15 The military, regime security and national security……………… 15 Contested subordination of the military to civilian control……… 19 Strategies for asserting control over the military………………… 23 Joint civil-military rulership…………………………………….. 26 Chapter 3: Why Overthrow a Government………………….. 29 Practical considerations………………………………………… 29 Theoretical bases………………………………………………... 33 Coup typologies………………………………………………… 37 Chapter 4: How to Stage a Coup……………………………...43 Prior agreement on important immediate matters………………..44 Strategic control of the capital; emergency measures…………… 44 Judges and civil servants…………………………………………46 Coup by the executive…………………………………………... 48 Chapter 5: Coups and the International Community………. 53 Attitude of international organizations generally…………………53 Attitude of Western countries generally………………………… 55 Attitude of the African Union specifically……………………… 56
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Chapter 6: Grundnorm and Revolutionary Legality…………63 Grundnorm and the hierarchy of norms……………………….... 63 Grundnorm and coup d’état…………………………………….. 66 Hierarchy of norms and revolutionary destruction of the Grundnorm……………………………………………………... 69 Further explication of the meaning of grundnorm……………….70 Possibility of legal void following a coup……………………….. 73 Authority and legitimacy of usurper government……………….. 74 International law and recognition of the usurper government…... 75 National constitution and military coup………………………….76 Chapter 7: Usurper Government: Its Legitimacy and the Validity of its Acts……………………………………………..81 Judges and the overthrow of government………………………..81 Legitimacy of the usurper government………………………….. 88 De jure status of usurper regime: the doctrine of effectiveness….. 89 De facto status of usurper regime: the doctrine salus populi suprema lex………………………………………………………………. 92 Chapter 8: Facing the Coup Challenge in Africa…………… 95 What to do about coups………………………………………… 95 What to do with Africa’s military……………………………….. 98 What to do with Africa’s despotic executives…………………… 105 Coup counter-measures………………………………………….106 Case for coups…………………………………………………...108 Case against coups……………………………………………….110 Chapter 9: Countries Where the Military Have Not Seized Power (Yet)…………………………………………………….115 Where no attempt has ever been made………………………….. 115 Where a coup or insurgency attempt has failed…………………..116 Chapter 10: Countries Where the Military Have Seized Power Once (So Far)…………………………………………………..129
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Chapter 11: Countries Where the Military Have Seized Power More than Once………………………………………………..135 Chapter 12: Epilogue: Neo-patrimonial Governance and Revolutionary Overthrow of Governments in Africa……….. 177 The rise of the neo-patrimonial state in Africa………………….. 178 Continuing democracy and good governance deficit……………. 181 Soldiers gun for political power…………………………………. 185 Bibliography…………………………………………………... 187
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Pictures Political map of Africa………………………………………….. ix Coup and non-coup countries…………………………………... 13 Soldiers on patrol following a coup……………………………... 23 Bemused civilians watch soldiers following a coup…………….. 28 Soldiers manning a street corner following a coup……………… 42 Military vehicle blocks street following a coup…………………. 43 Ahidjo, Selassie, Bokassa, Sobhoza II…………………………… 51 AU, UN, EU flags………………………………………………. 61 Hans Kelsen……………………………………………………. 64 Hierarchy of norms pyramid……………………………………..66 Inverted collapsible pyramid……………………………………..70 Soldiers chasing demonstrating civilians………………………… 80 Scale, judges…………………………………………………….. 87 Military mistreatment of civilians……………………………….. 105 AU Leaders……………………………………………………... 106 Corporal chastisement of a civilian by a soldier…………………. 112 Civilian being manhandled by soldiers………………………….. 113
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POLITICAL MAP OF AFRICA
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